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Project Management Office

   Framework & Phased
 Implementation Roadmap

    Anand Subramaniam
“Planning is an unnatural process; it is much more
   fun to do something. The nicest thing about not
     planning is that failure comes as a complete
  surprise, rather than being preceded by a period
              of worry and depression.”

                                - Sir John Harvey-Jones




                                                      2
Highlights
   Projects Managed without PMO
   Projects Managed with a PMO
   PMO Life Cycle & Critical Success Factors
   PMO – Maturity, Objectives
   Link – PMO to Enterprise Strategy
   PMO relationship to PPM, Program & Projects
   PMO – Function, Type, Resourcing, Method & Control
   PMO – Implementation Framework
     Planning & Assessment
     Roadmap
 Lesson Learned
 Advanced PMO Model for Project Portfolio Management


                                                         3
Projects Managed without PMO
Project - Success & Failure Rates
                       Reason = Inadequate Planning & Governance
      Large Programs Success Rates                                                   Why Projects / Programs Fail

                                                                                      Others                       Poor Organisation &
                             Successful                                                                            Project Management
                                                               Technical Problems                                       Practices
                                                                                                11%
                       16%                          Problems with Suppliers           4%
                                                                                     4%
                                                                                                              36%
                                                     Insufficient Project
           53%                                      Personnel Resources              10%

                          31%
                                                                                          15%
                                 Cancelled                                                              20%
                                                              Ineffective Project
Under Perform                                                      Planning

                                                                                                 Poorly Defined or
                                                                                                  missing Project
                                                                                                    Objectives
                                  Source: Standish Group International, Survey from 2500 personnel attending project management training


                                                                                                                                   5
Do you face this ...




                 Source -Running the Successful Hi-Tech Project Office - Eduardo Miranda



                                                                                  6
Project - Current Challenges
Inaccurate scope definition and / or           Inability to achieve on time, on
no detailed project plans to achieve it        budget and quality of the
                                               deliverables due to lack of controls
Scope not tightly
controlled leading to                                      Lack visibility on project
ROI goals unmet                                            procurement and / or
                                           Current         contract management
Lack visibility on                        Challenge        management
                                              s           Lack buy-in due to less /
resource demands
                                                          no project communications
and / or loads
                                                                 Lack rigor in risk
Inability to review                                              management / QA
existing projects          No or irregular
against changing           project health             Poor or no documentation
priorities /               checks carried out         and records management in
conditions                                            place
                                                                                      7
Project - Opportunities / Risks

     Opportunities                                  Risks
• Identifies gaps in realisation of    • Fragmented project plans
  strategic objectives                 • Poorly defined project mission &
• Escalates current risks and            tasks
  identifies potential risks earlier   • No clear process for escalating
• Ensures proper communications          risks to senior management
  to relevant stakeholders             • Insufficient reporting to support
• Improves monitoring and control        top-management decisions
  of projects                          • Ineffective enforcement of project
• Mediates issue resolution              controls and policies
• Increases efficiency in tracking     • Conflict between line and project
  progress of projects                   managers
• Integrates project plans for all     • Projects do not meet deadlines
  projects – standardises progress       and / or milestones
  reporting                            • Lack of standardised reports and
                                         reporting frameworks



                                                                              8
Projects Managed with a PMO
Why PMO?

If a firm runs multiple, cross-functional projects concurrently, then it needs …

                             Continuous improvement
  Repeatable                                                                Accurate
                            culture, continual progress
project delivery                                                        estimates based
                           review towards completion &
 process & less                                                        on firm’s history &
                                   improved ROI
“reinventing the                                                        lessons learned
     wheel”
                                   Why
 Management and                                                 Priorities managed
up-skilling resource
                                  PMO?                          based on timelines,
                                                              budgets, resource loads,
                                                                  what-if analysis
              Senior                                                information
          Managemen         Consistent Project
            t support                                        Accurate
                            Management and
          and direction                                      resource
                           guidance (methods,
                                                           management
                           systems, processes,
                                                          across projects
                            tools, metrics etc)


                                                                                         10
Manager – PMO & Project

  PMO                 Project
 Manager              Manager
        Help              Plan
       Advise            Track
       Review            Initiate
      Facilitate         Control
     Audit / QA         Manage
  Mentor / Coach        Execute
 Strategic Planning     Estimate
Train PM Resources      Organise
  Manage Project      Communicate
      Knowledge

                                    11
Stakeholder Experience with a PMO
                                                    Scope Managed &
   • Improved time to market
   • Increased project effort visibility               Delivered
   • Project goals & scope well
     understood & managed
   • Improved communication &
     stakeholder relationship




• Resources managed                        Stakeholder        • Reduced redundant
                                                                project efforts
• Reduced rework with                                         • Decrease cost overruns
  repeatable process                       Experience           with repeatable process



                                                                        Less Cost
 Time Lines Met
                                                                        Overruns


                                                                                  12
PMO – Life Cycle & CSF
PMO Life Cycle Loop – Overview

Strategic
Business
Planning

                                                         Project
               Continuous
              Improvement                              Management
                              Business
                                                          Office
                              Process
                            Reengineering




              Project
                                            Maturity
             Portfolio                                   Projects
                                            Models
            Management

                                                                    14
PMO Life Cycle – Critical Success Factors
                                                                             Leadership, Commitment
                                                            Sponsorshi
                                                                p
                    Organisation                                                            Benefit
                     Alignment                                                             Assurance
                                             Continuously
                                                                              Capture                      PIR, Lesson Learnt
Project Select. Prioritise                     Improve




              Measuremen                                       Critical                             Capability
                                                               Success
                   t                                                                               Development
                                                               Factors

                                                                                                            Coach / Mentor
Risk, Defects, ROI, QA
                                              Collaborate                   Communicate                     Knowledge Mngt
                                                                                                            Prof Development
                      Project                                                              Stakeholder
                    Management                                                             Managemen
  Process,           Standards                                                                  t
  Tools,
                                                             Project Plan
  checklist                                                  Managemen                    Communication, Integration
                    Risk, Quality, Com, Cost, Time etc
                                                                  t

                                                                                                                       15
PMO – Maturity, Objectives
PMO - Maturity Levels




Tactical                                                              Strategic

                      Source – The Complete Project Management Office Handbook - Gerard M. Hill



                                                                                           17
PMO - Objectives




         Source – The Complete Project Management Office Handbook - Gerard M. Hill



                                                                            18
Link – PMO to Enterprise Strategy
PMO – Conceptual Overview
                                                                                             Projects
                                                     Drill Down
                                                     Capability                                    Status


