Chapter 10


Published on

society and culture

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 10

  2. 2. .Chemist and Physicists have arranged allsubstances that appear on earth into asmall number of classes, called“ELEMENTS”.Biologists, similarly, have arranged plantsand animals and insects into a smallnumber of classes, called “SPECIES”.
  3. 3. “No Man Normally lives alone” -Aristotle
  4. 4. GROUPS
  5. 5. GROUPS• 1. Statistical Group- are “formed”, not by the members themselves but by sociologists and staticians• Examples: Those people who were born on a Tuesday, those Filipinos who have owned public utility vehicles, and those number of dropouts from school.
  6. 6. .2. Societal GroupsThis category of group differs from statisticalgroups in one very important characteristics –“consciousness of kind”. It was introduced intosociology by Franklin Henry Giddings.Example of Societal Groups:Females, the aged, the Muslims, plumbers,golfers and the blind. Including all ethnicgroups, all regional groups, all occupationalgroups
  7. 7. .3. Social GroupsThe word “social” implies social contact andcommunication, social interaction and socialintercourse.Social Groups are those in which people actuallyassociate with one another and have social relationswith one another.Examples:Friendship, acquaintance groups, classroom groups,cliques, crowds, audiences, congregation, kinshipgroups, passengers on the same ship, neighborhoodgroups and play groups.
  8. 8. .4. Associational Groups- This isconsidered as the most important kindof group in modern complex societies.Examples:Our college of University is anassociation, the red cross, a committee,football team. The army and the Navyare associations and so on.
  9. 9. .In the case of each of these FORMALPROPERTIES, we find a set of dual categorieswhich are:a. Primary Groups- The concept of Primary Group was introduced into American sociology by Charles Horton Cooley. Cooley meant the intimate, personal, “Face to Face” groups in which we find our companions and comrades, the members of our family, and our daily associates.b. Secondary Group- The concept of E.T. Hiller in secondary groups are “categoric” and “extrinsic”.
  10. 10. .• b) In – Groups and Out Groups – This category has no specific size and may indeed be highly variable.In – Groups- It may be small as family or as alarge as the world.Out – Groups – is simply everybody who is not inthe family or not in the worldNote: The in – group, in short, is only OURGROUP. While in the out – group is EVERYBODYELSE.
  11. 11. .C. Large Groups and Small Groups.Some of the other formal properties of groupsare more familiar and require a less extendeddiscussion.Examples:A large army is superior to a small one, a largecountry is more powerful than a small one, anda large corporation has more control over amarket than a small one.
  12. 12. .D. Majority Groups and Minority GroupsMajorities and Minorities, ofcourse, are alwayscomponents of other groups and the terms have nomeaning in themselves.Examples:The majorities may be very small (two out of a group ofthree friends) and minorities very large (those whosupported the candidate in a presidential election)although not in the same context. But even in the samegroup a majority may be large or small.
  13. 13. .E. Long- lived Groups and Short –Lived GroupsThe duration of a group, its span ofexistence is also one of the moreimportant of its properties.Examples:Parliament of Iceland, the MasonicLodge, and the church Rome.
  14. 14. .F. Voluntary Groups and Involuntary GroupsInvoluntary Group- are our age group, sexgroup, ethnic group, based as they are uponbiological properties.Voluntary Group- No one is required by law toread a certain newspaper or to listen to a givenradio program.
  15. 15. .G. Open Groups and Closed GroupsSome groups are relatively open andsome are relatively closed.
  16. 16. ETHNICITY
  17. 17. ETHNICITY• refers to social categorization based on differences in national origin, language and religion
  18. 18. .Social Structure: StratificationDavid B. Brinkerhoff (1988) – defined socialstratifications as an institutionalizedpattern of inequality in which socialcategories are ranked on the basis of theiraccess to scarce resources.Everett K. Wilson (1971) – definedstratification which means a hierarchicalordering of social positions along the scale ofgroup’s values.
  19. 19. .Several types of social classes1.Upper – upper2. Lower –upper3. Upper middle4. Lower middle5. Upper –lower6. Lower – lower
  20. 20. Criteria and types of social classes
  21. 21. .1. Wealth, property, Income- The criterion of financial resources2. Family or kinship- criterion of class states or class position3. Location of Residence- Criterion that occurs in allgroups.4. Occupation- The criterion of work and highrank orstatus in their occupational associations.5. Education- the criterion of university status,knowledge performance task and general education.6. Religion- the criterion of class status but candidinvestigation where there is a variety of sets disclosesthat it may not be altogether ignored
  22. 22. .Class and RaceRacial discrimination between white andNegro it is the criterion of status andopportunityClass and Demographic VariablesDemographic variables- longevity, fertility,morality- correlate with class.Class and LifestylesPeople differ by the level of educationachieved and used this as an index of socialstatus- the person spend his money