Importan refrence of quality


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Importan refrence of quality

  1. 1. The Meaning of Quality Fitness for Consumer Use Producer’s Perspective Consumer’s Perspective Quality of Conformance <ul><li>Conformance to specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>Quality of Design <ul><li>Quality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul>Marketing Production The Meaning of Quality
  2. 2. Eight Dimensions of Quality <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Serviceability </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance to Standards </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Effective management of quality requires the execution of three activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control and Improvement </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quality Control <ul><li>The main outputs of quality control are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process adjustments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are Seven Basic Tools of Quality that help in performing quality control </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quality Assurance <ul><li>Quality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project </li></ul><ul><li>Another goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization </li></ul><ul><li>A quality audit is a structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects </li></ul>
  6. 6. Five Cost Categories Related to Quality <ul><li>Prevention cost : cost of planning and executing a project so it is error-free or within an acceptable error range </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal cost : cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure quality </li></ul><ul><li>Internal failure cost : cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product </li></ul><ul><li>External failure cost : cost that relates to all errors not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement and test equipment costs : capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quality Problem Types <ul><li>Conformance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured performance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency problems </li></ul><ul><li>Product design problems </li></ul><ul><li>Process design problems </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Ways Quality Improves Profitability Figure 6.1 Improved Quality Increased Profits <ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Lower rework and scrap costs </li></ul><ul><li>Lower warranty costs </li></ul>Reduced Costs via <ul><li>Improved response </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Improved reputation </li></ul>Sales Gains via
  9. 9. The Flow of Activities Organizational Practices Leadership, Mission statement, Effective operating procedures, Staff support, Training Yields: What is important and what is to be accomplished Quality Principles Customer focus, Continuous improvement, Benchmarking, Just-in-time, Tools of TQM Yields: How to do what is important and to be accomplished Employee Fulfillment Empowerment, Organizational commitment Yields: Employee attitudes that can accomplish what is important Customer Satisfaction Winning orders, Repeat customers Yields: An effective organization with a competitive advantage
  10. 10. Elements of TQM <ul><li>Continual improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Employee empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Team approach </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions based on facts </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of tools </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier quality </li></ul><ul><li>Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Quality at the source </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Seven Concepts of TQM <ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Employee empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Just-in-time (JIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Taguchi concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of TQM tools </li></ul>
  12. 12. Traditional TQM Approach to Solving Problems <ul><li>Understand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document the process flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish customer-based measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characterize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect on key measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze data to find root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make data-driven decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste, standardize the process </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. TQM Organization <ul><li>The Director’s job (and managers’ and supervisors’) is to support the front-line employees who work with the customers </li></ul><ul><li>Note the presence of customers at the top of the hierarchy </li></ul>Customers Employees Supervisors Managers Director
  14. 14. How should we define “Quality”? <ul><li>What does the term quality mean? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quality” represents the extent to which a good/service meets or exceeds customer expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality along many dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality is both “technical” and “personal” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ technical” = objectively measured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ personal” = subjectively measured </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Quality Problem Types <ul><li>Conformance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured performance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency problems </li></ul><ul><li>Product design problems </li></ul><ul><li>Process design problems </li></ul>
  16. 16. LEAN Variation Reduction <ul><li>Predictability </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Waste Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle Time </li></ul><ul><li>WIP Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Operations and Design </li></ul>Lean DMAIC ELIMINATE WASTE, IMPROVE CYCLE TIME DESIGN PREDICTIVE QUALITY INTO PRODUCTS ELIMINATE DEFECTS, REDUCE VARIABILITY DFSS <ul><li>Requirements allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Capability assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Robust Design </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable Product Quality </li></ul>Design for Six Sigma Process Improvement Triad
  17. 17. The Juran Trilogy <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>These three processes are interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>Control versus breakthrough </li></ul><ul><li>Project-by-project improvement </li></ul>
  18. 18. Examples of Service Quality Were customer service personnel and the cashierfriendly and courteous? 7. Courtesy Did the customer service personnel seem knowledgeable about the repair? 6. Assurance How long did the customer wait? 5. Time Were customer service personnel willing and able to answer questions? 4. Responsiveness Was the problem fixed? 3. Reliability Was the service center conveniently located? 2. Convenience Were the facilities clean, personnel neat? 1. Tangibles Examples Dimension
  19. 19. <ul><li>Leadership Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key word “Leader”ship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Based Decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sound decisions without data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training and Culture change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and understanding in order for change </li></ul></ul>3 key Principles of Six Sigma