 Executive               Business
Management                                                                          Project Portfolio
                          Units                                                         Database
      Policy
      Vision / Mission     Budget Proposals          Approvals/Adjustments/Status
      Firm’s Strategy      Business Cases
      Business Trends      Project Justification
      Direction                                                Standard             Program / Project
                                                              Reporting
                                  PMO                        Requirements           •   Status
                                                                                    •
                                 Overview                                           •
                                                                                        Funding
                                                                                        Evaluation
   Training                                                                         •   Issue Resolution
                                                                                    •   Risk Management
                                                                                    •   Exception Analysis
                                                                                    •   Business Function
                                                                                    •   Scope Management
                           Resource                            PPM Tools            •   Contract Management
                             Pool                                                   •   $$ / Time Performance
PPM Operations                                                                      •   Resource Forecast &
   Guide                                                                                Analysis


                           Contractor              Process
                           Database                Library



                                                                                                            20
PMO - Strategy Alignment




                                                                                      Feedback
Direction




             Governance                                             Governance
                                          Enterprise
               Review                                                 Review
               Board                       Strategy                   Board

                                        Business Unit
                                          Delivery
                                          Strategy
            Prioritisation                                          Prioritisation
                                          Project
                                        Management
            Program /                     Office
             Project                                                      QA / QC
            Manager

                             Project Status Reports, Time Sheets,
                                Expenses, Project Schedules
            Feedback                                                     Feedback

                                                                                     21
PMO
                                                                                   Owners
                                                                                            Sponsors
                                                                                                       Executives




                             Auditor / QA
                                                  Project Team
                                                                 Users/Consumers




     Support & Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                   Value Category 




                                                                                            X
                                                                                            X
                                                                                                                     Pla
                                                                                                                          nn
                                                                                                                               ing




                                                                                                       X
                                                                                                                    Pr
                                                                                                                       ior
                                                                                                                            i t is




                                                  X
                                                                                   X
                                                                                   X
                                                                                                                                   at i
                                                                                                                    De                  on
                                                                                                                        li v
                                                                                                                             er y




                                            X
                                            X
                                                                                                                                    an
                                                                                                                    To                   de
                                                                                                                        ols                   xe
                                                                                                                              ,b                  cu
                                                                                                                                   es                 t io



                                            X
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                                                                                                                    Me                 tp                   n
                                                                                                                        nto                r ac
                                                                                                                               r in             t ic
                                                                                                                                    g                es


                             X
                             X
                                                                                   X
                                                                                   X



                                                                                                                    Mo
                                                                                                                         n it
                                                                                                                              or
                                                                                                                                  ing
                                                                                            X
                                                                                            X




                                                                                                                    Re                   an
                                                                                                                        po                   d /o
                                                                                                                             r ti                 rt
     X                                                                                                                            ng                  r ac
                             X

                                                                                                                    Qu                  an                  ki n
                                                                                                                         al i              dv                   g
                                                                                                                              ty                i si
                                                                                                                                                     bil
                                                                                                                                  as                     i ty
                                                  X
                                                                                            X




                                                                                                                    Ri                su
                                                                                                                       sk                 r an
                                                                                                                             ma                 ce
                                                                                                                                   na
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                                                                                                                    I ss                ge
                                                                                                                         ue                 me
                                                                                                                               r es             nt
                                                                                                                                    olu
                                                                                                                                          t io
                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                                                                                      PMO - Business Unit Alignment




22
Project / Initiative - Governance Review
    Initiative #

                     Initiative Description            Initiative Deliverables
                                               




                   Key Resources Required              Inputs / Dependencies
                                               




                      Key Stakeholders              Costs / investments Required
                                               


                   Initiative Project Sponsor         Initiative – Project Owner
                                               

                       Scope – In & Out                  Business Benefits
                                               



                                                                                   23
PMO inter-relationship with Project
 Portfolio, Programs & Projects
Project Portfolio Mngt & Governance
                                   Project Portfolio Management (PPM) and Governance Process
                           Enterprise Information (Critical Success Factors, Strategy/Goals/Objectives, Key Performance Indicators)
                           Governance Process (Project Selection Criteria, Track - Project Goal Achievement , Customer Experience)
PPM - Information Portal




                                       PPM Support Tool                             PPM Reports / Score Card / Dashboard
                                       PM Resource Pool                          PM Skills Development, Coaching, Mentoring

                                         PPM Repository                    PM Methodology, Standards, Templates, Tools, Checklist


                                Project Management Office or Program Management Office (PMO)
                                       PMO Support Tool                             PMO Reports / Score Card / Dashboard
                                        PMO Repository                      PMO – Specific Methodology Options, Tools, Checklists


                                                           Programs & Projects (Pg / Proj)
                             Pg / Proj #1 - Repository / Status Infor.     Control, Communication, Documentation, Lesson Learned
                             Pg / Proj #2 - Repository / Status Infor.     Control, Communication, Documentation, Lesson Learned

                             Pg / Proj #3 - Repository / Status Infor.     Control, Communication, Documentation, Lesson Learned


                                                                                                                                      25
Org Structure – PMO & Projects
    PSC members – Names
                                                              Project Steering Committee (PSC)                                                  Stakeholder Forums / Committees




   Project director – Name                                                                                                        Project Advisor – Name
                                                                                                                               

    Project co-ordinator – Name                                Project Management Office (PMO)                                  
                                                                                                                                    Project Quality Assurance – Name
    Project support – Name                                                                                                          Management Consultant – Name
   Master planning – Name                                                                                                         Risk Advisor – Name




        Sub-project owner         Sub-project owner   Sub-project owner      Sub-project owner   Sub-project owner     Sub-project owner       Sub-project owner

               Name                    Name                Name                   Name                   Name               Name
                                                                                                                                                     Name
         Sub-project # 1          Sub-project # 2     Sub-project # 3        Sub-project # 4         Sub-project # 5   Sub-project # 6         Sub-project # 7
                                                                                                                                                                                     External
         Procure to Pay           Order to Cash        Product Life            APS / MES /             Lean / Six        Innovation /           Sustainability         Help Desk     service
                                                       Cycle Mngt                SCADA                  Sigma               NPD                                                     providers


