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Neither rich nor poor people are responsible
for creating social stratification, yet this system
shapes the lives of us all.
Did a higher percentage of
the first-class passengers
survive the sinking of the
Titanic because they were
smarter or work harder than
anyone else?
Today’s Agenda
1. Warm-up Review Peer’s Research Paper
2. Introduce Unit 3 Competencies and contents (5 mins)
a. A short video for discussion with worksheet:
what is social stratification? (5 mins)
b. Lecture within class pop-quiz (15 mins)
3. Discussion on social stratification (10 mins)
4. Lecture (10 mins) and reflection
Write down what you learned and questions.
Share with the big class (5 mins)
5. Next class info – review stratification contents and
research paper peer reviews
Competencies
(State Required Objectives)
Assess the impact of social stratification
and global stratification on individuals and
society.
Unit 3 - Social/Global Stratification
The objectives of this Unit
is to learn:
1. What is
Social Stratification?
2. The Functions of
Social Stratification
3. Stratification and Conflict
4. Global Inequality and
Theoretical Analysis
5. Global Inequality-
Looking Ahead Fairness experiment
Individuals
Foundations of Society Social Inequality
Social Institutions Social Change
1. Social and Global Stratification
2. Social Stratification in the U.S.
3. Gender Stratification
4. Race and Ethnicity
1.The Economic & work
2.Politics & Government
3.Family
4.Religion
5.Education 6.Health and Medicine
1. Population, Urbanization and
Environment
2. Social Change:
Traditional, Modern,
and Postmodern societies
A Holistic View-
Individual and Social Forces
1. Culture/Society
2. Socialization
3. Social Interaction in Everyday life
4. Groups & Organization
5. Deviance
Individuals
in society
- Structures
Society in
individuals
- Agency
Agency
Structure
In-class Activity:
Structure vs. Agency
With
animation
Socio-biological Forces Shape Who and What We Are
Individual
Internal
forces
External
forces
I and ME/
Individual
Positive
Forces
- push you up
Invisible
social Forces
Negative
Forces
- drag you down
Visible
Social Forces
Genetics/
Biology
Environment/
social-culture
Question for reaching your potential-
by working hard and with talent, one’s
dream will come true….?
• Necessary conditions
Work ethics; Some degree of talents
• Sufficient conditions
Race; Gender; Genetics;
SES (socio-economic status: social class,
education, occupation…etc)
Necessary conditions + Sufficient conditions
=> reach your potential
• Given the same environment /socio-cultural
factors Genes tell the story
• Given the same genetics makeup
Environment/socio-cultural factors tell the story.
Which factors have stronger prediction power
What do you think?
Queen and Prime Minister
- Ascribed vs. Achieved?
Queen Elizabeth II ascended the British Throne
in 1953, after her father, King George VI’s death.
Mrs. Margaret Thatcher was elected the first female
Prime Minister of U.K. In 1979.
1.What is Social Stratification?
• Social stratification is a characteristic of society,
not simply a reflection of individual differences.
• Social stratification persists over generations.
Social mobility: vertical, horizontal and structural mobility
• Social stratification is universal but variable.
What is unequal and how unequal are vary from one
type of society from another
• Social stratification involves not just inequality
but belief / ideology.
A system of belief explains
why people should be
unequal. People with the
greatest social privilege
express the strongest
support for their society’s
social stratification.
Wealth, class, power, gender, race, education,
nationality, religion, and sexual orientation....etc.
influence a person’s position in social hierarchy
Cultural Capital: parents pass down (visibly
or invisibly) values and other social
resources (+ or -) to their next generations
affecting children’s social standing.
Structural/instit
utional unequal
race,
Life Chances
• Max Weber also added the concept of
“life chances” to his definition of class
(similar lifestyles, money, properties…etc)
• Life chance is the opportunities that each
individual has of fulfilling his or her potential in
life.
• The higher the socio-economic status (SES),
the more access to scarce resources and
opportunities, and thus more positive are the
life chances of the individual, and vice versa.
Ideology- Cultural beliefs that serve to
justify social stratification
•The concept of “the just-world phenomenon”
One German civilian visited the concentration
camp and remarked “ What terrible criminals
these prisoners must have been to receive such
punishment.”
•People justify their prejudice, bias, discrimination
by blaming its victims - “people get what they
deserve.”
•This is also a short leap to assume that those who
succeed must be good and those who suffer must
be bad. Such reasoning enables the rich to see
both their own wealth and the Poor's misfortune as
justly deserved.
Systems of Social Stratification
The Caste System: based on ascription (By birth).
The Class System: based on birth and achievement
The Mixed system of the caste and class :
such as the U.K., Japan etc.
Status Consistency: social standing across various
dimensions of social inequality
Why does social stratification persist?
Because it is supported by various institutions and the power
of ideology defining certain kind of inequality as both natural
and just.
What is ideology? Cultural beliefs that serve to justify
social stratification
A Cultural Universal:
All societies are structured like a Pyramid
The majority are at the bottom with a small
percentage of dominant people on the top.
Industrial revolution:
Society mainly was
stratified into two
classes: the Capitalists
(Bourgeoisie)
and Labor-workers
(Proletariats) Medieval era, Feudal lords
and surfs (peasants)
The traditional stratification of Chinese society:
scholars, peasants, manual labor workers, and
merchants.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KlmvmuxzYE Fairness & Privilege Experiment
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hD5f8GuNuGQ Privilege
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKhAd0Tyny0 Monkey fairness
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfumE83oIQg John Rawls
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vA37BZjD0FA JUSTICE as Fairness
Justice, Equality, Equity and Fairness
What is justice?
Justice is the legal or philosophical
theory by which fairness is administered.
The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early
theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek
philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates
of divine command theory argue that justice issues
from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John
Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in
the social contract tradition argued that justice is
derived from the mutual agreement of everyone
concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers
including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what
has the best consequences.
What is justice?
Justice is the legal or philosophical
theory by which fairness is administered.
Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed,
between whom they are to be distributed, and what is
the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can
only exist within the coordinates of equality. John Rawls used
a social contractargument to show that justice, and especially
distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights
theorists (like Robert Nozick) take a deontological view of
distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice
maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system. Theories
of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for
wrongdoing. Restorative justice (also sometimes called
"reparative justice") is an approach to justice that focuses on
restoring what is good, and necessarily focuses on the needs
of victims and offenders.
What is justice?
Justice is the legal or philosophical
theory by which fairness is administered.
The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set
out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates
of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th
century, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers
in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual
agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers
including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best
consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed,
between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution.
Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of
equality. John Rawls used a social contractargument to show that justice, and
especially distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists
(like Robert Nozick) take a deontological view of distributive justice and argue
that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic
system. Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for
wrongdoing. Restorative justice (also sometimes called "reparative justice") is
an approach to justice that focuses on restoring what is good, and necessarily
focuses on the needs of victims and offenders.
Example India (close
society)
Caste System
Example USA: Open
society
Class System
Example U.K.
Estate System
Sudra
Vaisya
Untouchable
Kshatriya
Brahman
20%
lower class
60%
working class
15-19%
middleclass
1-5 %
upper class
5 % : 150 families
nobility/Aristocracy
Clergy
military
officers
lawyers
honorable
professions
Commoners
Surfs
Social Mobility: change in one’s position in the social hierarchy
3.Stratification and Conflict
Social Conflict analysis argues that social stratification benefits
some peoples at the expense of others.
Karl Marx’s Class and Conflict:
The key architect of social-conflict analysis, recognized two major
social classes in industrial societies: the Capitalists or Bourgeoisie,
own the means of production and pursue the profits;
the Proletariat, by contrast, offers their labor in exchange or
wages. He believed that oppression and misery would drive the
working majority to organize and ultimate overthrow capitalism.
