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Go Geospatial! GIS For Libraries


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Presented at 2008 Missouri Library Association Conference, St. Louis, MO.

Published in: Career, Technology, Education
  • Excellent presentation!!Brief but detailed in the same time.You touched and the 3 aspects of GIS in a library!
    I'll need your opinion!!!!!
    Ifigenia Vardakosta
    Head Librarian
    Library & Information Service
    Harokopio University of Athens
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Go Geospatial! GIS For Libraries

  1. 1. GO GEOSPATIAL! GIS REFERENCE SERVICES FOR ACADEMIC AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES Presented by Carol Smith, Assistant Professor of Library Services, James C. Kirkpatrick Library University of Central Missouri T
  2. 2. TITLE WHY ARE YOU ATTENDING THIS SESSION? ~NR RESPONSES ~PA1% A. I want to learn more about GIS A/1 ~PA2% B. I’m a geography, map or data librarian B/2 ~PA3% C. I keep getting GIS reference questions C/3 ~PA4% D. I just love maps! D/4 ~PA5% E. None of the above E/5 ~M1 ~M2 ~M3 ~M4 ~M5 ~M6 ~M7 ~M8 ~M9 ~M10 ~M11 ~M12 ~M13 ~M14 ~M15 ~M16 ~M17 ~M18 ~M19 ~M20 ~M21 ~M22 ~M23 ~M24 ~M25 ~M26 ~M27 ~M28 ~M29 ~M30
  3. 3. TITLE HAVE YOU EVER USED GIS BEFORE? ~NR RESPONSES ~PA1% A. No A/1 ~PA2% B. Yes, but only once / a handful of times B/2 ~PA3% C. I occasionally work with GIS C/3 ~PA4% D. My primary job involves daily D/4 work with GIS ~M1 ~M2 ~M3 ~M4 ~M5 ~M6 ~M7 ~M8 ~M9 ~M10 ~M11 ~M12 ~M13 ~M14 ~M15 ~M16 ~M17 ~M18 ~M19 ~M20 ~M21 ~M22 ~M23 ~M24 ~M25 ~M26 ~M27 ~M28 ~M29 ~M30
  4. 4. TITLE MY LIBRARY… ~NR RESPONSES ~PA1% A. Currently offers GIS services A/1 ~PA2% B. Is currently considering GIS services B/2 ~PA3% C. Got involved a bit with GIS, but let it slide… C/3 ~PA4% D. Has no current plans to work with GIS D/4 ~PA5% E. None of the above E/5 ~M1 ~M2 ~M3 ~M4 ~M5 ~M6 ~M7 ~M8 ~M9 ~M10 ~M11 ~M12 ~M13 ~M14 ~M15 ~M16 ~M17 ~M18 ~M19 ~M20 ~M21 ~M22 ~M23 ~M24 ~M25 ~M26 ~M27 ~M28 ~M29 ~M30
  5. 5. SESSION OVERVIEW 1. What is GIS? 2. GIS & Libraries 3. Challenges of Offering GIS Services 4. Overcoming the Hurdles 5. GIS at U. of Central MO 6. Recipes for GIS Service Models
  6. 6. 1. WHAT IS GIS? LINKS DATA TO LOCATION  Geographic Information System (GIS):  Links data with geographic location and present it visually  Let’s you display, explore, query and analyze spatially referenced data.  Supports identification and analysis of trends, patterns and relationships not easily spotted in textual data.  Helps solve complex problems that involve a geographic component. T
  7. 7. TABULAR DATA: SimplyMap screenshot
  8. 8. MAPPED DATA: SimplyMap screenshot
  9. 9. 1. WHAT IS GIS? GIS IS DYNAMIC  Change what appears/doesn’t appear  Customize how information displays.  Zoom to a specific feature  Access details about a particular map feature.  Query the database and see the results on a map.  Scale of data (detail level) increases as you zoom in.  Graphics update as underlying data is added or modified.