  20. 20. Key Six Sigma Metrics in Services <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul>
  21. 21. Common Six Sigma Tools
  22. 22. Tools for Six-Sigma and Quality Improvement <ul><li>Elementary statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Product design and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Process control </li></ul><ul><li>Process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and teamwork </li></ul>
  23. 23. Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle Cases/examples from classmates 1. Define (D) 2. Measure (M) 3. Analyze (A) 4. Improve (I) 5. Control (C) Customers and their priorities Process and its performance Causes of defects Remove causes of defects Maintain quality
  24. 24. Baldrige Criteria <ul><li>Named after Malcolm Baldrige, Reagan’s Secretary of Commerce who died in office. </li></ul><ul><li>7 part framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on patients & other customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Performance Results </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Market Perceived Value Profile </li></ul><ul><li>RACI Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Selection Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Discussion Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Image KJ </li></ul><ul><li>Translation Worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements KJ </li></ul><ul><li>Importance Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>QFD HOQ #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Pugh Screening Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>QFD HOQ #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Parameter Tree </li></ul><ul><li>CPM Scorecard </li></ul><ul><li>Process Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness KJ </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Stats </li></ul><ul><li>Probability Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Control Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Capability Analysis (variables data) </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute Capability Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement System Analysis </li></ul>DFSS Tools <ul><li>Dimensional Variation Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Carlo Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>DFMEA </li></ul><ul><li>DFA Analysis Worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effects Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence Intervals </li></ul><ul><li>T-Test For Means Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>F-Test For Variances Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Anova </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Regression (Simple Or Multiple) </li></ul><ul><li>Design Of Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>DOE with Centerpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Response Surface Experimental Design </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Response Optimization </li></ul><ul><li>P-Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Robust Design </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Tolerancing </li></ul><ul><li>Life Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Size Planning </li></ul><ul><li>2 Proportions Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Regression Applied To Life Data </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) </li></ul>Where should we spend our time in ME470?
  26. 26. Six Sigma and CMMI CMMI Process Area/Six Sigma Relationships
  27. 27. Six Sigma Tools For Software Development <ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scatter diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling and Simulation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Methodologies: DMADV <ul><li>First three steps are the same </li></ul><ul><li>Define – “the project goals and deliverables for both internal and external customers” </li></ul><ul><li>Measure – “and determine customer needs and specifications” </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze – “the process options to meet the customer needs” </li></ul><ul><li>Design – “the process to meet the customer needs” </li></ul><ul><li>Verify – “the design performance and ability to meet customer needs” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Types of Audits <ul><li>Internal and External </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all departments audited against one element of standard or procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one department audited against all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elements of standard or procedure </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Responsibilities for the Audit <ul><li>Management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define [internal] auditing policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign responsibility of internal audit program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be advised of internal audit outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discussed at management review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Manager: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish & maintain internal audit system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate audits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage corrective action system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advise management audit outcomes </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Business Measures Voice of the Customer Change Management Six Sigma ISO 9001 CMMI Methods & Tools DMAIC DFSS Process Management Mission Systems’ Integrated Approach to Process Improvement ISO 9001 – quality management discipline for project and functional areas Six Sigma – framework for ensuring process improvements support corporate goals CMMI – use of industry best practices in software/systems engineering
  32. 32. Six Sigma Quality <ul><li>Two Types of Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1: Customer Quality - The features that customers want. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2: Engineered Quality - The problems customers do not want. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Intuition – Only cold hard facts </li></ul><ul><li>VOC – Voice of the customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs analysis, eSurvey, Focus Groups, Surveys </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Elements of Six Sigma The Customer The Process The Employee The Customer Customers are the center of any company’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Our customers’ satisfaction is priority number 1. If we don't keep them happy, someone else will. The Process Outside-In Thinking By understanding the transaction lifecycle from the customer's needs and processes, we can discover what they are seeing and feeling. With this knowledge, we can identify areas where we can add significant value or improvement from their perspective The Employee Employees must focus their talents and energies on satisfying customers. Employees are trained in the strategy, statistical tools and techniques of Six Sigma quality. Training courses are offered at various levels: Quality Overview Seminars: basic Six Sigma awareness. Team Training: basic tool introduction to equip employees to participate on Six Sigma teams. Master Black Belt, Black Belt and Green Belt Training: in-depth quality training that includes high-level statistical tools, basic quality control tools, Change Acceleration Process and Flow technology tools. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Training: prepares teams for the use of statistical tools to design it right the first time.