But why no Marxist revolution in the U.S.?
1./ The fragmentation of the
capitalist class
2./ A higher standard of living
3./ More extensive worker
organization
4./ More extensive legal protections.
A counterpoint:
1./ Wealth remains highly
concentrated
2./ White-collar work offers
little to workers
3./ Progress requires struggle
4./ The law still favors the rich
Max Weber’s Class, Status and Power
Max Weber (1864-1920) modified Karl
Marx’s two-class model of social conflict
by adding the other two dimensions:
Status and Power.
In short, society stratifies individuals by
socioeconomic status (SES)- a composite ranking
based on various dimensions of social inequality, such
as race, gender, income, wealth, status, power, age,
religion, nationality etc.
The functions of social stratification
Why are societies stratified at all?
The Davis-Moore Thesis: The assertion that social
stratification has beneficial consequences for the
operation of a society. By distributing resources
(income, power, prestige, and leisure) unequally, a
society motivates each person to aspire to work harder
to achieve the best rewards.
Meritocracy: a system of social stratification based on
personal merit. In pursuit of meritocracy, a society
promotes equality of opportunity while at same time,
demanding unequal rewards.
Caste systems waste human potential, but they are
orderly.
Why do modern industrial societies resist
becoming complete meritocracies
by retaining many caste-like qualities?
Critical Evaluation of Davis-Moore’s thesis:
a/ Pay and societal contribution:
100 million a year income of
Oprah or 1 million an episode of
Tim Allen’s “Home Improvement”
is worth as much as 3,000 police officers?
b/ Tumin: Davis-Moore’s thesis exaggerates the role of social
stratification in developing individual talent. Our society
rewards individual achievement, but we also allow families
to transfer wealth and power from one generation to another
in castelike fashion. So, Tumin suggests, that social
stratification functions to develop some people’s abilities to the
fullest while ensuring that others never reach their potential.
A real life story for
pondering:
God Made Me a Slave
Fatma Mint Mamadou is a young woman living in North Africa’s Republic of
Mauritania.
She has no idea what she was born. All she knows is tending camels, herding
sheep, hauling bags of water, sweeping, and serving tea to her owners. This
young woman is one of perhaps 90,000 slaves in Mauritania. In the central
region of this country, having dark brown skin almost means being a slave to
an Arab owner. She always accepted her situation. She has known nothing
else. She explains in a matter-of-fact voice that she is a slave, as was her
mother before and her grandmother before that. “Just as God created a
camel to be a camel, “ she shrugs, “he created me to be a slave.”
In this region, slavery began 500 years ago, abut the time Columbus sailed to the
new World. As Arab and Berber tribes moved across the continent, they
raided local villages and made slaves of the people. In 1905 the French
colonial rulers of Mauritania banned slavery. After the nation gained
independence in 1961, the strong traditions still exist. People like Fatma have
no idea what freedom to choose means.
The next question is more personal:” Are you and other girls ever raped?” Again
Fatma hesitates. With no hint of emotion, she responds," of course, in the
night the men come to breed us. Is that what you mean by rape?”
Just-world phenomenon
The world
is just.
This world
has NO
justice
There is
some justice
in the world
Social Stratification and Technological
Development - The Kuznets Curve
• The Kuznets curve shows that the greater
technological sophistication is generally
accompanied by more pronounced social
stratification. The trend reverses itself,
as industrial societies relax rigid caste-like
distinction in favor of greater opportunity
and equality under the law.
• However, the emergence of the postindustrial
society has brought an upturn in the economic
inequality.
Figure 8-2 (p. 199) Social Stratification and Technological
Development: The Kuznets Curve
In Syllabus, Page 3
Activity-Forum 3: Our society is a place
set up for people to strive for success. To
the winners go the spoils, while the
losers, get what they deserve. Debate the
issue of Affirmative Action from
sociological perspective in terms of
equality, opportunity and social justice.
Stratification: Fact and Values
Social stratification is a complex and controversial area of
research because it deals not only with facts but also with
various values that suggest how society should be organized.
Novelist Kurt Vonnegut, Jr’s futuristic account in
“Harrison Bergeon” that social inequality has been totally
abolished by social engineering in which every individual
talent that makes one person different from another his
systematically neutralized by the government.
Discussions:
1. Is getting rich “ The Survival of the Fittest”?
2. Are the rich worth what they earn?
3. Critique on Vonnegut’s short story “Harrison
Bergeon”
Dimensions
of Social
Inequality/
Stratification
Income
Wealth
Power
Schooling
Occupational
Prestige
Social Classes In the U.S.
The Upper Class : 5%
The Lower Class: 20%
The Middle Class:40-45%
The Working Class: 30%
Upper-Uppers: 1% Old
Money
Lower-Uppers: 4% New Rich
Upper-Middles $50,000-100,000
Average-Middles $35,000-50,000
30% Lower-Middle Class
$15,000-35,000
36.5 million people, 13.7 %
as poor
Richest 20%
2nd 20%
3rd 30%
4th 20%
Poorest 20%
80% of national wealth
belongs to richest 20 %
of population;
The top 1% richest
possesses nation’s
50% wealth
15%
5%
1%
-1%
Distribution of Wealth in the United States
1997 U.S. Bureau of
the Census
The Upper Class : 5% - include 225 billionaires
Upper-Uppers: 1% Old Money; Lower-Uppers: 4% New Rich
Living in exclusive neighborhoods, such as Beacon Hill in Boston, the
Rittenhouse square of Chicago and Nob Hill in San Francisco. Attending private
schools and competing to enter into high-prestige colleges and universities.
Study liberal arts instead of vocational skills.
The Lower Class: 20% 36.5 million people, 13.7 % as poor
The Middle Class:40-45%
Upper Middles $50,000-100,000
Upper-Middles $35,000-50,000
Upper middle: high prestige colleges. Professionals: physicians, engineers,
lawyers, accountants, or business executives.
Average-Middles : work at less prestigious white collar jobs, such as bank teller,
middle managers as well as highly skilled blue collar jobs e.g. electrical work and
carpentry. 50-50 to go to college.
The Working Class: 30% 30% Lower-Middle Class $15,000-35,000
Social Classes In the U.S.
Social Issues vs. Economic Issues
and social class
• Affluent classes with greater
education and financial
security tend to be more
tolerant of controversial issues
and behaviors
• Political affiliation: Generally
speaking, more privileged
people support a conservative
party. A desire to protect
wealth prompts well-off people
to take a more conservative
approach to economic issues,
e.g. favoring lower tax. But on
social issues -such as abortions
and gay rights- highly
educated, more affluent people
are more liberal.
• Working class or lower social
class people living under
greater supervision and are
less likely to attend college.
With limited information,
education resources, and
opportunities, they also tend
to be less tolerant on
controversial issues.
• People of lower social
standing, tend to be economic
liberals, supporting
government social programs,
but prefer a more
conservative social agenda,
such as pro-life, pro-death
penalty, and anti-gay rights
etc.
Socially desirable
goals - success
Ascribed
status
Achieved
status
Jack
Wasp
Male
Middle
upper
class
Jackie
Wasp
Female
Upper
middle
class
Steve
White
working
or lower
social
class
Steevie
White
female
working
or blue
collar
class
Jose
Hispanic
male
Homsexual
-ity
Maria
Hispanic
female
Jordan
Black
male
lower
social
class
Alicia
Black
female
Lower
social
class
John
male
Native
American
Pocahontas
Female
Native
American
with disability
Capitals
and
Cultural
Capital
Cultural
Ideology
and social
mobility
How leveled Is the playing field ?