  10. 10. 1. WHAT IS GIS? GIS IS MULTIDISCIPLINARY!  Biology: Study the impact of construction plans on a watershed; analyze plant distribution and diversity.  Consumer: Locate ideal home locations based on school districts, shopping, parks, and other criteria.  Business: Forecast sales by store location; determine optimal retail store location; optimize delivery routes; analyze customer demographics.  Criminal Justice: map crime rates and types to identify patterns.  Fire fighting: predict spread of a forest fire using terrain and weather data. T
  11. 11. 2004: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION & TORNADOES Sinton & Lund (2007). Understanding place : GIS and mapping across the curriculum. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press. Page 27.
  12. 12. 1. WHAT IS GIS? SYSTEM COMPONENTS  Hardware  Computers, either standalone or networked  Servers for enterprise-level projects  Software  Database management system (DBMS)  Applications for data input and manipulation  Applications for data querying, analysis and visualization  Data  Can be collected independently, obtained from public sources or purchased commercially.  People  People ask the questions!  People analyze information!  People make decisions!  People solve problems!
  13. 13. 2. GIS & LIBRARIES WHY SHOULD LIBRARIES CARE?  One of the “20 Things Info Professionals Need to Keep Their Eyes On”.  Maps in digital format are more flexible and powerful.  Geospatial data and mapping services will increasingly replace traditional printed map repositories.  GIS is being rapidly integrated into web environments, and will be embedded in virtually every portable device.  Products like Google Earth, Google & Yahoo maps are popularizing GIS.  Things will become more user-friendly, but librarians must work with the technology now to stay relevant.
  14. 14. 2. GIS & LIBRARIES ROLE IN GIS SERVICES  Acquisition, organization, access and archiving of geospatial data.  Supports the primary mission of libraries  Development of appropriate policies for collection development.  Role to preserve geospatial data  GIS training, workshops  GIS reference services, research consultations  Neutral territory for GIS research and education
  15. 15. 2. GIS & LIBRARIES IMPLEMENTATION SURVEYS  103 academic libraries in Oregon (2006):  31/103 (30%): some degree of GIS services  15/103 (15%): actively considering GIS  57/103 (55%): no GIS plans - Gabaldon & Reppling (2006)  138 smaller academic libraries (2005)  22/138 (13%): some degree of GIS services  27/138 (16%): intention to offer GIS  89/138 (64%): no GIS plans  - Kinikin & Hench (2005)
  16. 16. 3. CHALLENGES OF GIS SERVICES WHY DON’T MORE OFFER IT?  Hurdles include:  Steep learning curve for librarians  Challenges of training users  Significant effort required to launch GIS services  GIS reference consultations are typically longer, more complex and technical than traditional reference questions  Struggle to attract users  Lack of funding
  17. 17. 4. . OVERCOMING THE HURDLES LIBRARIAN TRAINING  Model 1: A set of focused electives within an LIS program that lead to a GIS specialization.  Model 2: Dual master’s degrees in both LIS and GIS/Geography  Model 3: An LIS degree and a master’s level certificate in GIS - Wiemar & Reehling (2006)
  18. 18. 4. . OVERCOMING THE HURDLES THE TRAINED GIS LIBRARIAN Understands:  GIS concepts  GIS data structures and models  GIS analysis and manipulation techniques  Computers and databases  Geospatial data sources  Understands cartographic metadata
  19. 19. 5. GIS SERVICES AT UCM KIRKPATRICK LIBRARY 1. GIS software   2005: 15-seat ESRI ArcGIS license  2007: 10-seat ArcGIS license & Business Analyst  2008: Campus site license 2. Dedicated hardware  GIS workstations   GIS-enabled classrooms for teaching 3. Trained librarian 
  20. 20. 5. GIS SERVICES AT UCM KIRKPATRICK LIBRARY 4. Services  Technical assistance for users    Workshops  Library web pages for GIS resources    Marketing efforts ~  Formal reference services 5. Geospatial Data  6. Next Steps  Formal reference/consultation services  Spatial data repository  GIS user group
