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Subsequent upon a training and workshop on responding to child protection in emergency, organized by UNICEF in conjunction with Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, Anambra State, a team was selected to perform a child protection rapid assessment in Atani community situated in Ogbaru LGA, Anambra. The team embarked on the assignment and converged in the second phase of the Workshop to present their findings and recommendations.

This report is intended to facilitate response to highlighted child protection issues and concerns.
However, the views and opinions in this report may not necessarily reflect those of UNICEF and Save the Children.

See content of the report for Acknowledgements.

Disclaimer: This report is not the product an individual but a compendium of the team members that carried out the assessment and it reflects the issues/concern of only one community (Atani) in Anambra State.
However, more assessment is recommended to ascertain what is obtainable in Anambra State as a whole.

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  1. 1. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 1 `
  2. 2. ContentsAcknowledgementAcronymsIntroduction and BackgroundExecutive SummaryMethodology  Process Management  Risk Assessment and Team Members Security  Data Confidentiality  Planning / Coordination Meeting  Result Dissemination  Data Collection and Information Management.Data Capture Method and Process  Sampling  Direct Observation  Focus Group Discussion  Key informant interviews  Focus Group Discussions and Activity with Children  Data analysis and Software(s) used.Data Analysis and InterpretationLimitations and ChallengesKey Findings and Recommendations a. PROTECTION b. COMMUNITY c. EDUCATION d. FOOD SECURITY e. HEALTH f. NUTRITION g. SHELTER h. WASHAPPENDIX Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 2 `
  3. 3. Acknowledgements.The Child Protection Network of Anambra State sincerely appreciates UNICEF for providingthe necessary technical support for this Child Protection Rapid Assessment. This experiencehas further strengthened the network in the area of Child Protection in Emergency.Appreciations also go to Save the Children for its role in the Child Protection in Emergency(CPiE) trainings, especially the consultants from UNICEF and Save the Children.Our sincere appreciations go to the Team members for their immense contributions and effortwithout which this work would not have being a success. We are particularly grateful to theanalysis team for compiling this report on behalf of the CPN Anambra State.The views and opinions in this report do not necessarily reflect those of UNICEF and Save theChildren. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 3 `
  4. 4. Acronyms.CP – Child ProtectionCPN - Child Protection NetworkCPRA – Child Protection Rapid AssessmentNEMA – National Emergency Management AgencySC – Save the ChildrenHH – HouseholdCDC – Community Development CommitteeCRA – Childs Rights ActLLITN – Long Lasting Insecticide Treated NetsFGD – Focus group discussionKII – Key Informant InterviewHCT – HIV Counselling and TestingHIV – Human Immunodeficiency VirusSEMA - State Emergency Management AgencyANSG- Anambra State GovernmentUNICEF – United Nations Children FundIDPs – Internally Displaced personsSAR- Search And RescueLGAs – Local Government AreasCPiE – Child Protection in Emergencies.PG- President General Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 4 `
  5. 5. Introduction and Background.In the later part of 2012, between the months of July and September, the nation faced anunprecedented flood disaster which resulted to loss of lives and property running into billionsof Naira. Several states were affected of which Anambra was one of the most affected States.The disaster affected eight local government areas, with Anambra West and Ogbaru LGAsworst hit. According to the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), 10000 homeswere fully or partially submerged by the flood with reported cases of death. Leading industriesin South of the Onitsha Metropolis were also affected by the flooding resulting to destructionin socio-economic activities.ANSG in collaboration with the Nigerian Army and Navy carried out search and rescue(SAR) missions to evacuate stranded persons. The flooding resulted to IDPs being hosted infifteen (15) IDP camps, namely, Sharon House, Bishop Crowder School, the Army Barracks,New Bethel Primary School, and Onitsha-South LGA premises in Onitsha; Health CentreUmueje, Community Primary School Igbakwu, the Skills Acquisition Centre Anaku, inAyamelum LGA; St. Augustine Catholic Church and Unity Primary School Umuoba Anam;General Hospital Umuleri, and St Joseph Secondary School, Aguleri, all in Otuocha andSchools in Ossomala, Atani and St. Gregory Church Odekpe in the Ogbaru LGA.So far, SEMA, and its Federal counterpart, NEMA, as well as UNICEF have conducted needsassessment missions especially in Anambra East and West Local Government Areas.However, little or no emphasis has been made on the impact of this disaster on children inaffected communities. This fact informed UNICEF’s participation in child protectionprogrammes with partnership/ support from SC UK in March 2013. The outcome of this wasto facilitate CPiE training for child protection network members, partners and actors inAnambra State. This training was done in collaboration with Ministry of Women Affairs andSocial Development, Anambra. It was designed to be in two phases with Rapid Assessmenttasks in between.Subsequent upon the training and workshop on responding to child protection in emergency, ateam was selected to perform a child protection rapid assessment in Atani community situatedin Ogbaru LGA, Anambra. The team embarked on the assignment and converged in thesecond phase to present their findings and recommendations. This is the basis for this report. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 5 `