  34. 34. Six Sigma Strategy <ul><li>To achieve Six Sigma quality, a process must produce no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to Quality (CTQ): Attributes most important to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Defect: Failing to deliver what the customer wants </li></ul><ul><li>Process Capability: What your process can deliver </li></ul><ul><li>Variation: What the customer sees and feels </li></ul><ul><li>Stable Operations: Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma: Designing to meet customer needs and process capability </li></ul><ul><li>Customers don't judge us on averages, they feel the variance in each transaction, each product we ship. Six Sigma focuses first on reducing process variation and then on improving the process capability. </li></ul><ul><li>Customers value consistent, predictable business processes that deliver world-class levels of quality. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Steps to Success Right Problem Right People Right Process Right Performance Do it Again
  36. 36. Each must be managed to improve quality and reliability. <ul><li>Non-Conformances come from many sources including: </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes </li></ul>Quality Management Tool Box Culture Complexity Variation Mistakes
  37. 37. Six Sigma Development Model Opportunity Management Champion Strategic Plan Projects Black Belts Green Belts Coaching Awareness
  38. 38. The DMAIC Model At the heart of Six Sigma is a systematic method for analyzing and improving business processes called DMAIC . The model includes five elements:   D efine opportunities  M easure performance  A nalyze opportunity  I mprove performance  C ontrol performance
  39. 39. Six Sigma Process and the Statistical Tools <ul><li>Voice of the Customer (VOC) </li></ul><ul><li>- QFD </li></ul><ul><li>XY Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Process Analysis and FMEA </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Data Integrity and Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>- Common Distributions </li></ul><ul><li>- Central Limit Theorem </li></ul><ul><li>- Sampling Distribution of Mean </li></ul><ul><li>- Basic Probability Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Normal Data Graphical </li></ul><ul><li>Short vs. Long Term Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis (B7) </li></ul><ul><li>- Cause and Effect Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Check Sheets </li></ul><ul><li>- Control Charts </li></ul><ul><li>- Flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>- Histogram </li></ul><ul><li>- Pareto Chart </li></ul><ul><li>- Scatter Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement System </li></ul><ul><li>(Gage) Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Process Capability Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Vari Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>- Confidence Intervals </li></ul><ul><li>- Sample Size </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Means, Variances and Proportions </li></ul><ul><li>- ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>- T-Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Test for Equal Variance </li></ul><ul><li>- Paired Comparison Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Chi-Square </li></ul><ul><li>- Proportion </li></ul><ul><li>- Contingency Tables </li></ul><ul><li>- Point and Interval Estimation </li></ul><ul><li>- Non-Parametric Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Linear Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Regression-Simple and Multiple </li></ul><ul><li>- Measure and Model Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Between Variables </li></ul><ul><li>- Binary Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Process Modeling and Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>- Non-Parametric tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Contingency Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>- Plan and Organize Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Design Principles </li></ul><ul><li>- One Factor </li></ul><ul><li>- Full-Factorial </li></ul><ul><li>- Two Level Fractional </li></ul><ul><li>- Mixture Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Taguchi Robustness Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Response Surface Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>- Steepest Ascent/Decent </li></ul><ul><li>- High Order Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Optimization (EVOP) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Charts </li></ul><ul><li>- Theory, Objectives, Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>- Variable Selection </li></ul><ul><li>- Rational Sub-grouping </li></ul><ul><li>- Selection/Application </li></ul><ul><li>- Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Moving Average </li></ul><ul><li>- Exponentially Weighted </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Average (EWMA) </li></ul><ul><li>- CuSum </li></ul><ul><li>Process Capability Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Function Deployment (QFD) </li></ul><ul><li>Robust Design and Process </li></ul><ul><li>- Functional Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>- Noise Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- Tolerance Design </li></ul><ul><li>- Tolerance and Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Design Analysis and FMEA </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability Fundamentals </li></ul>Analyze A Measure M Define D Improve I Control C
  40. 40. Six Sigma Process and the Management Tools <ul><li>Business Case </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Objective Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Project Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Project Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Project Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Project Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Owners and Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Team Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Team Dynamics and Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Change Agent </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>High Level Process Mapping/ SIPOC </li></ul><ul><li>( Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Output, and Customers) </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Design for (X) </li></ul><ul><li>- Manufacturing (DFM) </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost (DFC) </li></ul><ul><li>- Test (DFT) </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintainability (DFMA) </li></ul><ul><li>- Quality/Reliability (DFQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Design Tools </li></ul><ul><li>- Inventive Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>- Axiomatic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>- Lean Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- Theory of Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>- Continuous Flow Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>- Non-Value Added Activities </li></ul><ul><li>- Cycle Time Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>- Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Factory, Kanban, Poka-Yoke </li></ul><ul><li>Solution Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>- Mistake-Proofing (Poka-Yoke) </li></ul><ul><li>- Visible Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>The Six Sigma Journey </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise View </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Business Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Goals/Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Tools (N7) </li></ul><ul><li>- Activity Network Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Affinity Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Interrelationship Digraph </li></ul><ul><li>- Matrix Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Prioritization Matrix/Grid </li></ul><ul><li>- Tree Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Process Decision Program Chart </li></ul><ul><li>What’s Next-Six Sigma Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Control Plans </li></ul><ul><li>- Training </li></ul><ul><li>- Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>- Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>- Response </li></ul><ul><li>- Systems and Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practice Sharing/Translation </li></ul>Analyze A Measure M Define D Improve I Control C
  41. 41. Problem Solving <ul><li>Problem : any deviation between what “should be” and what “is” that is important enough to need correcting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semistructured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ill-structured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving : the activity associated with changing the state of what “is” to what “should be” </li></ul>