Meritocracy
Ascription
and Social
Stratification
Gender Religion
Race and Ethnicity
Ancestry
The U.S. class system rewards individual talent
and effort, but the caste system - ascription
greatly influences what we become later in life
Explaining Poverty
Blame the Poor:
Social Darwinist Perspective
The U.S, have valued self-reliance, talent and
effort. Oscar Lewis: Culture of Poverty-a
lower-class subculture inhibits personal
achievement and fosters resignation.
Blame the Society
William J. Wilson:Any apparent lack of
ambition on the part of poor people as a
consequence of insufficient opportunity.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
TheU.S.
Japan
CanadaTheU.K.
Sweden
France
Personal Laziness
Societal Injustice
Source:World Values Survey, 1994
Vocabulary:
1.Conspicuous consumption: the practice of
buying fancy materials to ”make a statement.”
2.Cultural Capital: Parents of higher social
standing transmits the individuality, imaginative
values and other social resources to their
children
3.Intragenerational social mobility: a change in
social position occurring within a person’s life time
4.Intergeneration social mobility: upward or
downward social mobility of children in relation
to their parents
5.Relative poverty: the deprivation of some people
in relation to those who have more
6.Absolute poverty: a deprivation of resources that
is life-threatening
7.Feminization of poverty: the trend by which
women represent an increasing proportion of the
poor
Social Survey I
“Some people think that blacks have been
discriminated against for so long that the
government has a special obligation to help
improve their living standards.
Others believe that the government should not be
giving special treatment to blacks”-(GSS 1998.
Code Book, 1999:303 1 to 5 scale.)
1. Strongly agree that government is obligated to
help blacks. 6.5%
2. 10.2%
3. “ I agree with both answers” 30%
4. 20.9%
5. “ I strongly agree that government shouldn’t
give any special treatment.” 27.5%
Social Survey II
A telephone survey by National Black
Politics Study (1993-4) asked
“When will African Americans
achieve racial equality?”
Response:
‘It has been achieved,” 5%
“It will be achieved soon,” 30%
“Not in my life time,” 42%
“Never.” 23%
Freedom is not enough.
You do not wipe away the scars of centuries
by saying:
” Now, you are free to go where you want, do
as you desire, and choose the leaders you
please.”
You do not take a man who for years has been
hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him to
the starting line of a race, saying “ you are
free to compete with all others,” and still
Justly believe that you have been completely
fair.” - Lyndon Johnson, 1965
As society stratifies individuals into
different social standings within the social
hierarchy, what about all the nations on the
planet? Are there also stratified?
What is so- called high income, middle
income and low income countries? Why is
that way? Why some countries are rich
with high living standard and most
countries are so poor?
1. Type
https://create.kahoot.it/kahoots/my-kahoots
If you don’t bring in cellphone, then work on
a piece of paper
2. Key in the code on the screen.
3. Each question has 20 seconds for you
to choose the best answer
https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=e6f8e379-2dd0-444a-8203-be8b0e9a74aa
Play Kafoot :
Warming-up: review contents of the last session, 7 points
4. Global Inequality
Three Worlds:
High income countries ($10,000-20,000)
Middle income countries ($2,500-10,000)
Low income countries (Below 2,500)
A. Global Wealth and Poverty
The severity of Poverty: Poverty in poor countries is more
severe than it is in rich countries such as in the U.S.
Relative Versus Absolute Poverty: relative poverty means
that some people lack resources others take for granted, no
matter rich or poor, while absolute poverty, is a lack of
resources that is life threatening.
In this part, we will study Inequality
from Global Perspective:
Poverty of Children: 10 million of the
world’s children die each year because of
hunger. 75 million city children beg, steal,
sell sex and drug; 25 million are street
children.
Correlates of Global Poverty:
1./ Technology 2./ Population grows
3./ Cultural Patterns 4./ Social Stratification
5./ Gender Inequality 6./ Global power relationships:
Slavery: 4 types of slavery-chattel slavery, child
slavery, debt bondage, servile forms of marriage
Poverty of Women:
unrecognized; underpaid;
undervalued.
The r____?
Colonialism: some nations enrich themselves
through political and economic control of
other nations.
Neocolonialism: a new form of global power
relationships that involves not direct political
control but economic exploitation by multinational
corporations.
Multinational Corporations: are huge business
that operates in many countries, and their decision
makers can impose their will on countries where they
do business just as colonizers did in centuries past.
Vocabulary:
1. Colonialism: the process by which some
nations enrich themselves through political
and economic control of other nations.
2. Neo-colonialism: a new form of global
power relationships that involves not direct
political control but economic exploitation by
multinational corporations
3. Multinational corporation: a large
business that operates in many countries
4. Modernization theory:
a model of economic and social
development that explains global
inequality in terms of technological and
cultural differences among societies
5. Dependency theory:
a model of economic development that
explains global inequality in terms of
the historical exploitation of poor
societies by rich ones.
Wallerstein’s Capitalist World Economy Model
( which supports the Dependency Theory)
3rd world
– low income
countries
Produce more raw
materials, less tech
advanced or little tech available,
drawn into the world economy
by colonial exploitation,
providing inexpensive labor
and a vast market for
industrial products.
1st world-
rich, tech
advanced
countries.
Core
Periphery
The 2nd world
– middle income
countries
Semi-periphery
Closely ties to the global
economy, providing
inexpensive
labor-intense workforce.
Sociology, Xena Crystal LC Huang
http://sharepowered.com/see-the-human-cost-of-your-iphone-and-it-will-shock-you/
Economy and politics (homestead strike), Roger and me
(on this Easter Day, also the 100 Anniversary of the Ludlow Massacre)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tpg_v5F6qSY
Benzene
http://sharepowered.com/see-the-human-cost-of-your-iphone-and-it-will-shock-you/
Modern Slavery - Human Trafficking
Most of the 1 million farm workers in the United States are immigrants. About half are
undocumented.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lZfOQ_KZz68
Child Labor in the U.S. Farm Fields
Increase transnational data collecting and sharing to better enforce existing prohibitions against
human slavery and trafficking.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_h99DDa39E Fair Trade
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ui4kjsWH-78&feature=related Diversity impacts business
http://www.weau.com/home/headlines/111420874.html No N allowed.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bqMY82xzWo&feature=related The Paradox of Choice
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uk8x3V-sUgU Internet to create change
Father and son http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UhuP6uJFtM&feature=related
9. Benzene http://sharepowered.com/see-the-human-cost-of-your-iphone-and-it-will-shock-you/
9. ( on this Easter Day, also the 100 Anniversary of the Ludlow Massacre)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tpg_v5F6qSY
Rostow’s Stages of Modernization
1. Traditional stage
2. Take-off stage
3. Drive to technological maturity
4. High mass consumption
B. Global Inequality: Theoretical Analysis
Modernization Theory: a model of economic and
social development that explains global inequality in terms
of technological and cultural differences among societies.
The importance of Culture in this theory: tradition is the
greatest barrier to economic development.
The Role of Rich Nation in this theory: assisting in
population control, increasing food production, introducing
industrial technology, and instituting program for foreign aid.
•Dependency Theory: a model of economic and
social development that explains global inequality in terms
of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones.
The importance of Colonialism in this theory: the
economic relationship between poor and rich nations
perpetuate a colonial pattern of domination. Neocolonialism
is the essence of the capitalist world economic.
Wallenstien’s Capitalist world economy:
Drawn into the global system by colonial exploitation, poor
nations continue to support rich nations by providing
inexpensive labor and vast markets for a host of product.
In short, dependency involves 3 factors:
1./ Narrow, export-oriented economies
2./ Lack of industrial capacity
3./ Foreign debt.
5.Global Inequality: Looking Ahead
8 out of 10 new jobs created in the U. S are related to
International trade.
The global economy increases income inequality. Rising
production and sales abroad have brought record profits
to many corporations and their stockholders, those who
already have substantial wealth. At the same time, the
global economy has cut factory jobs in these countries,
leading to lower wages and higher unemployment. The
result is : gradual economic polarization in the U.S., but
social inequality is far more striking in a global
context.