  6. 6. Executive Summary.The flood disaster in Anambra State affected eight local government areas, with AnambraWest and Ogbaru LGAs worst hit. This flood disaster paralyzed economic activities, createdsocial turbulence, and rendered people homeless. Incidence of unemployment, psychologicallytrauma, sickness, hunger and poverty have increased. Children were largely affected, as therewere reported cases of deaths, sexual violence and missing children.This report is based on the Child Protection Rapid Assessment (CPRA) conducted in the Atanicommunity in Ogbaru LGA. The assessment was more of a retrospective study/ survey usingopinion sampling of participants in the community who either witnessed the disaster or residedin the camps among other criteria. Sampled participants were code named ‘Site’ comprising ofdifferent groups of persons including boys, girls, adult male and female with key emphasis onchildren. The essence of code names was for easy reference to the various groups and activitiescarried out in the field during the survey. In total, nine (9) sites were used in conducting theassessment. They are: site 1 referred to as Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with the women;Site 2 as FGD with men; site 3 as FGD with girls; site 4 as FGD with boys; site 5 as KeyInformant interview with community women leader; site 6 as Key Informant interview with acommunity member; site 7 as key informant interview with male Community leader (presidentgeneral); site 8 as key informant interview with a religious leader and site 9 as activity withchildren.The CPRA also involved the use of several assessment tools to allow for triangulation acrossthe different type of tools and sampled group (sites). These tools were guidelines on the KeyInformant Interviews, Focus Group Discussion, Observation and activity with Children whichwas spread across Men, Youths, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, community Leaders, religiousleader, and ChildrenAt the end of the CPRA data were analyzed using a Child Protection Data Analysis Template,Service Provider Capacity Map, Institutional Care Capacity Map, CPRA InformationConsolidation Sheet and the Community Map. Also employed were statistical analysis tools toquantify the rate/ severity of child protection issues observed. During the analysis, it wasobserved that key issues and challenges raised were identifiable across most of the sites.Based on the opinion sampling during the CPRA, 77.8% of the sites said there was sexualabuse by children below 15 years. It is as a common practice in the community to find children Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 6 `
  7. 7. between the ages of eight years and 15 years engaging in sexual relationship, this inturn leadsto high rate of child pregnancy which 88.9% of the sites agreed to. The combined effect ofsexual abuse and child pregnancy results to child marriage which was concurred to by 77.8%of the sites. 44.4% of the sites said that cultism exists among boys and girls between the ages of12 and 20 years. Drug / substance abuse was reported by 55.6% of the sites which was amongthe reasons for cultism. Invariably, the issue of cultism, thugs and drug/substance abuse wereintertwined. Directly observed on the community were hunger and food insecurity. Povertywas a contributing factor inferred from 88.8% of the sites. 22.2% of the sites agreed to childlabour. The same was applicable to rape which 22.2% of the sites agreed on. Other key clusterindicators used aside Child protection was: Shelter, Health, Education, Nutrition, foodsecurity, community restoration and WASH. The findings are discussed in this report. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 7 `
  8. 8. Recommendations: - Advocacy on child protection issues should be carried out to relevant authorities such as: the council of elders, vigilante, religious leaders, police, school management (principals/head teachers etc.), in the community. - There should be collaborations with relevant agencies, referrals and linkages to facilitate prompt response to child protection issues in the community. - Provision of qualified medical personnel to man existing health care centre/hospital to offer health services for people in the community especially children. - Employment of resident qualified teachers and provision of educational materials for schools in the community. - Skill acquisition training and provision of job opportunities for youths to minimize idleness which is the reason for negative vices in the community. - Re-orientation and counselling of children and youths on the dangers and implication of certain issues considered as common practice in the community (eg. Drug abuse, involving in early sexual relationship, cultism and thug). - Construction of drainage systems in the communities to avert incidence of flash floods during heavy downpour. - Proper organisation and streamlining of intervention measures (especially food aid and money) to avoid hijack by select group of people/ thugs. - In future CPRA, it is necessary to make provision for incentives for the audience, no matter how small. - Fumigation and spraying of outdoor residual spray against mosquitoes and other dangerous predators (like snake, scorpions etc). - Construction of makeshift camps during period of flooding/ emergencies that will accommodate children, youths and adults. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 8 `