                                                                                 Finance
                                                                                                                                                                                     Service
                                                                            Human resources                                                                                        Provider # 1

                                                                      Technical / Quality Control
                                                                                                                                                                                     Service
                                                                                                                                                                       Support     Provider # 2
                                                                            Sales & Marketing
                                                                                                                                                                        Teams
                                                                   Engineering / Manufacturing                                                                                       Service
                                                                                                                                                                                   Provider # 3
                                                                          Distribution / Logistics
                                                                                                                                                                                     Service
                                                                          Materials Management
                                                                                                                                                                                   Provider # 4



                                                                                                                                                                                       26
PMO – Functions, Types,
Resourcing, Methods & Control
PMO - Functions
   Project registration            Tools and techniques             Training        Ongoing education


Maintaining the methodology          The project handbook                      Promoting best practice


   Project           Conducting project reviews           External seminars
  definition

 Check &       Project Executive
 approve         Information &      Maintain the project intranet         Recording lessons learned
                    support

                                                       Manage projects
                  Assigning project mentors              & contracts                  Certification


        Administration                                                     Cultural

                                         Operational

                                                                                                      28
PMO Types
                                                                      Centre of
Project Office   Basic PMO      Standard PMO         Advanced PMO
                                                                      Excellence




   Single                                                           Tactical
       vs.                      No one size.                           vs.
    Multiple                  It depends on..                       Strategic
                                    PM maturity
                            Vision & goals of sponsor
                          PMO drivers / business needs
                         Business / organisation mission
                         Political & cultural environment
  Departmental                  Number of projects                  Internal
       vs.                       Organisation size                      vs.
    Enterprise                        Etc. Etc                       External
                         Authoritative ~ Advisory

                                                                                29
PMO – Authoritative ~ Advisory
     Authoritative                            Hybrid                          Advisory
                                                                     •   Provides a centralised
• Assumes ownership over           • Ownership of standards,
                                                                         supporting function to assist
  execution of business unit         processes and performance
                                                                         projects with policies,
  projects - managing “ the          reporting
                                                                         procedures, resourcing
  program ”
                                   • Delivery accountability
                                                                     •   Delivery accountability
• Central management of              remains with the PM and
                                                                         remains with the PMs and
                                     Business Unit
  resources; project staff are                                           business units
  “loaned out” to business units   • Support for training, project
                                                                     •   Provides centralised
                                     resourcing
• Manage external staff                                                  training, resourcing &
  procurement where required                                             procurement support to the
                                   • Central coordination of
                                                                         projects / business units
                                     communications
• Implement standard policies
                                                                     •   Supports benefits,
  and procedures
                                                                         knowledge management
• Drives benefits assurance,                                         •   Central coordination of
  knowledge management                                                   communications


                                                                                                   30
Resource Management – Across PMO

 Project Office           Basic PMO          Standard PMO          Advanced PMO              Centre of
• Identifies project   • Provides            • Introduces
                                                                                             Excellence
  resource needs,        guidance for          oversight           • Manages
  coordinates            utilisation of        capability for        standards of        • Collaborates with
  project resource       essential project     project resources     performance for       HR and business
  acquisition and        resources                                   project resources     units to determine
  assignment                                 • Implements                                  resource
                       • Establishes basic     practices for       • Develops formal       utilisation
• Manages project        procedures for        acquisition of        procedures for        requirements
  resource               requesting and        project resources     deployment of
  performance            assigning project                           project resource    • Forecasts
                         resources           • Collaborates                                utilisation of
                                               requests and        • Conducts              project resources
                       • Prepares routine      assignments for       competency
                         reports               project resources     assessments for     • Identifies needs
                         documenting                                 project resources     and recruits
                         project resource    • Implements                                  project resources
                         assignment and        guidance for        • Monitors &
                         utilisation           project resources     evaluates
                                                performance          performance of
                                                                     project resources
                                               management


                                                                                                       31
PMO – Methods & Support Model
                    PMO                                           PMO Support
                  Methods
                1.1



Project Mngt                Delivery Life         Project          Consulting /    Contracts /
  Process                      Cycle              Control*          Mentoring     Procurement


   Process                     Life Cycle           Schedule          Startup         SOW
   Definition                  Definition          Assistance        Assistance     Assistance

   Initiation                 COTS / Open         Time Tracking         JIT            RFP
                                Source`                              Assistance     Assistance

   Planning                   Design Code            Library           Risk         Bid Evaluate
                              Test Maintain                         Management       Assistance

   Executing                    Waterfall          Communi-                          Contract
                                                                       Project
                                                    cation            Recovery       Tracking

  Controlling                 RAD / Agile           Project                        Procurement
                                                                    Management
                                                    Visibility       Consulting

   Closing                       Spiral
                                                                        QA /
                                              * See Next Slide       Governance


                                                                                                   32
PMO – Support & Control Model


      Support                                PMO                        Control


•   Master Project Schedule                   •   Project Audits
•   Issue Tracking/Reporting                  •   Business Case
•   PM tools and tools support                •   Project Approval
•   Integrated Project Reporting              •   Project Prioritisation
•   Project Document Repository               •   Project Management
•   Project administrative support            •   Contract Management
•   Project Consulting and mentoring          •   Resource Management
•   PM coaching / training / certification    •   Cost and Schedule Control
•   PM standards, methodology, processes      •   Project Portfolio Management


                                                                                 33
PMO – Implementation Framework
PMO – Continuous Improvement
 Phased approach




                                       Review Slide (PMO Life Cycle – Critical Success Factors)
       Obtain Management Buy-in
       Organisation alignment
       Define initial steps
       Define PMO - “services”
       Justify value
       Define & measure results
   Project Management Standards
   Capability Development
   Stakeholder Management
   Center of Excellence
   Continuous Improvement

                                                              35
PMO – Phased Implementation Schedule
Phase 1                   Phase 2                        Phase 3

 High Level
  Planning                  Manage Stakeholder Expectations


        As ~ Is      To ~ Be           Knowledge            Continuous
      Assessment   Assessment            Portal            Improvement



                       Method / Tool        Capability
                       Development         Development



                                  PMO Pilot -
                                Implementation
                                                              Multi-site
                                                               Rollout




