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Hair loss


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Hair Fall , Baldness , alopecia, Treatment for hair loss

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Hair loss

  1. 1.  Hair grows on human skin except palms and soles.  Hair follicles New hair cells Keratin protein Hair.  Old Hair cells Pushed out through skin Hair loss.  Average Hair loss 100-150 hair strands per day.  Alarming Hair loss >150 hair strands per day.
  2. 2. ANAGEN-- active hair growth that lasts between two to six years CATAGEN -- transitional hair growth that lasts two to three weeks TELOGEN -- resting phase that lasts about two to three months. At the end of the resting phase the hair is shed and a new hair replaces it
  3. 3.  Involution alopecia is a natural condition in which the hair gradually thins with age.  Alopecia areata often starts suddenly and causes patchy hair loss in children and young adults. This condition may result in complete baldness (alopecia totalis). But in about 90% of people with the condition, the hair returns within a few years.
  4. 4.  Alopecia universalis causes all body hair to fall out, including the eyebrows, eyelashes, and pubic hair.  Trichotillomania, seen most frequently in children, is a psychological disorder in which a person pulls out one's own hair.  Telogen effluvium is temporary hair thinning over the scalp that occurs because of changes in the growth cycle of hair. A large number of hairs enter the resting phase at the same time, causing hair shedding and subsequent thinning.
  5. 5. MALE PATTERN BALDNESS FEMALE PATTERN BALDNESS  suffers hair loss as early as their teens or early 20s.  It's characterized by a receding hairline and gradual disappearance of hair from the crown and frontal scalp.  noticeable thinning until their 40s or later.  It's characterized by general thinning over the entire scalp, with the most extensive hair loss at the crown.
  6. 6. Hormones Genes Stress, illness, and childbirth Drugs Burns, injuries, and X-rays Autoimmune disease Cosmetic procedures
  7. 7. •abnormal levels of androgens •hormonal changes like those in pregnancy, puberty, and menopause Hormones •Both male and female parents, influence a person's predisposition to male or female pattern baldness Genes •thyroid disease and iron deficiency anaemia, •. Ringworm caused by a fungal infection Stress, illness, and childbirth Drugs • chemotherapy drugs used in cancer treatment, blood thinners, beta-adrenergic blockers and birth control pills
  8. 8. •can cause temporary hair loss. In such cases, normal hair growth usually returns once the injury heals Burns, injuri es, and X- rays •cause alopecia areata •In most people with alopecia areata, the hair grows back Autoimmune disease • shampooing too often, perms, bleaching, and dyeing hair contribute to overall hair thinning • severe damage to the hair causes permanent bald patches. Cosmetic procedures
  9. 9. Management For Androgenic Alopecia  Conventional Medication  5 alpha reductase inhibitors  Other topical treatments  Anti-androgens  Hair transplantation  Stem cell therapy
  10. 10. Conventional Medication 5 alpha reductase inhibitors Other topical treatments Anti-androgens Finasteride Dutasteride Alfatradiol Minoxidil Ketoconazole Spironolactone Flutamide
  11. 11. Finasteride  Finasteride (brand names Proscar and Propecia by Merck, among other generic names) is a synthetic drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male pattern baldness (MPB).  It is a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor. 5α-reductase is an enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).  In clinical studies, finasteride, like minoxidil, was shown to work on both the crown area and the hairline, but is most successful in the crown area.  Gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction and depression, are some possible side-effects
  12. 12. Dutasteride  Dutasteride (trademark name Avodart, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline) is approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and used off label for androgenic alopecia.  It is a dual 5-a reductase inhibitor that inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The drug inhibits all three isoforms of 5-alpha reductase, whereas finasteride only inhibits type II and III. Alfatradiol  Alfatradiol is a topical 5α-reductase inhibitor that has been shown to slow progression of hair loss in women. It is marketed as Avixis, ELL Cranell Alpha and Pantostin.
  13. 13. Minoxidil  Minoxidil is an antihypertensive vasodilator medication. It also slows or stops hair loss and promotes hair regrowth. Now off- patent, it is available over-the-counter for the treatment of androgenic alopecia.  Minoxidil is also a vasodilator. Hypothetically, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood, and nutrients to the follicle. This may cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, which are then replaced by thicker hairs in a new anagen phase.  Minoxidil needs to be applied once or the recommended twice daily, and may be used indefinitely for continued support of existing hair follicles and hair regrowth. To achieve maximum effect, the solution should be in contact with the scalp for at least 4 hours before allowing hair to get wet.
  14. 14. . Minoxidil stimulates hair follicles and growth, but does not reduce DHT or the enzyme responsible for its accumulation around the hair follicle, 5-alpha reductase, which is the primary mediator of male pattern baldness.  Treatments usually include a 5% concentration solution that is designed for men, and a 2% concentration solution for women.  Common side effects of minoxidil include burning or irritation of the eye, itching, redness or irritation at the treated area, as well as unwanted hair growth elsewhere on the body
  15. 15.  It is marketed under many trade names, including Avacor Physician's Formulation, Loniten (oral), Mintop, Amexidil, Rogaine, Spectral.DNC, and Vanarex
  16. 16. Ketoconazole  Ketoconazole is a topical anti-fungal agent. As an imidazole, Ketoconazole is effective for the treatment of dermatitis and dandruff. It is also an anti-androgen, and may improve hair growth . Spironolactone  Spironolactone is a possible selective androgen receptor modulator, and both reduces adrenal androgen production and exerts competitive blockade on androgen receptors in target tissues. It can be administered topically or systemically. Due to its feminizing side effects and risk of infertility in men; it is used more often in female androgenic alopecia.
  17. 17. Flutamide  Flutamide has more anti-androgenic activity than spironolactone, and is also referred to as chemical castration. It can cause marked reduction in libido and estrogenic side effects including gynecomastia, lipid profile changes, and emotional lability, although when used in women it can be associated with increased positive affect. There is a significant incidence of hepatic dysfunction with the medication in women . Like spironolactone, it is more often used clinically in female androgenic alopecia
  18. 18.  Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that moves individual hair follicles from a part of the body called the donor site' to bald or balding part of the body known as the 'recipient site'.  It is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness.  In this condition, grafts containing hair follicles that are genetically resistant to balding are transplanted to bald scalp.  More recently, bioengineered hair follicles have been successfully transplanted to create histologically normal hair follicles.
  19. 19.  Chemotherapy induced hair loss occurs by a non- androgenic mechanism, and can manifests as alopecia totalis.  It is usually associated with systemic treatment due to the high mitotic rate of hair follicles, and more reversible than androgenic hair loss, although permanent cases can occur.  It is usually reversible, with prophylactic measures including scalp cooling, and temporary interval cosmeses such as wigs and head garments.
  20. 20.  It can be self-contained and resolve without therapy, although there are relapsing and remitting forms of the illness.  In distinction to androgenic hair loss, pulsed corticosteroid therapy has been found effective over the long term in its treatment.  Topical calcipotriol, a vitamin D derivative, has been used successfully in treatment of areata.
  21. 21.  Telogen effluvium is hair thinning or shedding from early entry of the follicle into telogen.  Most cases are self-limited and resolve on their own, although zinc has shown some effectiveness in treatment.