Both modernization theory and dependency
theory provides useful insights into global
inequality.
Conclusion of this section:
The concentration of wealth of wealth among
high-income countries, coupled with the grinding
property of low-income nations may constitute
the biggest problem facing humanity in the
twenty-first century.
Discussions:
1 .Many of you expressed the financial worry in the
classroom survey. Discuss relative poverty and
absolute poverty associate with your condition.
2. Imagine you were from a poor-colonialized
country, what are your opinions toward the above
mentioned modernization theory and Dependency
theory?
3. Do rich nations hold the keys to ending world
hunger, or are they the cause of this tragic
problem?
Vocabulary:
1. Social stratification: a system by which a
society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
2. Social mobility: change in one’s position in the
social hierarchy, e.g., vertical upward, vertical
downward, horizontal, intergeneration vs.
intrageneration, and structural mobility.
3. Caste system: social stratification based on
ascription
4. Class system: social stratification based on both
birth and individual achievement
5. Meritocracy: social stratification based on
personal merit
6. Status consistency: the degree of consistency in a
person’s social standing across various
dimensions of social inequality
7. Structural social mobility: a shift in the social
position of large numbers of people due more to
changes in society itself than to individual efforts
8. Ideology: cultural beliefs that justify social
stratification
9. Davis-Moore thesis: the assertion that social
stratification is a universal pattern because it
benefits the operation of a society
10. Socioeconomic status (SES): a composite of
ranking based on various dimensions of social
inequality.
11.Colonialism: the process by which some nations
enrich themselves through political and economic
control of other nations.
12. Neo-colonialism: a new form of global power
relationships that involves not direct political
control but economic exploitation by
multinational corporations
13. Multinational corporation: a large business that
operates in many countries
14. Modernization theory: a model of economic and
social development that explains global
inequality in terms of technological and cultural
differences among societies
15. Dependency theory: a model of economic
development that explains global inequality in
terms of the historical exploitation of poor
societies by rich ones.
Extra information
and
learning activities
1. Type
https://create.kahoot.it/kahoots/my-kahoots
If you don’t bring in cellphone, then work on
a piece of paper
2. Key in the code on the screen.
3. Each question has 20 seconds for you
to choose the best answer
https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=0a730fba-8b1f-4d81-99a6-2297d5bae6ad
Play Kafoot : stratification 10 points
In-class quiz (14 Q)
1.__T/F In the caste system, individuals are stratified
based on their ascribed statuses.
2. __In the 21st century, most societies are structured in
a. caste system b. class system c. estate system
d. all of the above
3.__Which of the following term tends to be used to justify
social stratification/inequality:
a. social mobility b. norm c. culture d. ideology
4.__T/F In the video we watched, the sinking
of Titanic showed that individual’s social position in a
society affecting his/her life chances.
5.__T/F A close system has more social mobility.
In-class quiz
6._ What is the term for changes in people’s positions in
the social hierarchy?
a. Social mobility b. Vertical social mobility
c. Parallel social mobility d. Horizontal social mobility
7._ T/F Jack changed his job from fast food Hardy to Wendy
with similar pay and position. This type of mobility is
called vertical social mobility.
8._Significant elements of the caste system are seen in:
a. The United States b. Russia c. South Africa d. Cuba
9._ Endogamous marriages facilitate:
a. closed systems. b. open systems.
c. democratic systems. d. polygamous systems.
10._ In a class system, __becomes a sign of great talent and
effort, while poverty is viewed as a result of __.
a. Power; lack of talent b. Prestige; weakness of will
c. Status; bad luck d. Wealth; personal inadequacy
11.__Davis-Moore thesis, which of the following is TRUE?
a. Equality is functional for society.
b. World inequality results from the activities of
global multinationals.
c. The most valuable positions must yield sufficient
rewards to attract
the talent necessary to fill them.
d. Stratification ultimately will be eliminated in the U.S.,
due to our meritocracy.
12.__According to Karl Marx, disparities in wealth and
power between the bourgeoisie and proletariat inevitably
lead to which of the following?
a. Class conflict b. Negotiation
c. Government control d. Democracy
13.__Which of the following is NOT one of the 3 dimensions
of social stratification emphasized by Max Weber?
a. Class b. Status c. Power d. Socioeconomic status
14.__What is the sociologist’s term for a composite ranking
based on various dimensions of social inequality?
a. Power b. Socioeconomic status/SES c. Status d. Prestige
SOC In-class quiz (10 Q)
1.What is the term for a society’s ranking of categories of people in a
hierarchy?
a. Social ranks b. Social differentiation c. Social inequality
d. Social stratification
2.What is the term for changes in people’s positions in the social
hierarchy?
a. Social mobility b. Vertical social mobility c. Parallel social mobility
d. Horizontal social mobility
3. A caste system is: a. Social stratification based on ascription
b. Social stratification based on achievement c. A meritocracy
d. Every system where a majority dominates a minority
4. Significant elements of the caste system are seen in:
a. The United States. b. Russia . c. South Africa. d. Cuba
5. Endogamous marriages facilitate: a. closed systems.
b. open systems. c. democratic systems. d. polygamous systems.
6. Systems of social stratification based on both birth and individual
achievement are referred to as a. Social differentiation.
b. Caste systems. c. Class systems. d. Mobility systems.
7. What is the term for a system of social stratification based entirely
on personal merit?
a. Meritocracy b. Democracy c. Capitalism d. Status hierarchy
8. What is ideology? a. Cultural beliefs that justify social stratification
b. Ideas that curtail the power of the wealthy
c. Ideas that stem from scientific and philosophical inquiry
d. A biased or slanted view of the world
9. In a class system, _____ becomes a sign of great talent and effort,
while poverty is viewed as a result of _____.
a. Power; lack of talent b. Prestige; weakness of will
c. Status; bad luck d. Wealth; personal inadequacy
10.According to the Davis-Moore thesis, which of the following is TRUE?
a. Equality is functional for society.
b. World inequality results from the activities of global multinationals.
c. The most valuable positions must yield sufficient rewards to
attract the talent necessary to fill them.
d. Stratification ultimately will be eliminated in the U.S., due to our
meritocracy.
In-class quiz (10 Q)
1. _ T/F Social stratification is a cultural universal phenomenon.
2. _ T/F Max Weber coined the term “life chance.”
3. __ According to Max Weber, life chance includes the following
EXCEPT:
a. the chance for education b. the chance for job
c. the chance for health care d. the chance for the family
4. __ T/F Cultural capitals are about the financial pass-on
within families.
5. __ T/F Most societies have the similar possibilities of social
mobility.
6. __ T/F The US. offers better social mobility than
the developing or underdeveloped countries.
7.__ T/F The stratification of the grade system is justifiable.
8.__ T/F The stratification of race is unjustifiable.
9.__ Which of the following is NOT a “Man-Made” inequality
a. your grade b. your race
c. your social class d. your sex/gender
10._ T/F Which of the following is a natural inequality?
a. a tiger is more powerful than a lamb.
b. racism.
c. sexism.
d. all sorts of prejudice, discrimination and genocide.
In-class quiz (7 Q)
1. _ T/F People in a caste system mainly, are stratified by
ascribed status.
2. _ In the 21st century, most societies are embedded with
a. caste system b. class system c. estate system
d. none of the above
3. __ T/F People in society are stratified based on multiple
dimensions of inequality, such as race, ethnicity, sex,
class, gender, education, income, wealth, nationality etc.
4. __ T/F Cultural capitals is about financial pass-on
within families.
5. __ Most societies justify social stratification by
a. social control b. norms c. technology d. ideology
6. __ T/F Davis- Moore supported social stratification,
while Marvin Tumin did not agree.