                                                                           36
PMO – Planning & Assessment
PMO… Where to Start ?
    Project Admin      Project Mngt        Program Mngt          PM - Centre of       Strategic Proj
                                                                   Excellence              Office
•    Proj Reporting   • PM standards,      • Coordination of     • PM recruiting     • Project
•    Proj Costing       guidelines,          large projects or     interviewing        selection,
•    Proj Metrics       methodologies        programs            • Reporting           prioritisation &
•    Proj Comm.       • Tools &                                    relationships       approval
•    Proj Portfolio     techniques         • Coordination                              process
     maintenance                             across multiple     • Career planning
                      • Training,            projects              & development     • Project Portfolio
• Proj Library          mentoring,                                                     Management
  (resources, cost      coaching, team     • Project structure   • PM advocacy
  vs. budgets,          building                                 • PM best           • Strategic
  risks, QA,                               • Project               practices           planning &
  lessons learned,    • Facilitation of      standards           • Proj measures,      alignment
  Artifacts, re-        project peer                               metrics,
  usable                reviews                                    benchmarking      • Resource
  components)         • Risk & issue                                                   allocation
                        management                               • Continuous
                      • Project recovery                           improvement
                      • PM support                               • Quality
                        services                                   Assurance

                                                                                                      38
PMO – High Level Planning
  Nominate and                             Review Tools,
                      Communicate                                 Develop PMO            Conduct First
  Confirm PMO                              Processes &
                       PMO Goals                                   Master Plan           PMO Session
     Team                                   Templates

 Identify,           Structure PMO      Review process,
                                                                 Conduct work-         Confirm logistics
  nominate and         with relevant       identify areas for
                                                                  shops with key         & communicate
  obtain approval      stakeholders        improvement
                                                                  stakeholders           timing and
  for the PMO
                                                                                         agenda of first
  leadership from     Communicate        Define, develop
                                                                 Prioritise             PMO session
  senior               involvement and     and distribute -
                                                                  initiatives and
  management           PMO                 tools, processes
                                                                  conduct high-         Discuss issues,
                       expectations        and templates
                                                                  level review of        dependencies,
                                                                  any (inter)            project plan
                      Engage & obtain    Define and (re)
                                                                  dependencies &         recommendation
                       buy-in on           develop -
                                                                  overlaps               & role of PMO
                       program             project reporting,
                                                                                         going forward
                       objectives and      risks, issue,
                                                                 Consolidate
                       approach            change and
                                                                  initiative project    Distribute
                                           communication
                                                                  plans into a           program-related
                                           management
                                                                  consolidated           process
                                           processes
                                                                  master plan            information


                                                                                                     39
PMO – Initial Assessment Areas
                           Existing
 Organisation              Process                 Project
   Culture                                       Management
                           Existence of            Maturity
  Flexibility of the       documented
    organisation            processes
                                              Value placed on project
  Adaptability to        Effectiveness of          management
     change             existing processes
                                              Commitment to project
 Business strategy     Consistent adherence      management
    alignment            to documented
                            processes         Effectiveness / success
     Clarity of                                      of projects
organisational roles      Accessibility of
and responsibilities       documented             Existence of a
                            processes         standardised project life
  Attitude towards                             cycle or methodology
projects – expense /   Measures in place to
     investment          control projects         Level of training


                                                                      40
Remember…
   PMO Charter
   Change Management
   Implementation Strategy
   Staff - Training / Coaching
   Metrics / Performance
   Critical Success Factors
   Project Management Practices - Maturity


                                              41
PMO – Charter Development


         Scope                 Memo
•   Business Needs    •   Mission / Vision
•   Sponsor           •   Goals/Objectives
•   Type              •   Sponsor
•   Maturity          •   Service Offering
•   Resourcing        •   PMO Governance
•   Functions         •   Key Performance Metrics
•   Methods           •   Funding model
•   Control           •   ROI Analysis




                                                    42
PMO – Culture / Change Management

                 Firm’s             Change
 Political
                 Culture           Management
Landscape
                  PM maturity      Assess impact of
Winners/Losers                         change
                  PMO charter
 Management                          Resistance
   Support        Existing skill
                      level            Inform

                   Key driver          Educate

                 Implementation        Involve
                    strategy


                                                  43
PMO – Implementation Strategy

                                 Incremental              Revolutionary
         Drivers
                             • Lower start up costs
•   PMO charter                                        • Higher startup costs
                             • Will take longer to
•   PM maturity                                        • Implementation risks
                               demonstrate ROI
•   PMO drivers                                          higher
                             • Implementation risks
•   PMO Roadmap                                        • May be able to
                               lower
•   Perception of value                                  demonstrate quicker
                             • More suitable if high
•   Political environment                                ROI
                               resistance to change
•   Culture / Value System                             • More suitable, if crisis
                               and low management
•   Sponsor and                                          or recognition at high
                               support
    management support                                   level that change is
                                                         imperative



                                                                              44
PMO – Resourcing

    Approach                      Skills
• In-house resources      • Project Manager
• Hybrid (In- house /     • Project Portfolio Manager
  contractors)            • PMO Director / Manager
• Ad hoc contractors      • Administrative Support
  augmentation            • PM Process /
                            Methodology Trainer
                          • Relationship / Account
                            Manager
                          • Tools Support /
                            Administration
                          • Librarian / Document
                            Control


                                                        45
PMO – Performance Metrics
                                                                                   Internal focus - Measure and demonstrate
Executive focus - Measure and                                                      performance or quality of PMO functions




                                                        Fu
demonstrate value to business




                                                          nc
                                                                                   PMO budget & improvement PMO




                                                  e

                                                             tio
                                                                                   performance




                                              al u
Justify existence




                                                                na
                                            sV
                                                                                   Baseline or benchmark performance




                                                                  lP
Expressed primarily in dollars



                                          es




                                                                  er
savings / revenue or ROI

                                       sin
                                                                                   Expressed ( percent or counts )




                                                                    fo
                                                                                   depending on functions performed




                                                                      rm
                                     Bu
PMO vs. Project Metrics




                                                                        an
                                                                          ce
                                              Service Level


                                 Customer focus - Measure and demonstrate
                                 service level or quality of service to customer

                                 Service Level / Operational Level Agreements

                                 Select the most important value to stakeholder
                                 community


                                                                                                                   46
PMO – Success Factors




                                                        Review Slide (PMO Life Cycle – Critical Success Factors)
                                   Sponsor
           Clear                   reports
          Charter                     to
                                    Board




  Top                Continuous               Bottom
 Down               Improvemen                Up Buy-
Support             t / communi-                 in
                         cation




          Manage
                                   Training
          Stake-
                                   / Coach
          holder