  9. 9. MethodologyThe tools used during the Rapid Assessment were adopted from the training manual issuedduring the workshop/training on child protection in emergencies for CPN partners andrelevant actors in Anambra State. The tools were studied, revised and modified wherenecessary by members of the team in their coordination meeting prior to the assessment in thefield (community). The team also made reference to similar assessment done by the CPN inRivers State, Nigeria.Process Management.The entire member of group 1 selected after the training workshop held in Awka, AnambraState participated in the assessment (CPRA). Materials and other reference tools obtained fromUNICEF consultants during the training provided necessary technical guidance during theprocess.The team endeavoured to adhere to their work plan which was drafted towards the end oftraining. After the training, a comprehensive coordination meeting was organised and attendedby team members to discuss and deliberate on the modalities and intricacies for the process.During the coordination meeting, the team took time to remind themselves of the ethicalconsiderations to be made during the CPRA bearing in mind that it is a snapshot of urgentchild protection related needs among the affected population in the proposed community(Atani) within the immediate post-emergency context as well as a stepping-stone for a morecomprehensive process of assessing the impacts of the emergency.The group selected a team leader capable of leading the team during the period of assessmentand analysis. Team members were further divided and vested with different task/ roles priorto the assessment day. A member of the team who was conversant with the community wasassigned to disseminate information and inform the President General of the community onthe intended assessment; explanation and briefing of the PG on the essence of CPRA in thecommunity was one of the entry points of the team. During the allocation of responsibility/activity, members were divided such that there were interviewers and note takers for thedifferent groups (like focus group discussion, Key informant interview etc.) of participants inthe community to be sampled. Observation was the responsibility of every team member.However, eleven (11) persons from the group formed the crux of team during the assessment inthe field. Others were responsible for analysing the data obtained from the field. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 9 `
  10. 10. The group embarked on its proposed field work according to its action plan based on thecoordination meeting held on 26th march 2013. The visit to the community was done on 2ndApril 2013. Prior to the visit, the person in charge of mobilizing participants from thecommunity was contacted to ensure that all arrangements were in place.Risk Assessment and Team Members’ Security.During the coordination meeting, each team member used the risk analysis template to analyseindividual risks and collective risk so as to ensure security of the team members during theassessment, especially risks pertaining to the community and children.Also, the team spent time to review the common practice and culture of the community to bevisited. This gave background information which helped in deciding the mode of dressing,greeting and other code of conduct to be put into consideration. The team kept close contactwith the President General of the community, and had him organize the introductory meetingwith his cabinet before gaining access to the people in the community. The team had earlierdecided not to take pictures without informed consent. Another agreed safety precaution wasthat all team members would not accept any form of entertainment from the community.Data ConfidentialityTo ensure data confidentiality during the assessment, the team decided to use codes for thelocation and persons interviewed. These codes were only known to the team members. Also, ateam member was designated to handle all materials from the field, in the event of a possibleattack. It was also agreed that no team member will patronize any eatery or drinking place(Joints) within the community.Planning/Coordination Meeting.All 14 members of the team were participants at the CPiE training/ workshop in Awka, butorganized a coordination meeting to plan for the assessment and do a refresher on a couple ofvital areas, especially data analysis, risk analysis, do’s and don’t’s of KII’s and FGD’s. The DONO HARM principle was also discussed within the context of the community to be visited.Other things discussed were modalities for data collection, analysis & management,number/groups of persons to be interviewed, questions/questionnaires to be used, ethicalconsiderations, assessment tools to be used, how to handle bias in the field and triangulateinformation obtained. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 10 `
  11. 11. Result Dissemination.It was discussed and agreed by the team that the results of the findings and analysis would becollated by selected persons from the team. This was communicated with the entire CPNpartners and UNICEF consultants in the 2nd phase of the CPiE training / workshop in Awka.Other relevant CPN partners and authorities were also briefed on the findings for properimplementation / intervention where necessary.Data Collection and Information ManagementOur methods of data collection started with sampling selected groups of people from thecommunity that turned out for the exercise after the sensitization by the President General.There was huge turn up of people in the community due to misinformation; they had thenotion that the team came for an intervention programme that involves disbursement of aid(food and money). They were clarified on the essence and importance of the assessment. Ourmethod of opinion sampling from the selected persons was more of retrospective based ontheir experience and knowledge of child protection concerns and issues that arose before,during and after the flood incidence that affected the community with emphasis on the eventsand activities that occurred during the flood incidence as it constituted a major emergencysituation. Other unit of measurement and assessment was based on the community’s capacityto handle child protection issues, the community mechanism and approach to handle suchissues. This was done with reference to certain tools such as service provider’s capacity map,institutional care capacity map and CP rapid assessment information consolidation sheet. Thekey cluster indicators used were Child protection, Shelter, Health, Education, Nutrition, Foodsecurity, Community restoration and WASH. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 11 `