7.__ T/F Compare a son/daughter’s social mobility to
his/her parents’ is call intra-generational social
mobility.
1.__Many of the low-priced products available for sale
in the U.S. are produced through:
a. Cheap U.S. laborers b. Illegal aliens
c. McDonaldization d. Child labor
2.__ Modernization theory identifies _____ as the greatest
barrier to economic development.
a. Technology b. Social equality
c. Social power d. Tradition
3.__According to Wallenstein, _____ nations are at the
“core” of the world economy
a. High-income b. Middle-income
c. Low-income d. Socialist
4.__According to Wallenstein, _____ nations are at the
periphery of the world economy.
a. High-income b. Middle-income
c. Low-income d. Socialist
5.__What is Wallenstein’s term for the middle-income
countries of the world?
a. Core b. Semi periphery c. Periphery d. Third World
In-class quiz
___ Which type of slavery consists of one person owning another?
a. Chattel slavery b. Child slavery c. Debt bondage d. Servile forms of
marriage
___ Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by
paying them too little to cover their debts?
a. Chattel slavery b. Child slavery c. Debt bondage d. Servile forms of
marriage
___ What is the name for the process by which some nations enrich
themselves through political and economic control of
other countries?
a. Colonialism b. Manifest destiny c. Neocolonialism d. Free trade
___ When a multinational corporation exploits a low-income country in order
to create favorable economic conditions, the circumstance is referred to as:
a. Economic exploitation b. Corporate slavery
c. Neocolonialism d. International bondage
___ What is the term for the global form of international economic
exploitation that does not involve direct political control
but the operation of multinational corporations?
a. Colonialism b. Manifest destiny c. Neocolonialism d. Free trade
Human cost of iphone
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH
Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH

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Social stratification - class notes from Dr. Xena LCH

  • 1. Neither rich nor poor people are responsible for creating social stratification, yet this system shapes the lives of us all. Did a higher percentage of the first-class passengers survive the sinking of the Titanic because they were smarter or work harder than anyone else?
  • 2. Today’s Agenda 1. Warm-up Review Peer’s Research Paper 2. Introduce Unit 3 Competencies and contents (5 mins) a. A short video for discussion with worksheet: what is social stratification? (5 mins) b. Lecture within class pop-quiz (15 mins) 3. Discussion on social stratification (10 mins) 4. Lecture (10 mins) and reflection Write down what you learned and questions. Share with the big class (5 mins) 5. Next class info – review stratification contents and research paper peer reviews
  • 3. Competencies (State Required Objectives) Assess the impact of social stratification and global stratification on individuals and society.
  • 4.
  • 5. Unit 3 - Social/Global Stratification The objectives of this Unit is to learn: 1. What is Social Stratification? 2. The Functions of Social Stratification 3. Stratification and Conflict 4. Global Inequality and Theoretical Analysis 5. Global Inequality- Looking Ahead Fairness experiment
  • 6. Individuals Foundations of Society Social Inequality Social Institutions Social Change 1. Social and Global Stratification 2. Social Stratification in the U.S. 3. Gender Stratification 4. Race and Ethnicity 1.The Economic & work 2.Politics & Government 3.Family 4.Religion 5.Education 6.Health and Medicine 1. Population, Urbanization and Environment 2. Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern societies A Holistic View- Individual and Social Forces 1. Culture/Society 2. Socialization 3. Social Interaction in Everyday life 4. Groups & Organization 5. Deviance
  • 9. Socio-biological Forces Shape Who and What We Are Individual Internal forces External forces I and ME/ Individual Positive Forces - push you up Invisible social Forces Negative Forces - drag you down Visible Social Forces Genetics/ Biology Environment/ social-culture
  • 10. Question for reaching your potential- by working hard and with talent, one’s dream will come true….? • Necessary conditions Work ethics; Some degree of talents • Sufficient conditions Race; Gender; Genetics; SES (socio-economic status: social class, education, occupation…etc) Necessary conditions + Sufficient conditions => reach your potential
  • 11. • Given the same environment /socio-cultural factors Genes tell the story • Given the same genetics makeup Environment/socio-cultural factors tell the story. Which factors have stronger prediction power What do you think?
  • 12. Queen and Prime Minister - Ascribed vs. Achieved? Queen Elizabeth II ascended the British Throne in 1953, after her father, King George VI’s death. Mrs. Margaret Thatcher was elected the first female Prime Minister of U.K. In 1979.
  • 13. 1.What is Social Stratification? • Social stratification is a characteristic of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences. • Social stratification persists over generations. Social mobility: vertical, horizontal and structural mobility • Social stratification is universal but variable. What is unequal and how unequal are vary from one type of society from another • Social stratification involves not just inequality but belief / ideology. A system of belief explains why people should be unequal. People with the greatest social privilege express the strongest support for their society’s social stratification.
  • 14. Wealth, class, power, gender, race, education, nationality, religion, and sexual orientation....etc. influence a person’s position in social hierarchy
  • 15. Cultural Capital: parents pass down (visibly or invisibly) values and other social resources (+ or -) to their next generations affecting children’s social standing. Structural/instit utional unequal race,
  • 16. Life Chances • Max Weber also added the concept of “life chances” to his definition of class (similar lifestyles, money, properties…etc) • Life chance is the opportunities that each individual has of fulfilling his or her potential in life. • The higher the socio-economic status (SES), the more access to scarce resources and opportunities, and thus more positive are the life chances of the individual, and vice versa.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Ideology- Cultural beliefs that serve to justify social stratification •The concept of “the just-world phenomenon” One German civilian visited the concentration camp and remarked “ What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such punishment.” •People justify their prejudice, bias, discrimination by blaming its victims - “people get what they deserve.” •This is also a short leap to assume that those who succeed must be good and those who suffer must be bad. Such reasoning enables the rich to see both their own wealth and the Poor's misfortune as justly deserved.
  • 20. Systems of Social Stratification The Caste System: based on ascription (By birth). The Class System: based on birth and achievement The Mixed system of the caste and class : such as the U.K., Japan etc. Status Consistency: social standing across various dimensions of social inequality Why does social stratification persist? Because it is supported by various institutions and the power of ideology defining certain kind of inequality as both natural and just. What is ideology? Cultural beliefs that serve to justify social stratification
  • 21. A Cultural Universal: All societies are structured like a Pyramid The majority are at the bottom with a small percentage of dominant people on the top.
  • 22. Industrial revolution: Society mainly was stratified into two classes: the Capitalists (Bourgeoisie) and Labor-workers (Proletariats) Medieval era, Feudal lords and surfs (peasants)
  • 23.
  • 24. The traditional stratification of Chinese society: scholars, peasants, manual labor workers, and merchants.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KlmvmuxzYE Fairness & Privilege Experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hD5f8GuNuGQ Privilege https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKhAd0Tyny0 Monkey fairness https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfumE83oIQg John Rawls https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vA37BZjD0FA JUSTICE as Fairness Justice, Equality, Equity and Fairness
  • 32. What is justice? Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences.
  • 33. What is justice? Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality. John Rawls used a social contractargument to show that justice, and especially distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists (like Robert Nozick) take a deontological view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system. Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for wrongdoing. Restorative justice (also sometimes called "reparative justice") is an approach to justice that focuses on restoring what is good, and necessarily focuses on the needs of victims and offenders.