                                                        47
PMO – Implementation Roadmap
PMO – Implementation Roadmap

                                                          Organisation-
Project Initiation   Project Office     Project Office
                                                         Wide Standards
 and Planning        Establishment      Infrastructure
                                                          Development




   Rollout and
                                          Operations
    Training         Transition Stage                    Project Closure
                                            Stage
   Preparation



                                                                      49
Initiation & Planning - Deliverables
   Charter
   Objectives
   Project Plan
   Project Scope
   Project Budget
   Business Case
   Success Factors
   Measures & Metrics
   Project Organisation
   Project Standards & Control Procedures
   Educating Top Management & Project Staff

                                               50
Establishment - Deliverables
   Project Office Budget
   Project Office Staffing Plan
   Project Office Facilities Plan
   Project Office Communication Plan
   Project Office Documentation Plan
   Project Office Organisation Structure



                                            51
Office Infrastructure - Deliverables
 Project Office Guidebook
     Projects Base-lining Procedures
     Project Office Interface Structure
     Software and Hardware Procedures
     Operational Management Procedures
     Standard Projects Justification Criteria
     Security and Budget Control Procedures
     Communication and Staffing Procedures
     Projects Resource Allocation Procedures
     Projects Meeting and Reporting Guidelines
     Measurement & Exception Management Procedures

                                                      52
Org Standards - Deliverables
 ISO
 CMMi
    Project Planning
    Requirements Management
    Software Quality Assurance
    Software Configuration Management
    Software Subcontract Management
    Software Project Tracking and Oversight


                                               53
Training Rollout - Deliverables
 Rollout Approach
   Rollout Scope Document
    • Objectives
    • Risks and Constraints
    • Other Initiatives
 Rollout Increments
   Training Strategy
   Change Resistance Strategy


                                       54
Transition - Deliverables
 Project Office Support
 Project Office Reports Based on
  Transition Stage Performance
 User Feedback & Process Improvements




                                         55
Operations Stage - Deliverables
 Process for Projects Assessment &
  Prioritisation
   Ongoing Projects
   New Projects
 Project Office Reporting on Projects
   Cost Analysis
   Time Analysis
   Performance Analysis
 Assessment of Project Office Activities

                                            56
Project Closure – Deliverables
 Lessons Learned
 Project Closure Meeting
 Process Improvement Report
 Project Performance Measures
 Action Plans for Remaining Open Items
 Maintenance Guide for Project Office
  Activities
 Celebration of Success!
                                          57
Note ….
   PMO                                                    PMO is the
                              Develop a
evolution is                                                “enabler”
                                sound
 a journey                                                  but senior
                              Business
    with                                                  managemen
                             Case and a
manageable                                                 t has to be
                             positive ROI
  phases                                                  the “driver”


                 Ensure
                  PMO                        Train and
                manager                     coach Users
                has prior                     on PMO
                  PMO                         process
               experience


                                                           Send PMO
PMO vision                       Create
                                                           staff to the
  and an                     Managemen
                                                             trenches
  overall                    t awareness
                                                            and avoid
 strategic                      on PMO
                                                          “ivory tower”
   plan                      approaches
                                                            syndrome


                                                                          58
PMO – Lessons Learned
Lessons learned
   Celebrate small wins / success
   Cater reporting to stakeholder needs
   Tell management about the successes
   Write a Project Management Handbook
   Provide monitoring and advisory services
   Create PMO services across the spectrum
   Create a Lessons Learned Database / Portal
   Standardise – methods, process, tools,
    techniques, checklists etc

                                                 60
Advanced PMO Model for Project
    Portfolio Management
Advanced PMO Model

    Traditional                             Advanced
• Process leadership                •   Thought leadership
• Tools as a “map”                  •   Tools as a “compass”
• Based on rules                    •   Based on guiding principles
• Focus on efficiency               •   Focus on effectiveness & innovation
• Focus mostly on tactical issues   •   Focus on strategic & cultural issues
• Science of project management     •   Art and craft of project management
• Internal process focused          •   Focus on end products & customers
• Emphasis on monitoring &          •   Emphasis on collaboration
  control                           •   “Agile” methods and practices
• “Heavy” methods and practices
                                    •   Adaptive and innovative practices
• Defined, repeatable, optimised
                                    •   Balanced management,
  practices
                                        governance and leadership
• Heavy management and
  governance




                                                                               62
“We are what we repeatedly do.
Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit.”


                                     - Aristotle




                                              63
Good Luck
http://www.linkedin.com/in/anandsubramaniam




                                              64

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Project Management Office (PMO)