  12. 12. Data Capture Method and ProcessingSamplingThe venue for the activity was Central Primary School, Atani because it was a popularconverging point for the community during emergency. All the participants from thecommunity assembled at the venue after which a few were selected and divided into differentgroups as stipulated by the methodology/ working plan for the team. They were briefed on themodalities and intricacies of the assessment. The sampling modalities for the rapid assessmentagreed by the team were: 1. Focal Group Discussion with four (4) groups in the community. The groups include: i. Women group comprising 10 persons ii. Men group comprising 10 persons iii. Youth group (boys) comprising 5 persons and iv. Youth group (girls) comprising 5 person 2. Group activities with a group of 20 children whose parent gave consent to participate. 3. with 4 key informants comprising : i. An interview with a man who can speak on behalf of the community ii. A woman who can speak on behalf of the community iii. A religious leader who has been working with children iv. Another woman who has been working with children who can give us information as it relates to children. 4. An interview with any other person(s) (such as Health worker, member of the village vigilante, youth leader, and philanthropist) in the community that could be of help in providing information relating to child protection issues in the community.Direct ObservationSince the CPRA was a snapshot exercise, the team was less emphatic on visual inspectionsfrom opinions and information garnered from the interviews and group discussion held withthe participants in the community. However, for the purpose of triangulation, it was pertinentthat the team visited the only orphanage/ Motherless babies home which took care of orphansand vulnerable children in the community. It is owned by the Catholic Missionary managed bythe Rev. Sisters. Also visited was a government owned health care facility. The reason for thevisit was to obtain key informants that could help the team understand more on the physical, Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 12 `
  13. 13. economic, cultural and social aspects of the flood disaster (especially child protection issuesevident in the community). This invariable served as a form of secondary data valuation on thelevel of vulnerability and needs which verify the statements of other key informants and focusgroups.Bias and Confounding Issues.Bearing in mind the inherence of bias in every human, the assessment team paid attention tothis and was careful/ skilful in probing the sampled participants so as to minimize and handleconfounding issues and source of conflict (with emphasis on value based conflict). Our findingsand observations during the rapid assessment were based on different levels of interaction withthe participants interviewed in accordance with the modalities agreed by the team members.Ethical considerations were adhered to. The information and response gotten weretriangulated to ensure that they were reliable and reflected the ideal situation/ issues in thecommunity. However, we deemed it necessary to highlight some of the bias peculiar to eachgroup during the assessment.  FGD with Women: They were not open enough or conversant with issues affecting the children. They were rather concerned with welfare and Health intervention  FGD with Men: Although they were more open and factual to the issues concerning children in the community prior and after the flood. Their bias was based on political issues and Infrastructure development (eg schools and relief camps)  FGD with Youth: They were conversant with issues affecting them and their opinion reflected what was obtainable among children and youth in the community. However, there were confounding issues and concern among the genders (boys and girls).  Key Informant Interviews: The key informants were also good source of information but they were only knowledgeable of those issues or scenarios they were conversant with. This was based on their discretion.  Activities with Children: Because of the poor educational background of the children, they were not capable of engaging in simulating activities like drawing expression and writing. They rather reflected what they were told by their parents.Key informant interviewsThe assessment teams selected the key informants using the criteria agreed upon during thePlanning/ coordination meeting which took place before field visit commenced. We agreed oninterviewing the PG of the community or his assistant, a clergy or religious leader, a youth Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 13 `