  • 34. What is justice? Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality. John Rawls used a social contractargument to show that justice, and especially distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists (like Robert Nozick) take a deontological view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system. Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for wrongdoing. Restorative justice (also sometimes called "reparative justice") is an approach to justice that focuses on restoring what is good, and necessarily focuses on the needs of victims and offenders.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. Example India (close society) Caste System Example USA: Open society Class System Example U.K. Estate System Sudra Vaisya Untouchable Kshatriya Brahman 20% lower class 60% working class 15-19% middleclass 1-5 % upper class 5 % : 150 families nobility/Aristocracy Clergy military officers lawyers honorable professions Commoners Surfs Social Mobility: change in one’s position in the social hierarchy
  • 40. 3.Stratification and Conflict Social Conflict analysis argues that social stratification benefits some peoples at the expense of others. Karl Marx’s Class and Conflict: The key architect of social-conflict analysis, recognized two major social classes in industrial societies: the Capitalists or Bourgeoisie, own the means of production and pursue the profits; the Proletariat, by contrast, offers their labor in exchange or wages. He believed that oppression and misery would drive the working majority to organize and ultimate overthrow capitalism. But why no Marxist revolution in the U.S.? 1./ The fragmentation of the capitalist class 2./ A higher standard of living 3./ More extensive worker organization 4./ More extensive legal protections. A counterpoint: 1./ Wealth remains highly concentrated 2./ White-collar work offers little to workers 3./ Progress requires struggle 4./ The law still favors the rich
  • 41. Max Weber’s Class, Status and Power Max Weber (1864-1920) modified Karl Marx’s two-class model of social conflict by adding the other two dimensions: Status and Power. In short, society stratifies individuals by socioeconomic status (SES)- a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality, such as race, gender, income, wealth, status, power, age, religion, nationality etc.
  • 42. The functions of social stratification Why are societies stratified at all? The Davis-Moore Thesis: The assertion that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society. By distributing resources (income, power, prestige, and leisure) unequally, a society motivates each person to aspire to work harder to achieve the best rewards. Meritocracy: a system of social stratification based on personal merit. In pursuit of meritocracy, a society promotes equality of opportunity while at same time, demanding unequal rewards. Caste systems waste human potential, but they are orderly.
  • 43. Why do modern industrial societies resist becoming complete meritocracies by retaining many caste-like qualities? Critical Evaluation of Davis-Moore’s thesis: a/ Pay and societal contribution: 100 million a year income of Oprah or 1 million an episode of Tim Allen’s “Home Improvement” is worth as much as 3,000 police officers? b/ Tumin: Davis-Moore’s thesis exaggerates the role of social stratification in developing individual talent. Our society rewards individual achievement, but we also allow families to transfer wealth and power from one generation to another in castelike fashion. So, Tumin suggests, that social stratification functions to develop some people’s abilities to the fullest while ensuring that others never reach their potential.
  • 44. A real life story for pondering: God Made Me a Slave Fatma Mint Mamadou is a young woman living in North Africa’s Republic of Mauritania. She has no idea what she was born. All she knows is tending camels, herding sheep, hauling bags of water, sweeping, and serving tea to her owners. This young woman is one of perhaps 90,000 slaves in Mauritania. In the central region of this country, having dark brown skin almost means being a slave to an Arab owner. She always accepted her situation. She has known nothing else. She explains in a matter-of-fact voice that she is a slave, as was her mother before and her grandmother before that. “Just as God created a camel to be a camel, “ she shrugs, “he created me to be a slave.” In this region, slavery began 500 years ago, abut the time Columbus sailed to the new World. As Arab and Berber tribes moved across the continent, they raided local villages and made slaves of the people. In 1905 the French colonial rulers of Mauritania banned slavery. After the nation gained independence in 1961, the strong traditions still exist. People like Fatma have no idea what freedom to choose means. The next question is more personal:” Are you and other girls ever raped?” Again Fatma hesitates. With no hint of emotion, she responds," of course, in the night the men come to breed us. Is that what you mean by rape?”
  • 45. Just-world phenomenon The world is just. This world has NO justice There is some justice in the world
  • 46. Social Stratification and Technological Development - The Kuznets Curve • The Kuznets curve shows that the greater technological sophistication is generally accompanied by more pronounced social stratification. The trend reverses itself, as industrial societies relax rigid caste-like distinction in favor of greater opportunity and equality under the law. • However, the emergence of the postindustrial society has brought an upturn in the economic inequality.
  • 47. Figure 8-2 (p. 199) Social Stratification and Technological Development: The Kuznets Curve
  • 48. In Syllabus, Page 3 Activity-Forum 3: Our society is a place set up for people to strive for success. To the winners go the spoils, while the losers, get what they deserve. Debate the issue of Affirmative Action from sociological perspective in terms of equality, opportunity and social justice.
  • 49. Stratification: Fact and Values Social stratification is a complex and controversial area of research because it deals not only with facts but also with various values that suggest how society should be organized. Novelist Kurt Vonnegut, Jr’s futuristic account in “Harrison Bergeon” that social inequality has been totally abolished by social engineering in which every individual talent that makes one person different from another his systematically neutralized by the government. Discussions: 1. Is getting rich “ The Survival of the Fittest”? 2. Are the rich worth what they earn? 3. Critique on Vonnegut’s short story “Harrison Bergeon”
  • 51. Social Classes In the U.S. The Upper Class : 5% The Lower Class: 20% The Middle Class:40-45% The Working Class: 30% Upper-Uppers: 1% Old Money Lower-Uppers: 4% New Rich Upper-Middles $50,000-100,000 Average-Middles $35,000-50,000 30% Lower-Middle Class $15,000-35,000 36.5 million people, 13.7 % as poor
  • 52. Richest 20% 2nd 20% 3rd 30% 4th 20% Poorest 20% 80% of national wealth belongs to richest 20 % of population; The top 1% richest possesses nation’s 50% wealth 15% 5% 1% -1% Distribution of Wealth in the United States 1997 U.S. Bureau of the Census
  • 53. The Upper Class : 5% - include 225 billionaires Upper-Uppers: 1% Old Money; Lower-Uppers: 4% New Rich Living in exclusive neighborhoods, such as Beacon Hill in Boston, the Rittenhouse square of Chicago and Nob Hill in San Francisco. Attending private schools and competing to enter into high-prestige colleges and universities. Study liberal arts instead of vocational skills. The Lower Class: 20% 36.5 million people, 13.7 % as poor The Middle Class:40-45% Upper Middles $50,000-100,000 Upper-Middles $35,000-50,000 Upper middle: high prestige colleges. Professionals: physicians, engineers, lawyers, accountants, or business executives. Average-Middles : work at less prestigious white collar jobs, such as bank teller, middle managers as well as highly skilled blue collar jobs e.g. electrical work and carpentry. 50-50 to go to college. The Working Class: 30% 30% Lower-Middle Class $15,000-35,000 Social Classes In the U.S.
  • 54. Social Issues vs. Economic Issues and social class • Affluent classes with greater education and financial security tend to be more tolerant of controversial issues and behaviors • Political affiliation: Generally speaking, more privileged people support a conservative party. A desire to protect wealth prompts well-off people to take a more conservative approach to economic issues, e.g. favoring lower tax. But on social issues -such as abortions and gay rights- highly educated, more affluent people are more liberal. • Working class or lower social class people living under greater supervision and are less likely to attend college. With limited information, education resources, and opportunities, they also tend to be less tolerant on controversial issues. • People of lower social standing, tend to be economic liberals, supporting government social programs, but prefer a more conservative social agenda, such as pro-life, pro-death penalty, and anti-gay rights etc.
  • 55. Socially desirable goals - success Ascribed status Achieved status Jack Wasp Male Middle upper class Jackie Wasp Female Upper middle class Steve White working or lower social class Steevie White female working or blue collar class Jose Hispanic male Homsexual -ity Maria Hispanic female Jordan Black male lower social class Alicia Black female Lower social class John male Native American Pocahontas Female Native American with disability Capitals and Cultural Capital Cultural Ideology and social mobility How leveled Is the playing field ? Meritocracy
  • 56.