  • 1. Project Management Office Framework & Phased Implementation Roadmap Anand Subramaniam
  • 2. “Planning is an unnatural process; it is much more fun to do something. The nicest thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise, rather than being preceded by a period of worry and depression.” - Sir John Harvey-Jones 2
  • 3. Highlights  Projects Managed without PMO  Projects Managed with a PMO  PMO Life Cycle & Critical Success Factors  PMO – Maturity, Objectives  Link – PMO to Enterprise Strategy  PMO relationship to PPM, Program & Projects  PMO – Function, Type, Resourcing, Method & Control  PMO – Implementation Framework  Planning & Assessment  Roadmap  Lesson Learned  Advanced PMO Model for Project Portfolio Management 3
  • 5. Project - Success & Failure Rates Reason = Inadequate Planning & Governance Large Programs Success Rates Why Projects / Programs Fail Others Poor Organisation & Successful Project Management Technical Problems Practices 11% 16% Problems with Suppliers 4% 4% 36% Insufficient Project 53% Personnel Resources 10% 31% 15% Cancelled 20% Ineffective Project Under Perform Planning Poorly Defined or missing Project Objectives Source: Standish Group International, Survey from 2500 personnel attending project management training 5
  • 6. Do you face this ... Source -Running the Successful Hi-Tech Project Office - Eduardo Miranda 6
  • 7. Project - Current Challenges Inaccurate scope definition and / or Inability to achieve on time, on no detailed project plans to achieve it budget and quality of the deliverables due to lack of controls Scope not tightly controlled leading to Lack visibility on project ROI goals unmet procurement and / or Current contract management Lack visibility on Challenge management s Lack buy-in due to less / resource demands no project communications and / or loads Lack rigor in risk Inability to review management / QA existing projects No or irregular against changing project health Poor or no documentation priorities / checks carried out and records management in conditions place 7
  • 8. Project - Opportunities / Risks Opportunities Risks • Identifies gaps in realisation of • Fragmented project plans strategic objectives • Poorly defined project mission & • Escalates current risks and tasks identifies potential risks earlier • No clear process for escalating • Ensures proper communications risks to senior management to relevant stakeholders • Insufficient reporting to support • Improves monitoring and control top-management decisions of projects • Ineffective enforcement of project • Mediates issue resolution controls and policies • Increases efficiency in tracking • Conflict between line and project progress of projects managers • Integrates project plans for all • Projects do not meet deadlines projects – standardises progress and / or milestones reporting • Lack of standardised reports and reporting frameworks 8
  • 10. Why PMO? If a firm runs multiple, cross-functional projects concurrently, then it needs … Continuous improvement Repeatable Accurate culture, continual progress project delivery estimates based review towards completion & process & less on firm’s history & improved ROI “reinventing the lessons learned wheel” Why Management and Priorities managed up-skilling resource PMO? based on timelines, budgets, resource loads, what-if analysis Senior information Managemen Consistent Project t support Accurate Management and and direction resource guidance (methods, management systems, processes, across projects tools, metrics etc) 10
  • 11. Manager – PMO & Project PMO Project Manager Manager Help Plan Advise Track Review Initiate Facilitate Control Audit / QA Manage Mentor / Coach Execute Strategic Planning Estimate Train PM Resources Organise Manage Project Communicate Knowledge 11
  • 12. Stakeholder Experience with a PMO Scope Managed & • Improved time to market • Increased project effort visibility Delivered • Project goals & scope well understood & managed • Improved communication & stakeholder relationship • Resources managed Stakeholder • Reduced redundant project efforts • Reduced rework with • Decrease cost overruns repeatable process Experience with repeatable process Less Cost Time Lines Met Overruns 12
  • 13. PMO – Life Cycle & CSF
  • 14. PMO Life Cycle Loop – Overview Strategic Business Planning Project Continuous Improvement Management Business Office Process Reengineering Project Maturity Portfolio Projects Models Management 14
  • 15. PMO Life Cycle – Critical Success Factors Leadership, Commitment Sponsorshi p Organisation Benefit Alignment Assurance Continuously Capture PIR, Lesson Learnt Project Select. Prioritise Improve Measuremen Critical Capability Success t Development Factors Coach / Mentor Risk, Defects, ROI, QA Collaborate Communicate Knowledge Mngt Prof Development Project Stakeholder Management Managemen Process, Standards t Tools, Project Plan checklist Managemen Communication, Integration Risk, Quality, Com, Cost, Time etc t 15
  • 16. PMO – Maturity, Objectives
  • 17. PMO - Maturity Levels Tactical Strategic Source – The Complete Project Management Office Handbook - Gerard M. Hill 17
  • 18. PMO - Objectives Source – The Complete Project Management Office Handbook - Gerard M. Hill 18
  • 19. Link – PMO to Enterprise Strategy
  • 20. PMO – Conceptual Overview Projects Drill Down Capability Status Executive Business Management Project Portfolio Units Database Policy Vision / Mission Budget Proposals Approvals/Adjustments/Status Firm’s Strategy Business Cases Business Trends Project Justification Direction Standard Program / Project Reporting PMO Requirements • Status • Overview • Funding Evaluation Training • Issue Resolution • Risk Management • Exception Analysis • Business Function • Scope Management Resource PPM Tools • Contract Management Pool • $$ / Time Performance PPM Operations • Resource Forecast & Guide Analysis Contractor Process Database Library 20
  • 21. PMO - Strategy Alignment Feedback Direction Governance Governance Enterprise Review Review Board Strategy Board Business Unit Delivery Strategy Prioritisation Prioritisation Project Management Program / Office Project QA / QC Manager Project Status Reports, Time Sheets, Expenses, Project Schedules Feedback Feedback 21
  • 22. PMO Owners Sponsors Executives Auditor / QA Project Team Users/Consumers Support & Maintenance Value Category  X X Pla nn ing X Pr ior i t is X X X at i De on li v er y X X an To de ols xe ,b cu es t io X X Me tp n nto r ac r in t ic g es X X X X Mo n it or ing X X Re an po d /o r ti rt X ng r ac X Qu an ki n al i dv g ty i si bil as i ty X X Ri su sk r an ma ce na X X X X I ss ge ue me r es nt olu t io n PMO - Business Unit Alignment 22
  • 23. Project / Initiative - Governance Review Initiative # Initiative Description Initiative Deliverables   Key Resources Required Inputs / Dependencies   Key Stakeholders Costs / investments Required   Initiative Project Sponsor Initiative – Project Owner   Scope – In & Out Business Benefits   23
  • 24. PMO inter-relationship with Project Portfolio, Programs & Projects
  • 25. Project Portfolio Mngt & Governance Project Portfolio Management (PPM) and Governance Process Enterprise Information (Critical Success Factors, Strategy/Goals/Objectives, Key Performance Indicators) Governance Process (Project Selection Criteria, Track - Project Goal Achievement , Customer Experience) PPM - Information Portal PPM Support Tool PPM Reports / Score Card / Dashboard PM Resource Pool PM Skills Development, Coaching, Mentoring PPM Repository PM Methodology, Standards, Templates, Tools, Checklist Project Management Office or Program Management Office (PMO) PMO Support Tool PMO Reports / Score Card / Dashboard PMO Repository PMO – Specific Methodology Options, Tools, Checklists Programs & Projects (Pg / Proj) Pg / Proj #1 - Repository / Status Infor. Control, Communication, Documentation, Lesson Learned Pg / Proj #2 - Repository / Status Infor. Control, Communication, Documentation, Lesson Learned Pg / Proj #3 - Repository / Status Infor. Control, Communication, Documentation, Lesson Learned 25