  14. 14. leader, a member of the vigilante group in the community, as well as any other influentialperson or alien knowledgeable of child protection issues in the community. They were alsoexpected to have had a first-hand experience in the camp or place of refuge for the communityduring the flood disaster, someone who resides in the community and had remained in thecommunity during the flood or a farmer. Our questions were largely semi structured, but whenthe question became structured due to the information required on the checklist, we askedopen ended questions.Focus Group Discussions and Activity with ChildrenThe assessment team selected members of FGDs based on gender characteristics,socioeconomic characteristics and age group characteristics. Attention was given to the venueand sitting arrangement of the group so as to ensure maximum participation and good rapportamong everybody involved.FGDs involving children (Activities with children) were quite creative, and caught theadmiration of parents and other participants, although there was caution to avoid distraction ofthe children. The team had purchased toys, playcards, writing materials and drawing tools forthe children. The FGD with children also involved the use of peer-wise ranking.Data Analysis Softwares Used.Maps, tables and Graphs for analysis were done using data analysis and application soft wareswhich include: DevInfo 6.0, SPSS version 15 and MS-Excel 2010. There were members of theteam that were experienced and conversant with these applications. They were indeed aresource to the team. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 14 `
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  19. 19. Analysis and Interpretation.Analysis and interpretation of data was carried out at various levels. Team members werefurther sub divided into teams of three’s. Each team was given the task to analyse data basedon key clusters. The analysis at this level was further deliberated and streamlined in a plenaryto triangulate information based on direct observation. The final analysis was facilitated by thestatistical / software persons in the team and team member(s) that had been selected for thistask. Map of Anambra State showing the Assessed Community. Atani Community Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 19 `
  20. 20. Limitations and Challenges.The limitations and obstacles encountered by the team during the CPRA are as follows:  Mobilization was inadequate and not stream lined prior to our visit.  Mis-interpretation of the objective for the visit. The community thought that the team came for an intervention.  Insufficient logistics and resource on the part of the team to handle the crowd that turned up for the assessment.  Activity with children wasn’t efficient as planned due to insufficient skills of the assessors.  At a point in time there was no proper communication among the team due to the overwhelming crowd that turned up. Initially, there was no plan to share anything for the populace but in order to forestall further misunderstanding and aggressiveness from the populace that turned up, the team decided to share incentives (biscuits and juice) to some of them.  The analysis tool made little provision for certain information on certain issues and findings in the community. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 20 `
  21. 21. Key findings and Recommendations.A. PROTECTION.Based on the team’s findings, the key protection concerns were sexual abuse, sexual violence(rape), child pregnancy, child marriage, cultism and substance/drug abuse, children involvedin stealing, child labour. The factors that increased the vulnerability of children to theseprotection concerns were: idleness, unemployment, poverty, high rate of school dropout, questfor power and money, ignorance of the existence of CRA,Key Finding.Based on the opinion sampling during the CPRA, 77.8% of the sites said there was sexualabuse by children below 15 years. In the community, it is a common practice for childrenbetween the ages of eight (8) and eighteen (18) years to engage in sexual relationship, this inturn leads to high rate of child pregnancy which 88.9% of the sites agreed to (see table 2). Thecombined effect of sexual abuse and child pregnancy results to child marriage which wasconcurred to by 77.8% of the sites. The reason for the high prevalence of child marriage in thecommunity was because the one of the mechanisms in which the issue of child pregnancy washandled is to send the pregnant child to the family of the boy or man that impregnated the girl.44.4% of the sites said that cultism exists among boys and girls between the ages of 13 and 20years. Their reason for this included idleness, unemployment, school dropout, quest for powerand money among the children and youths. Drug / substance abuse was reported by 55.6% ofthe sites which was also due to the reasons for cultism. Invariably, the issue of cultism, thugsand drug/substance abuse were intertwined. Due to poverty and inadequate educational staff(qualified resident teacher), there is high rate of school drop outs. This was said by 88.8% ofthe participants.Child labour was not common in the community because according to the sites, it wasprohibited for children to hawk or engage in child labour in the community. Only 22.2% of thesites agreed to child labour. The same was applicable to rape which 22.2% of the sites agreedon. The team inferred that since young girls are involved in sexual relationship and willconsent to sex without force, there was little or no sexual violence and rape. According to S1,where such cases were reported, the community mechanism to handle such issue was byflogging / public disgrace and payment of fine (#30,000) by the culprit. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 21 `