  • 57. Ascription and Social Stratification Gender Religion Race and Ethnicity Ancestry The U.S. class system rewards individual talent and effort, but the caste system - ascription greatly influences what we become later in life
  • 58. Explaining Poverty Blame the Poor: Social Darwinist Perspective The U.S, have valued self-reliance, talent and effort. Oscar Lewis: Culture of Poverty-a lower-class subculture inhibits personal achievement and fosters resignation. Blame the Society William J. Wilson:Any apparent lack of ambition on the part of poor people as a consequence of insufficient opportunity.
  • 60. Vocabulary: 1.Conspicuous consumption: the practice of buying fancy materials to ”make a statement.” 2.Cultural Capital: Parents of higher social standing transmits the individuality, imaginative values and other social resources to their children 3.Intragenerational social mobility: a change in social position occurring within a person’s life time 4.Intergeneration social mobility: upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents 5.Relative poverty: the deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more 6.Absolute poverty: a deprivation of resources that is life-threatening 7.Feminization of poverty: the trend by which women represent an increasing proportion of the poor
  • 61. Social Survey I “Some people think that blacks have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks”-(GSS 1998. Code Book, 1999:303 1 to 5 scale.) 1. Strongly agree that government is obligated to help blacks. 6.5% 2. 10.2% 3. “ I agree with both answers” 30% 4. 20.9% 5. “ I strongly agree that government shouldn’t give any special treatment.” 27.5%
  • 62. Social Survey II A telephone survey by National Black Politics Study (1993-4) asked “When will African Americans achieve racial equality?” Response: ‘It has been achieved,” 5% “It will be achieved soon,” 30% “Not in my life time,” 42% “Never.” 23%
  • 63. Freedom is not enough. You do not wipe away the scars of centuries by saying: ” Now, you are free to go where you want, do as you desire, and choose the leaders you please.” You do not take a man who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him to the starting line of a race, saying “ you are free to compete with all others,” and still Justly believe that you have been completely fair.” - Lyndon Johnson, 1965
  • 64. As society stratifies individuals into different social standings within the social hierarchy, what about all the nations on the planet? Are there also stratified? What is so- called high income, middle income and low income countries? Why is that way? Why some countries are rich with high living standard and most countries are so poor?
  • 65. 1. Type https://create.kahoot.it/kahoots/my-kahoots If you don’t bring in cellphone, then work on a piece of paper 2. Key in the code on the screen. 3. Each question has 20 seconds for you to choose the best answer https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=e6f8e379-2dd0-444a-8203-be8b0e9a74aa Play Kafoot : Warming-up: review contents of the last session, 7 points
  • 66. 4. Global Inequality Three Worlds: High income countries ($10,000-20,000) Middle income countries ($2,500-10,000) Low income countries (Below 2,500) A. Global Wealth and Poverty The severity of Poverty: Poverty in poor countries is more severe than it is in rich countries such as in the U.S. Relative Versus Absolute Poverty: relative poverty means that some people lack resources others take for granted, no matter rich or poor, while absolute poverty, is a lack of resources that is life threatening. In this part, we will study Inequality from Global Perspective:
  • 67. Poverty of Children: 10 million of the world’s children die each year because of hunger. 75 million city children beg, steal, sell sex and drug; 25 million are street children. Correlates of Global Poverty: 1./ Technology 2./ Population grows 3./ Cultural Patterns 4./ Social Stratification 5./ Gender Inequality 6./ Global power relationships: Slavery: 4 types of slavery-chattel slavery, child slavery, debt bondage, servile forms of marriage Poverty of Women: unrecognized; underpaid; undervalued.
  • 68.
  • 70. Colonialism: some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations. Neocolonialism: a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations. Multinational Corporations: are huge business that operates in many countries, and their decision makers can impose their will on countries where they do business just as colonizers did in centuries past.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73. Vocabulary: 1. Colonialism: the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations. 2. Neo-colonialism: a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations 3. Multinational corporation: a large business that operates in many countries
  • 74. 4. Modernization theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences among societies 5. Dependency theory: a model of economic development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones.
  • 75. Wallerstein’s Capitalist World Economy Model ( which supports the Dependency Theory) 3rd world – low income countries Produce more raw materials, less tech advanced or little tech available, drawn into the world economy by colonial exploitation, providing inexpensive labor and a vast market for industrial products. 1st world- rich, tech advanced countries. Core Periphery The 2nd world – middle income countries Semi-periphery Closely ties to the global economy, providing inexpensive labor-intense workforce. Sociology, Xena Crystal LC Huang
  • 77. Economy and politics (homestead strike), Roger and me (on this Easter Day, also the 100 Anniversary of the Ludlow Massacre) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tpg_v5F6qSY Benzene http://sharepowered.com/see-the-human-cost-of-your-iphone-and-it-will-shock-you/ Modern Slavery - Human Trafficking Most of the 1 million farm workers in the United States are immigrants. About half are undocumented. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lZfOQ_KZz68 Child Labor in the U.S. Farm Fields Increase transnational data collecting and sharing to better enforce existing prohibitions against human slavery and trafficking. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_h99DDa39E Fair Trade http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ui4kjsWH-78&feature=related Diversity impacts business http://www.weau.com/home/headlines/111420874.html No N allowed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bqMY82xzWo&feature=related The Paradox of Choice http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uk8x3V-sUgU Internet to create change Father and son http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UhuP6uJFtM&feature=related 9. Benzene http://sharepowered.com/see-the-human-cost-of-your-iphone-and-it-will-shock-you/ 9. ( on this Easter Day, also the 100 Anniversary of the Ludlow Massacre) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tpg_v5F6qSY
  • 78. Rostow’s Stages of Modernization 1. Traditional stage 2. Take-off stage 3. Drive to technological maturity 4. High mass consumption B. Global Inequality: Theoretical Analysis Modernization Theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences among societies. The importance of Culture in this theory: tradition is the greatest barrier to economic development. The Role of Rich Nation in this theory: assisting in population control, increasing food production, introducing industrial technology, and instituting program for foreign aid.
  • 79. •Dependency Theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones. The importance of Colonialism in this theory: the economic relationship between poor and rich nations perpetuate a colonial pattern of domination. Neocolonialism is the essence of the capitalist world economic. Wallenstien’s Capitalist world economy: Drawn into the global system by colonial exploitation, poor nations continue to support rich nations by providing inexpensive labor and vast markets for a host of product. In short, dependency involves 3 factors: 1./ Narrow, export-oriented economies 2./ Lack of industrial capacity 3./ Foreign debt.
  • 80. 5.Global Inequality: Looking Ahead 8 out of 10 new jobs created in the U. S are related to International trade. The global economy increases income inequality. Rising production and sales abroad have brought record profits to many corporations and their stockholders, those who already have substantial wealth. At the same time, the global economy has cut factory jobs in these countries, leading to lower wages and higher unemployment. The result is : gradual economic polarization in the U.S., but social inequality is far more striking in a global context.
  • 81. Both modernization theory and dependency theory provides useful insights into global inequality. Conclusion of this section: The concentration of wealth of wealth among high-income countries, coupled with the grinding property of low-income nations may constitute the biggest problem facing humanity in the twenty-first century.
  • 82. Discussions: 1 .Many of you expressed the financial worry in the classroom survey. Discuss relative poverty and absolute poverty associate with your condition. 2. Imagine you were from a poor-colonialized country, what are your opinions toward the above mentioned modernization theory and Dependency theory? 3. Do rich nations hold the keys to ending world hunger, or are they the cause of this tragic problem?