  • 26. Org Structure – PMO & Projects PSC members – Names Project Steering Committee (PSC) Stakeholder Forums / Committees  Project director – Name  Project Advisor – Name    Project co-ordinator – Name Project Management Office (PMO)  Project Quality Assurance – Name Project support – Name Management Consultant – Name  Master planning – Name  Risk Advisor – Name Sub-project owner Sub-project owner Sub-project owner Sub-project owner Sub-project owner Sub-project owner Sub-project owner Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Sub-project # 1 Sub-project # 2 Sub-project # 3 Sub-project # 4 Sub-project # 5 Sub-project # 6 Sub-project # 7 External Procure to Pay Order to Cash Product Life APS / MES / Lean / Six Innovation / Sustainability Help Desk service Cycle Mngt SCADA Sigma NPD providers Finance Service Human resources Provider # 1 Technical / Quality Control Service Support Provider # 2 Sales & Marketing Teams Engineering / Manufacturing Service Provider # 3 Distribution / Logistics Service Materials Management Provider # 4 26
  • 27. PMO – Functions, Types, Resourcing, Methods & Control
  • 28. PMO - Functions Project registration Tools and techniques Training Ongoing education Maintaining the methodology The project handbook Promoting best practice Project Conducting project reviews External seminars definition Check & Project Executive approve Information & Maintain the project intranet Recording lessons learned support Manage projects Assigning project mentors & contracts Certification Administration Cultural Operational 28
  • 29. PMO Types Centre of Project Office Basic PMO Standard PMO Advanced PMO Excellence Single Tactical vs. No one size. vs. Multiple It depends on.. Strategic PM maturity Vision & goals of sponsor PMO drivers / business needs Business / organisation mission Political & cultural environment Departmental Number of projects Internal vs. Organisation size vs. Enterprise Etc. Etc External Authoritative ~ Advisory 29
  • 30. PMO – Authoritative ~ Advisory Authoritative Hybrid Advisory • Provides a centralised • Assumes ownership over • Ownership of standards, supporting function to assist execution of business unit processes and performance projects with policies, projects - managing “ the reporting procedures, resourcing program ” • Delivery accountability • Delivery accountability • Central management of remains with the PM and remains with the PMs and Business Unit resources; project staff are business units “loaned out” to business units • Support for training, project • Provides centralised resourcing • Manage external staff training, resourcing & procurement where required procurement support to the • Central coordination of projects / business units communications • Implement standard policies • Supports benefits, and procedures knowledge management • Drives benefits assurance, • Central coordination of knowledge management communications 30
  • 31. Resource Management – Across PMO Project Office Basic PMO Standard PMO Advanced PMO Centre of • Identifies project • Provides • Introduces Excellence resource needs, guidance for oversight • Manages coordinates utilisation of capability for standards of • Collaborates with project resource essential project project resources performance for HR and business acquisition and resources project resources units to determine assignment • Implements resource • Establishes basic practices for • Develops formal utilisation • Manages project procedures for acquisition of procedures for requirements resource requesting and project resources deployment of performance assigning project project resource • Forecasts resources • Collaborates utilisation of requests and • Conducts project resources • Prepares routine assignments for competency reports project resources assessments for • Identifies needs documenting project resources and recruits project resource • Implements project resources assignment and guidance for • Monitors & utilisation project resources evaluates performance performance of project resources management 31
  • 32. PMO – Methods & Support Model PMO PMO Support Methods 1.1 Project Mngt Delivery Life Project Consulting / Contracts / Process Cycle Control* Mentoring Procurement Process Life Cycle Schedule Startup SOW Definition Definition Assistance Assistance Assistance Initiation COTS / Open Time Tracking JIT RFP Source` Assistance Assistance Planning Design Code Library Risk Bid Evaluate Test Maintain Management Assistance Executing Waterfall Communi- Contract Project cation Recovery Tracking Controlling RAD / Agile Project Procurement Management Visibility Consulting Closing Spiral QA / * See Next Slide Governance 32
  • 33. PMO – Support & Control Model Support PMO Control • Master Project Schedule • Project Audits • Issue Tracking/Reporting • Business Case • PM tools and tools support • Project Approval • Integrated Project Reporting • Project Prioritisation • Project Document Repository • Project Management • Project administrative support • Contract Management • Project Consulting and mentoring • Resource Management • PM coaching / training / certification • Cost and Schedule Control • PM standards, methodology, processes • Project Portfolio Management 33
  • 35. PMO – Continuous Improvement  Phased approach Review Slide (PMO Life Cycle – Critical Success Factors)  Obtain Management Buy-in  Organisation alignment  Define initial steps  Define PMO - “services”  Justify value  Define & measure results  Project Management Standards  Capability Development  Stakeholder Management  Center of Excellence  Continuous Improvement 35
  • 36. PMO – Phased Implementation Schedule Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 High Level Planning Manage Stakeholder Expectations As ~ Is To ~ Be Knowledge Continuous Assessment Assessment Portal Improvement Method / Tool Capability Development Development PMO Pilot - Implementation Multi-site Rollout 36
  • 37. PMO – Planning & Assessment
  • 38. PMO… Where to Start ? Project Admin Project Mngt Program Mngt PM - Centre of Strategic Proj Excellence Office • Proj Reporting • PM standards, • Coordination of • PM recruiting • Project • Proj Costing guidelines, large projects or interviewing selection, • Proj Metrics methodologies programs • Reporting prioritisation & • Proj Comm. • Tools & relationships approval • Proj Portfolio techniques • Coordination process maintenance across multiple • Career planning • Training, projects & development • Project Portfolio • Proj Library mentoring, Management (resources, cost coaching, team • Project structure • PM advocacy vs. budgets, building • PM best • Strategic risks, QA, • Project practices planning & lessons learned, • Facilitation of standards • Proj measures, alignment Artifacts, re- project peer metrics, usable reviews benchmarking • Resource components) • Risk & issue allocation management • Continuous • Project recovery improvement • PM support • Quality services Assurance 38