  22. 22. Observations.Aside the interview with the different sites to ascertain child protection concerns, the teammade some observations in the populace during the CPRA. They are:  2 pregnant children  2 children hawking (a boy and a girl)  1 mentally challenged child (girl)  1 physically challenged child (boy)However, some of the perceived factors that contribute to protection concerns include:  Poverty  Negligence of responsibility on the parents and caregivers of the children  Neglect on the community to properly handle child protection issues.Recommendations - Skills acquisition should be provided for youths (boys and girls inclusive) in the community to keep them busy and prevent them from engaging in cultism, drug/substance abuse, thugs, theft, sexual relationships and other vices. Any skills acquisition centre or programme should be done and owned by the community for easy accessibility and participation. - Qualified teachers who are resident in the community should be employed or posted to schools (both primary and secondary) in the community. Same is applicable to health care institutions (hospitals and maternity). - Psychosocial support for children raped and sexually violated children. - Counselling and sensitization on CP and CRA for children, parents and other care givers should be carried out. Youths and children should be counselled on the implications of early sexual relationships. - The community should be empowered through capacity building to effectively handle child protection issues in emergencies. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 22 `
  23. 23. Child Protection Issues/ Concerns Identified in Atani Community Children without Primary care givers 4% Rape 4% Child Pregnancy Educational 17% Concerns (school drop out) 17% Sexual Abuse 15% Health Concerns (sickness, diseases & Child Marriage infections) 11% 19% Cultism/ Gang/thugs 9% Child Labour 4%Figure 1 Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 23 `
  24. 24. B. COMMUNITY RESTORATION.During the flood disaster, the crop produce and farmland of the community were washedaway. The impact was also felt on their livestock, shelter, socio-economic life, environment,properties and infrastructureFindings88.9% of the sites said intervention measures and relief materials distributed after the floodmade little or no impact to ameliorate their situation. Thus, there is still need for communityrestoration based on the impact of the flood on the lives, livelihood, livestock, shelter, socio-economic life, environment and properties. Most of their residential houses and infrastructureswere affected. Some standing are on the verge of collapse. Some of their source of water is stillcontaminated. Existing drainages are blocked. This poses threat of epidemic / outbreak ofinfectious diseases in the community. This was said by 77.8% of the sites.Recommendation - Unblocking and construction of more drainage systems in the communities. - The community should be fumigated and sprayed with outdoor residual spray. - Provision of agricultural aid (improved seedlings, fertilizers and tools) to farmers. - Financial aid should be provided for reconstruction of houses and other infrastructures affected during the flood. - Economic strengthening will be needed, especially by households that were most impacted. - Provision of upland location /land that will serve for construction of makeshift camps during period of flooding/emergencies.C. EDUCATIONDuring the flood disaster, schools (Primary and secondary) were closed down either due toactual flooding or because they could be used as make shift camps for IDPs. Some of theeducational infrastructures destroyed were books, desks, chairs etc. This made it difficult forthe pupils/ students to reintegrate effectively to the schools when they resumed after the flood.One of the functional school and its infrastructure was defaced and over stretched. It is yet tobe repaired / re-constructed Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 24 `
  25. 25. Findings100 % of the sites agreed that the educational standard prior to the flood was not good enoughand the case was worsened after the flood. 80% of schools in the community were used astemporary camp during the onset of flood before affected populace in the community weremoved to camps for IDPs in other communities not affected. These schools couldn’t be usedimmediately to commence educational activities for children after the flood. 60% ofeducational infrastructures were affected by the flood. It is also pertinent to note that majorityof the teachers (up to 65% ) teaching in the schools are not residing in the community or closeto the schools. This made teaching activities epileptic in the communities because students areonly taught when the teachers came to school which is often difficult for them especially afterthe flood. 70% of sites 1 and 2 said that children lost their books and school materials duringthe flood 10% of them claimed to be able to replace them after the flood. Child friendlyservices or infrastructures (like crèche, playgrounds and parks) were scarcely available beforethe flood. However, 90% of sites 1 and 2 wished schools were fully functional to meet theirstandard educational requirements.Recommendations - Free educational materials should be given to children. - Schools severely affected during the flood should be re-constructed and fortified with necessary infrastructures/ amenities. - Massive WASH intervention should be carried out in schools that were used as temporary camps for IDPs in the community - Child friendly interventions should be introduced to schools in the community for the purpose of helping children heal from the psychological trauma caused by the disaster, especially as there was no report of a Child friendly space in makeshift camps. - Teachers should be encouraged to live in close proximity to the schools in the community so that they can be constant in their teaching duties. - Educational infrastructure should be donated to the schools to replace those destroyed during the flood. - Alternative shelter / makeshift camps should be built to avoid using schools/ classrooms as makeshift camps. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 25 `