  • 83. Vocabulary: 1. Social stratification: a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy 2. Social mobility: change in one’s position in the social hierarchy, e.g., vertical upward, vertical downward, horizontal, intergeneration vs. intrageneration, and structural mobility. 3. Caste system: social stratification based on ascription 4. Class system: social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement 5. Meritocracy: social stratification based on personal merit 6. Status consistency: the degree of consistency in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
  • 84. 7. Structural social mobility: a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts 8. Ideology: cultural beliefs that justify social stratification 9. Davis-Moore thesis: the assertion that social stratification is a universal pattern because it benefits the operation of a society 10. Socioeconomic status (SES): a composite of ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality. 11.Colonialism: the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations.
  • 85. 12. Neo-colonialism: a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations 13. Multinational corporation: a large business that operates in many countries 14. Modernization theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences among societies 15. Dependency theory: a model of economic development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones.
  • 87. 1. Type https://create.kahoot.it/kahoots/my-kahoots If you don’t bring in cellphone, then work on a piece of paper 2. Key in the code on the screen. 3. Each question has 20 seconds for you to choose the best answer https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=0a730fba-8b1f-4d81-99a6-2297d5bae6ad Play Kafoot : stratification 10 points
  • 88. In-class quiz (14 Q) 1.__T/F In the caste system, individuals are stratified based on their ascribed statuses. 2. __In the 21st century, most societies are structured in a. caste system b. class system c. estate system d. all of the above 3.__Which of the following term tends to be used to justify social stratification/inequality: a. social mobility b. norm c. culture d. ideology 4.__T/F In the video we watched, the sinking of Titanic showed that individual’s social position in a society affecting his/her life chances. 5.__T/F A close system has more social mobility.
  • 89. In-class quiz 6._ What is the term for changes in people’s positions in the social hierarchy? a. Social mobility b. Vertical social mobility c. Parallel social mobility d. Horizontal social mobility 7._ T/F Jack changed his job from fast food Hardy to Wendy with similar pay and position. This type of mobility is called vertical social mobility. 8._Significant elements of the caste system are seen in: a. The United States b. Russia c. South Africa d. Cuba 9._ Endogamous marriages facilitate: a. closed systems. b. open systems. c. democratic systems. d. polygamous systems. 10._ In a class system, __becomes a sign of great talent and effort, while poverty is viewed as a result of __. a. Power; lack of talent b. Prestige; weakness of will c. Status; bad luck d. Wealth; personal inadequacy
  • 90. 11.__Davis-Moore thesis, which of the following is TRUE? a. Equality is functional for society. b. World inequality results from the activities of global multinationals. c. The most valuable positions must yield sufficient rewards to attract the talent necessary to fill them. d. Stratification ultimately will be eliminated in the U.S., due to our meritocracy. 12.__According to Karl Marx, disparities in wealth and power between the bourgeoisie and proletariat inevitably lead to which of the following? a. Class conflict b. Negotiation c. Government control d. Democracy 13.__Which of the following is NOT one of the 3 dimensions of social stratification emphasized by Max Weber? a. Class b. Status c. Power d. Socioeconomic status 14.__What is the sociologist’s term for a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality? a. Power b. Socioeconomic status/SES c. Status d. Prestige
  • 91. SOC In-class quiz (10 Q) 1.What is the term for a society’s ranking of categories of people in a hierarchy? a. Social ranks b. Social differentiation c. Social inequality d. Social stratification 2.What is the term for changes in people’s positions in the social hierarchy? a. Social mobility b. Vertical social mobility c. Parallel social mobility d. Horizontal social mobility 3. A caste system is: a. Social stratification based on ascription b. Social stratification based on achievement c. A meritocracy d. Every system where a majority dominates a minority 4. Significant elements of the caste system are seen in: a. The United States. b. Russia . c. South Africa. d. Cuba 5. Endogamous marriages facilitate: a. closed systems. b. open systems. c. democratic systems. d. polygamous systems.
  • 92. 6. Systems of social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement are referred to as a. Social differentiation. b. Caste systems. c. Class systems. d. Mobility systems. 7. What is the term for a system of social stratification based entirely on personal merit? a. Meritocracy b. Democracy c. Capitalism d. Status hierarchy 8. What is ideology? a. Cultural beliefs that justify social stratification b. Ideas that curtail the power of the wealthy c. Ideas that stem from scientific and philosophical inquiry d. A biased or slanted view of the world 9. In a class system, _____ becomes a sign of great talent and effort, while poverty is viewed as a result of _____. a. Power; lack of talent b. Prestige; weakness of will c. Status; bad luck d. Wealth; personal inadequacy 10.According to the Davis-Moore thesis, which of the following is TRUE? a. Equality is functional for society. b. World inequality results from the activities of global multinationals. c. The most valuable positions must yield sufficient rewards to attract the talent necessary to fill them. d. Stratification ultimately will be eliminated in the U.S., due to our meritocracy.
  • 93. In-class quiz (10 Q) 1. _ T/F Social stratification is a cultural universal phenomenon. 2. _ T/F Max Weber coined the term “life chance.” 3. __ According to Max Weber, life chance includes the following EXCEPT: a. the chance for education b. the chance for job c. the chance for health care d. the chance for the family 4. __ T/F Cultural capitals are about the financial pass-on within families. 5. __ T/F Most societies have the similar possibilities of social mobility.
  • 94. 6. __ T/F The US. offers better social mobility than the developing or underdeveloped countries. 7.__ T/F The stratification of the grade system is justifiable. 8.__ T/F The stratification of race is unjustifiable. 9.__ Which of the following is NOT a “Man-Made” inequality a. your grade b. your race c. your social class d. your sex/gender 10._ T/F Which of the following is a natural inequality? a. a tiger is more powerful than a lamb. b. racism. c. sexism. d. all sorts of prejudice, discrimination and genocide.
  • 95. In-class quiz (7 Q) 1. _ T/F People in a caste system mainly, are stratified by ascribed status. 2. _ In the 21st century, most societies are embedded with a. caste system b. class system c. estate system d. none of the above 3. __ T/F People in society are stratified based on multiple dimensions of inequality, such as race, ethnicity, sex, class, gender, education, income, wealth, nationality etc. 4. __ T/F Cultural capitals is about financial pass-on within families. 5. __ Most societies justify social stratification by a. social control b. norms c. technology d. ideology 6. __ T/F Davis- Moore supported social stratification, while Marvin Tumin did not agree. 7.__ T/F Compare a son/daughter’s social mobility to his/her parents’ is call intra-generational social mobility.
  • 96. 1.__Many of the low-priced products available for sale in the U.S. are produced through: a. Cheap U.S. laborers b. Illegal aliens c. McDonaldization d. Child labor 2.__ Modernization theory identifies _____ as the greatest barrier to economic development. a. Technology b. Social equality c. Social power d. Tradition 3.__According to Wallenstein, _____ nations are at the “core” of the world economy a. High-income b. Middle-income c. Low-income d. Socialist 4.__According to Wallenstein, _____ nations are at the periphery of the world economy. a. High-income b. Middle-income c. Low-income d. Socialist 5.__What is Wallenstein’s term for the middle-income countries of the world? a. Core b. Semi periphery c. Periphery d. Third World In-class quiz
  • 97. ___ Which type of slavery consists of one person owning another? a. Chattel slavery b. Child slavery c. Debt bondage d. Servile forms of marriage ___ Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts? a. Chattel slavery b. Child slavery c. Debt bondage d. Servile forms of marriage ___ What is the name for the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other countries? a. Colonialism b. Manifest destiny c. Neocolonialism d. Free trade ___ When a multinational corporation exploits a low-income country in order to create favorable economic conditions, the circumstance is referred to as: a. Economic exploitation b. Corporate slavery c. Neocolonialism d. International bondage ___ What is the term for the global form of international economic exploitation that does not involve direct political control but the operation of multinational corporations? a. Colonialism b. Manifest destiny c. Neocolonialism d. Free trade
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  • 102. Human cost of iphone