  • 39. PMO – High Level Planning Nominate and Review Tools, Communicate Develop PMO Conduct First Confirm PMO Processes & PMO Goals Master Plan PMO Session Team Templates  Identify,  Structure PMO  Review process,  Conduct work-  Confirm logistics nominate and with relevant identify areas for shops with key & communicate obtain approval stakeholders improvement stakeholders timing and for the PMO agenda of first leadership from  Communicate  Define, develop  Prioritise PMO session senior involvement and and distribute - initiatives and management PMO tools, processes conduct high-  Discuss issues, expectations and templates level review of dependencies, any (inter) project plan  Engage & obtain  Define and (re) dependencies & recommendation buy-in on develop - overlaps & role of PMO program project reporting, going forward objectives and risks, issue,  Consolidate approach change and initiative project  Distribute communication plans into a program-related management consolidated process processes master plan information 39
  • 40. PMO – Initial Assessment Areas Existing Organisation Process Project Culture Management Existence of Maturity Flexibility of the documented organisation processes Value placed on project Adaptability to Effectiveness of management change existing processes Commitment to project Business strategy Consistent adherence management alignment to documented processes Effectiveness / success Clarity of of projects organisational roles Accessibility of and responsibilities documented Existence of a processes standardised project life Attitude towards cycle or methodology projects – expense / Measures in place to investment control projects Level of training 40
  • 41. Remember…  PMO Charter  Change Management  Implementation Strategy  Staff - Training / Coaching  Metrics / Performance  Critical Success Factors  Project Management Practices - Maturity 41
  • 42. PMO – Charter Development Scope Memo • Business Needs • Mission / Vision • Sponsor • Goals/Objectives • Type • Sponsor • Maturity • Service Offering • Resourcing • PMO Governance • Functions • Key Performance Metrics • Methods • Funding model • Control • ROI Analysis 42
  • 43. PMO – Culture / Change Management Firm’s Change Political Culture Management Landscape PM maturity Assess impact of Winners/Losers change PMO charter Management Resistance Support Existing skill level Inform Key driver Educate Implementation Involve strategy 43
  • 44. PMO – Implementation Strategy Incremental Revolutionary Drivers • Lower start up costs • PMO charter • Higher startup costs • Will take longer to • PM maturity • Implementation risks demonstrate ROI • PMO drivers higher • Implementation risks • PMO Roadmap • May be able to lower • Perception of value demonstrate quicker • More suitable if high • Political environment ROI resistance to change • Culture / Value System • More suitable, if crisis and low management • Sponsor and or recognition at high support management support level that change is imperative 44
  • 45. PMO – Resourcing Approach Skills • In-house resources • Project Manager • Hybrid (In- house / • Project Portfolio Manager contractors) • PMO Director / Manager • Ad hoc contractors • Administrative Support augmentation • PM Process / Methodology Trainer • Relationship / Account Manager • Tools Support / Administration • Librarian / Document Control 45
  • 46. PMO – Performance Metrics Internal focus - Measure and demonstrate Executive focus - Measure and performance or quality of PMO functions Fu demonstrate value to business nc PMO budget & improvement PMO e tio performance al u Justify existence na sV Baseline or benchmark performance lP Expressed primarily in dollars es er savings / revenue or ROI sin Expressed ( percent or counts ) fo depending on functions performed rm Bu PMO vs. Project Metrics an ce Service Level Customer focus - Measure and demonstrate service level or quality of service to customer Service Level / Operational Level Agreements Select the most important value to stakeholder community 46
  • 47. PMO – Success Factors Review Slide (PMO Life Cycle – Critical Success Factors) Sponsor Clear reports Charter to Board Top Continuous Bottom Down Improvemen Up Buy- Support t / communi- in cation Manage Training Stake- / Coach holder 47
  • 49. PMO – Implementation Roadmap Organisation- Project Initiation Project Office Project Office Wide Standards and Planning Establishment Infrastructure Development Rollout and Operations Training Transition Stage Project Closure Stage Preparation 49
  • 50. Initiation & Planning - Deliverables  Charter  Objectives  Project Plan  Project Scope  Project Budget  Business Case  Success Factors  Measures & Metrics  Project Organisation  Project Standards & Control Procedures  Educating Top Management & Project Staff 50
  • 51. Establishment - Deliverables  Project Office Budget  Project Office Staffing Plan  Project Office Facilities Plan  Project Office Communication Plan  Project Office Documentation Plan  Project Office Organisation Structure 51
  • 52. Office Infrastructure - Deliverables  Project Office Guidebook  Projects Base-lining Procedures  Project Office Interface Structure  Software and Hardware Procedures  Operational Management Procedures  Standard Projects Justification Criteria  Security and Budget Control Procedures  Communication and Staffing Procedures  Projects Resource Allocation Procedures  Projects Meeting and Reporting Guidelines  Measurement & Exception Management Procedures 52
  • 53. Org Standards - Deliverables  ISO  CMMi  Project Planning  Requirements Management  Software Quality Assurance  Software Configuration Management  Software Subcontract Management  Software Project Tracking and Oversight 53
  • 54. Training Rollout - Deliverables  Rollout Approach  Rollout Scope Document • Objectives • Risks and Constraints • Other Initiatives  Rollout Increments  Training Strategy  Change Resistance Strategy 54
  • 55. Transition - Deliverables  Project Office Support  Project Office Reports Based on Transition Stage Performance  User Feedback & Process Improvements 55
  • 56. Operations Stage - Deliverables  Process for Projects Assessment & Prioritisation  Ongoing Projects  New Projects  Project Office Reporting on Projects  Cost Analysis  Time Analysis  Performance Analysis  Assessment of Project Office Activities 56
  • 57. Project Closure – Deliverables  Lessons Learned  Project Closure Meeting  Process Improvement Report  Project Performance Measures  Action Plans for Remaining Open Items  Maintenance Guide for Project Office Activities  Celebration of Success! 57
  • 58. Note …. PMO PMO is the Develop a evolution is “enabler” sound a journey but senior Business with managemen Case and a manageable t has to be positive ROI phases the “driver” Ensure PMO Train and manager coach Users has prior on PMO PMO process experience Send PMO PMO vision Create staff to the and an Managemen trenches overall t awareness and avoid strategic on PMO “ivory tower” plan approaches syndrome 58
  • 59. PMO – Lessons Learned
  • 60. Lessons learned  Celebrate small wins / success  Cater reporting to stakeholder needs  Tell management about the successes  Write a Project Management Handbook  Provide monitoring and advisory services  Create PMO services across the spectrum  Create a Lessons Learned Database / Portal  Standardise – methods, process, tools, techniques, checklists etc 60
  • 61. Advanced PMO Model for Project Portfolio Management
  • 62. Advanced PMO Model Traditional Advanced • Process leadership • Thought leadership • Tools as a “map” • Tools as a “compass” • Based on rules • Based on guiding principles • Focus on efficiency • Focus on effectiveness & innovation • Focus mostly on tactical issues • Focus on strategic & cultural issues • Science of project management • Art and craft of project management • Internal process focused • Focus on end products & customers • Emphasis on monitoring & • Emphasis on collaboration control • “Agile” methods and practices • “Heavy” methods and practices • Adaptive and innovative practices • Defined, repeatable, optimised • Balanced management, practices governance and leadership • Heavy management and governance 62
  • 63. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit.” - Aristotle 63