  26. 26. D. FOOD SECURITYThe flood incidence in the community washed away farm lands and destroyed cash crops. Thisaffected the sources of livelihood for major households because they were dependent ofproceedings from their livestock and food stock which were loss during the flood. Few weresalvaged which couldn’t meet the needs of the community after the flood.FindingsBased on our assessment, 88.9% of the sites interviewed revealed that food security was aserious concern after the flood because the flood wrecked their agricultural produced in thefarmland and in storage. This proportionally affected their source of livelihood too as most ofthe people in the community didn’t have income to buy food. Where available, the cost of foodwas outrageous. 85% of site 9 complained of not feeding well after the flood which had a directimpact on their health. 70% of Site1 said most women lost their cooking utensils during theprocess of salvaging their properties from the flood. 66.7% of the Sites alleged that the relievematerials (food aid) wasn’t enough or distributed properly; they were hijacked or siphoned bycertain groups of peoples.Recommendations - Agricultural intervention should be carried out; subsidies on farm inputs for farmers should be given to farmers. This can be achieved through formation of community cooperative societies. - Cooking utensils should be provided for the families. - Proper and fortified storage facility should be provided to store collective farm produce for the community. - Provision of food stock should be a major priority. - Proper logistics should be created to facilitate proper distribution of food aid. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 26 `
  27. 27. E. HEALTHHealth concern was one of the major issues during the flood disaster. There were reportedcases of loss of lives, which were largely health related. Although there was health centre, therewere no medical personnel on ground to offer services except for volunteers that offered firstaid to ill persons in the community. Outbreaks reported were malaria and cholera.Findings100% of the sites indicated that health of the people in the community was threatened as manyof them fell ill during and after the flood. Some even died to due to inability to accessimmediate health care services. Also, it was alleged anybody who had direct contact with theflood water (by walking or swimming) had serious skin reactions and pruritis. Health centres/institutions had 33.3% capacity to handle health related issues in the community during theflood. Health services further declined after the flood. This was a risk of post-disaster diseaseoutbreak or epidemic resurgence.Recommendations - Health care facilities in the communities should be provided with medicines/ drugs to treat cases of basic health issues in an event of a possible health emergency. - More Primary Health Care centres should be provided with qualified staff to render clinical / health services for people in the community especially children. - In the absence of community health workers, health workers in the nearby towns/communities should be placed on alert. - Children should be de-wormed with anthelminthic drugs to forestall outbreak or transmission of gastrointestinal infections. - Surrounding of houses should be sprayed with residual insecticide against mosquitoes. LLITN should also be provided/ distributed to manage a possible outbreak of malaria in the communities - Medical personnel and Community health workers should be deployed to the communities. - Due to the high incidence of sexual abuse and sexual relationships, HCT and related services should be provided for children and youths in the community especially during emergencies such as the flood incidence. - Drug aid should be provided for the community. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 27 `
  28. 28. F. NUTRITIONThe flood disaster affected the nutrition pattern of people in the community. 85% of childrensite9 discussed with confirmed that they had little or nothing to eat sometimes during the flood.FindingsFrom our finding, 88.9% of the sites said households were unable to get 2 meals in a day letalone 3 meals. 100% of site 1 and site 3 confirmed that there were no provisions (such as infantformula donation or powdered milk) made for babies/infants during the flood. Albeit therewas an orphanage that offered nutritional supplements for infant babies they were unable tocarter for a quarter of the babies during the flood because there was limited resources for them.there was 15% change in breast feeding patterns and 35% of breast feeding mothers reportedcases diarrhoea related to change in nutrition patterns of the mothers. There was indeed threatof nutritional emergency during flood. This was evident as there were signs of malnourishmentin some of the children after the flood in the community.Recommendations - Nutrition interventions should be carried in the community especially through available institution(s) for children/ babies. - Infant formula/ baby milk should be donated to nursing mothers - Nutritional supplements should also be given to severely affected children who are showing signs of malnourishment in the community.G. SHELTERAmong the major impact of the flood disaster was the destruction of household properties andshelter. This had more effect on houses built with woods (Bacha) and mud especially at theriver banks. Shelter for affected people in the community was an issue as majority of thecommunity had to seek refuge in other communities thus increasing their vulnerability.FindingsFrom our findings, 66.6% of the sites reported that houses were damaged and destroyed duringthe flood. There were no segregated makeshift camps/ shelter for people affected during thecamp. Men, women and children virtually shared the same classrooms in schools that were Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 28 `
