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- 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) - <br />KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION SCHEMES<br />Ruchi Sharma<br />ruchisharma1701@gmail.com<br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 2. Contents<br /><ul><li>Quick Recall – AI concept
- 3. Knowledge Representation – Concept & Features
- 4. Knowledge Representation - Techniques/Schemes
- 5. Understanding Semantic Networks – Facts
- 6. Understanding Semantic Networks – Examples
- 7. Understanding Frames – Facts
- 8. Understanding Frames – Examples
- 9. Understanding Propositional Logic & FOPL – Facts
- 10. Understanding Propositional Logic & FOPL - Examples
- 11. Understanding Rule-based Systems - Facts
- 12. Understanding Rule-based Systems - Examples</li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 13. Quick Recall – AI Concepts<br />Artificial Intelligence deals with creating computer systems that can <br /><ul><li>simulate human intelligent behaviour in a particular domain
- 14. learn new concepts and tasks
- 15. reason & draw conclusions
- 16. learn from the examples & past related experience</li></ul>A computer possessing artificial intelligence( an expert system) has two basic parts <br /><ul><li>Knowledge Base – containing the knowledge it uses
- 17. Inference-control unit – which facilitates the appropriate & contextual use of KB</li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 18. Knowledge Representation – Concept & Features <br /> Knowledge representation is a method used to code knowledge in the knowledge base of an expert system. <br /> An ideal knowledge representation scheme should <br /><ul><li>have inferencing capability
- 19. have a set of well defined syntax & semantics
- 20. allow the knowledge engineer to express knowledge in a language ( which can be inferred)
- 21. allow new knowledge to be inferred from the basic facts already stored in the KB</li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 22. Knowledge Representation – Techniques/Schemes<br /> Different knowledge representation schemes are used today among which the most common are <br /><ul><li>Semantic Networks
- 23. Frames
- 24. Propositional logic & FOPL
- 25. Rule-based system</li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 26. Understanding Semantic Networks - Facts<br /><ul><li>A semantic network is a directed graph with labelled nodes & arrows. Nodes are commonly used for objects & the arrows for relations.
- 27. The pictorial representation of objects, their attributes & relationships between them & other entities make them better than many other representation schemes. </li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 28. Understanding Semantic Networks – An example<br />Let us make a semantic net with the following piece of information<br />“Tweety is a yellow bird having wings to fly.”<br />Fact 1 : Tweety is a bird.<br />Fact 2 : Birds can fly.<br />Fact 3 : Tweety is yellow in color.<br />fly<br />CAN<br />tweety<br />yellow<br />bird<br />A-KIND-OF<br />COLOR<br />wings<br />HAS-PARTS<br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 29. Understanding Frames – Facts <br /><ul><li>Frames are record-like structures that have slots & slot-values for an entity
- 30. Using frames, the knowledge about an object/event can be stored together in the KB as a unit
- 31. A slot in a frame
- 32. specify a characteristic of the entity which the frame represents
- 33. Contains information as attribute-value pairs, default values etc.</li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 34. Understanding Frames - Examples<br />An example frame corresponding to the semantic net eg quoted earlier <br /> (Tweety<br /> (SPECIES (VALUE bird))<br /> (COLOR (VALUE yellow))<br /> (ACTIVITY (VALUE fly)))<br />Employee Details <br /> ( Ruchi Sharma<br /> (PROFESSION (VALUE Tutor))<br /> (EMPID (VALUE 376074))<br /> (SUBJECT (VALUE Computers)))<br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 35. Understanding Propositional Logic – Facts <br /><ul><li>Symbolic logic is a formalized system of logic which employs abstract symbols of various aspects of natural language.
- 36. Propositional logic is the simplest form of the symbolic logic, in which the knowledge is represented in the form of declarative statements called propositions.
- 37. Each proposition, denoted by a symbol, can assume either of the two values – true or false.</li></ul>Eg<br />P : It is raining.<br />Q : The visibility is low. <br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 38. Understanding Propositional Logic – Facts (Contd.) <br /><ul><li>Propositions are also called formulas or well-formed-formulas(wffs)
- 39. Formulas can be atomic or compound
- 40. Atomic formulas – elementary propositional sentences
- 41. Compound formulas – formed from the atomic formulas using logical connectives ( ^, V, !, ~, )</li></ul>eg<br /> R : It is raining and the visibility is low. <br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 42. Understanding Propositional Logic - Examples<br />If given the statements P, Q and S as :<br /> P : It is raining.<br /> Q : The visibility is low. <br /> S : I can’t drive.<br /> Then, the statement “It is raining and the visibility is low, so I can’t drive.” will be formalized as <br /> P ^ Q S <br />If given the statements P & Q as :<br /> P : He needs a doctor.<br /> Q : He is unwell.<br /> we can conclude <br /> Q P<br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 43. Understanding First order predicate logic (FOPL)<br /><ul><li>FOPL was developed to extend the expressiveness of propositional logic.
- 44. It works by breaking a proposition into various parts & representing them as symbols.
- 45. The symbolic structure includes
- 46. individual symbols - some constants as names
- 47. variable symbols – as x, y, a, b etc
- 48. function symbols – as ‘product’
- 49. predicate symbols – as P, Q etc </li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 50. Understanding FOPL - Example<br />Given statements <br /> P: Every bird can fly. <br /> Q : Tweety is a bird.<br /> R : Tweety can fly.<br />Using FOPL, lets define the following <br />B(x) for x is a bird.<br />F(x) for x can fly.<br />P : V(x) ((B(x) F(X))<br />Q : B(TWEETY))<br />R : v(x)(B(x) F(x)) ^ B(TWEETY) F(TWEETY)<br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 51. Understanding Rule-based System – Facts <br /><ul><li>A Rule-based system represents knowledge in the form of a set of rules .
- 52. Each rule represents a small chunk of knowledge relating to the given domain.
- 53. A number of related rules along with some known facts collectively may correspond to a chain of inferences.
- 54. An interpreter(inference engine) uses the facts & rules to derive conclusions about the current context & situation as presented by the user input. </li></ul>Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 55. Understanding Rule-based System – Example <br />Suppose a rule-based system has the following statements <br />R1 : If A is an animal and A lays no eggs, then A is a mammal.<br />F1 : Lucida is an animal.<br />F2 : Lucida lays no eggs.<br />The inference engine will update the rule base after interpreting the above set as : <br />R1 : If A is an animal and A lays no eggs, then A is a mammal.<br />F1 : Lucida is an animal.<br />F2 : Lucida lays no eggs.<br />F3 : Lucida is a mammal. <br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />
- 56. Thank You <br />Ruchi Sharma ruchisharma1701@gmail.com http://www.wiziq.com/tutor-profile/376074-Ruchi<br />

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