  22. 22. 6. GIS REFERENCE SERVICE MODELS PLANNING PHASE 1. Establish service goals • Basic mapping only? • Analysis and research services? 2. Identify user needs and interests  Likely questions  Data needs – regional? National?  Delivery mode? 3. Determine funding level 4. Secure hardware, software and data 5. Obtain librarian training 6. Plan services, marketing, workshops
  23. 23. 6. GIS REFERENCE MODELS RECIPE #1: LOW-COST “ENTRY MODEL” 1. Hardware  Single dedicated computer  See 2. Software  Open-source solution (next slide) 3. Data  Free U.S.G.S., U.S. Census Bureau and state-level data 4. People  Self-trained librarian with interest and technical savvy 5. Services  Reference support limited to simple queries and mapping requests  Zero to limited user training  Perhaps some workshops on Google Earth and Google Map hacks and mashups
  24. 24. GIS SOFTWARE - FREE/OPEN SOURCE  GIS applications  GRASS  MapServer  MapWindow  Quantum GIS  OSSIM  Others  Data viewers  ESRI ArcExplorer  TIGER Map Server  GoogleEarth, Google Maps, more
  25. 25. 6. GIS REFERENCE MODELS RECIPE #2 MODERATE COST MODEL 1. Hardware  One or more dedicated computers, perhaps GPS unit 2. Software  Moderately priced solution, such as:  SimplyMap  Business Decision or Business Decision Academic  Single license ESRI ArcGIS 3. Data  Free U.S. Census Bureau data and state-level data  Perhaps some acquired datasets. 4. People  Part-time GIS librarian, some formal training 5. Services  Reference services for basic queries  Offer workshops in use of the selected GIS application.
  26. 26. 4. OFFERING GIS SERVICES RECIPE #3: THE FULL KAHUNA ($$$) 1. Hardware  Dedicated GIS lab 2. Software  ESRI ArcGIS – lab kit (multiple licenses) or site license 3. Data  Extensive geospatial data repository  Data acquisition on demand 4. People  Dedicated, trained GIS librarian 5. Services  In-depth GIS reference consultation service  GIS analyis and mapping service  Suite of GIS training courses  GIS user group
  27. 27. WHAT IS ARCGIS DESKTOP?  A commercial suite of related, interacting applications for performing spatial analysis.  Produced by ESRI (  Three primary applications:  ArcMap – for creating, editing and publishing maps that display data  ArcCatalog – for managing data sets  ArcToolbox – “functions for geoprocessing tasks  Specialized applications  Specialized extension modules (Business Analyst; Military Analyst, Network Analyst, Spatial Analyst, etc.)
  28. 28. ARCGIS DESKTOP “FLAVORS”  ArcGIS Desktop is available in 3 levels of increasing functionality:  ArcView – Comprehensive mapping and analysis; simple editing and geoprocessing tools.  ArcEditor – Adds advanced editing capabilities.  ArcInfo – Supports advanced geoprocessing
  29. 29. 2004: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION & TORNADOES ONE LAST CLICKER QUESTION… Sinton & Lund (2007). Understanding place : GIS and mapping across the curriculum. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press. Page 27.
  30. 30. TITLE 2004: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION & TORNADOES ~NR RESPONSES ~PA1% A. Democrats avoid tornado territory. A/1 ~PA2% B. Tornadoes seek out Republicans. B/2 ~PA3% C. Tornadoes avoid Democrats . C/3 ~PA4% D. Republicans like tornadoes. D/4 ~PA5% E. None of the above E/5 ~M1 ~M2 ~M3 ~M4 ~M5 ~M6 ~M7 ~M8 ~M9 ~M10 ~M11 ~M12 ~M13 ~M14 ~M15 ~M16 ~M17 ~M18 ~M19 ~M20 ~M21 ~M22 ~M23 ~M24 ~M25 ~M26 ~M27 ~M28 ~M29 ~M30
  31. 31. WRAPUP  GIS has a steep learning curve, but a rich payoff  Powerful research tool  Rapidly integrating into daily life  GIS also has direct applications for librarianship:  Locating a new library  Mapping book use and traffic flow patterns  Adding dynamic visualization to library catalogs  LibraryDecision SnapShot:
  32. 32. REFERENCES Abram, S. (2008). 20 things information professionals need to keep their eyes on. Information Outlook, 12(3), 39-41. Sinton, D. S. & Lund, J. J. (2007). Understanding place : GIS and mapping across the curriculum. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press. Boss, R.W. (2006). Geographic Information Systems [online paper]. Retrieved September 10, 2008 from Additional sources listed on Recommended Readings handout.