  29. 29. used as temporary shelter before they were moved to camps outside the community. 40% ofsite 2 indicated that some households are still in need of shelter after the flood because theirhouses were still destroyed by the flood and yet to be repaired or rebuilt.Recommendations - Relief items like matrasses, beddings and mats should be provided for households whose items were destroyed during the flood. - Emergency shelters should be provided for vulnerable households especially those whose houses were destroyed by the flood. - For future, such emergency shelters should be built for the different sexes (males and females).H. WASH.There were severe WASH concerns in the community during and after the flood especially ininstitutions that served as temporary/ makeshift camps for people affected. The flood hadwashed up refuse dump sites and sewage facilities in the communities. The wastes generated atthe camp were also a concern. Because there were no temporary toilets constructed in themakeshift camps, people used surrounding bushes and spaces close to the camps to defecate.Even when they were moved to outside camps, same thing was also applicable. This posesserious risk to the children or people whose schools were used.Findings - 44.3% of the sites said the pit latrines were the used before the flood. However, most people especially children prefer to use the bush to defecate. - After the flood, almost all the pit latrines were full and contained debris carried by the flood thus making them hazardous and unusable. - 77.7% of the sites said that people resorted to defecating in nearby bushes after the flood except for few households that have good sewage systems in the community. - Before the flood, most of the people in the community used the nearby river as source of water for household shores. Some preferred to buy water that were fetched from borehole. After the flood, the price for water increased as most of the borehole and source of water were polluted. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 29 `
  30. 30. Composition of Sampled Population. Composition of Sampled Population Women 19% Children 37% Men 19% Key Informants Boys Girls 7% 9% 9% Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 30 `
  31. 31. Appendix Gender Balance among Assesment Team 21% 79% Males Females Figure 1 Gender Balance for Children FGD 40% 60% Males Females Figure 2 Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 31 `
  32. 32. Gender Balance among Key Informants 50% 50% Males FemalesFigure 3 Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 32 `
  33. 33. Table 1: COMPOSITION OF SAMPLED POPULATION AND ACTIVITIES DURING CPRA S/NO. GROUPS SAMPLED Activity Carried out CODE NAME SAMPLED SIZE 1 Women (community) FGD with women Site 1 (S1) 10 2 Men (community) FGD with men Site 2 (S2) 10 3 Girls (youths) FGD with girls Site 3 (S3) 5 4 Boys (Youths) FGD with boys Site 4( S4) 5 5 Key Informants: i. Community Leader (woman) KII with woman leader Site 5 (S5) 1 ii. Teacher (Youth) KII with Teacher Site 6 (S6) 1 iii. Local Authority KII with president General Site 7 (S7) 1 iv. Religious Leader KII with religious leader site 8 (S8) 1 6 Children Activity with Children Site 9 (S9) 20 TOTAL 54KEY: FGD=Focus Group Discussion; KII= Key Informant Interview Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 33 `
  34. 34. Table 2: OPINION POLL FOR SAMPLED POPULATION (SITES) ON KEY CHILD PROTECTION ISSUES IN EMERGENCY (CPIE) NO. OF SITE PERCENTAGS/NO KEY CHILD PROTECTION ISSUES NO. OF SITES SITES THAT COMPOSITIO E (%) of. INDICATED INTERVIEWED AGREED TO N THAT CPiE AGREED CPiE AGREED TO 1 Child Pregnancy: - Children between 9 years and 17 S1, S2, S3, S4, years getting pregnant 9 8 88.9 S5, S6, S7, S8 2 Sexual Abuse: - Children involved in sexual S1, S2, S4, S5, relationships - Premarital Sex 9 7 77.8 S6, S7, S8 - Children consenting to sex Child Marriage: S2, S3, S5, S6, 3 - Children between the age 9 and 17 9 5 55.6 S8 getting married/ bethroted to men Cultism/ Gang/thugs: S2, S3, S4, S7, 4 - Children associated with cults, Gangs, 9 4 44.4 S8 stealing and organized political violence 5 Child Labour: - Children involved in hawking / selling. 9 2 S3, S9 22.2 -Children are paid for offering services (like fetching water, firewood etc. 6 Inability of children to access immediate health care and other Services: - S1, S2, S3, S4, Children fell ill and couldn’t be treated 9 9 S5, S6, S7, S8, 100.0 immediately. S9 - Little or no laboratory diagnosis for infections/diseases before treatment - little or no antenantal care for pregnant children before child birth S1, S2, S3, S4, 7 School drop out: 9 8 88.9 S5, S6, S7, S9 -Children are unable to complete or continue their education 8 Children without Primary care givers: 9 2 S6, S8 22.2 - Children loss their parents/ relatives and are without persons to help/care for them 9 Rape: - Children were molested and forced to 9 2 S3, S7 22.2 have sex. - Physical violence during sexual encounter Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 34 `
  35. 35. Table 3: Gender Balance for Assesment TeamComposition Number Percentage (%)Males 3 21Females 11 79Table 4: Gender Balance among Key InformantsComposition Number PercentageMales 2 50Females 2 50Table 5: Gender Balance for Children FGD (activity with Children)Composition Number Percentage (%)Males 8 40Females 12 60 Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 35 `
  36. 36. Flood Disaster CPRA in Atanni Community, Ogbaru LGA, Anambra State- Nigeria 36 `