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for the safety of
for the safety of
Livestock Products
Livestock Products
Presented by:
Irshad A.Irshad A.
PhD. Scholar
DP...
IntroductionIntroduction
1
History & DefinitionsHistory & Definitions
2
Principles of HACCPPrinciples of HACCP
3
Conclusio...
HACCP SYSTEMHACCP SYSTEM
What is HACCP?
Hazard Analysis
Critical Control Point
Food Safety Management System
It Identifies...
IntroductionIntroduction
• Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP)
system leads to the production of microbiologica...
““Farm-To-Table”Farm-To-Table”
Brief HistoryBrief History
Brief HistoryBrief History
HACCP was 1st
developed in the 1960s to
ensure food safety for the first manned
National Aeron...
Brief HistoryBrief History
WHO Europe recommends HACCP.
1959 The Pillsbury Company develops concept for NASA.
1971
HACCP- ...
Brief HistoryBrief History
FAO/WHO provide guidance for regulatory assessment
of HACCP
1985
The Food and Nutrition Board o...
Brief HistoryBrief History
1998 HACCP becomes mandatory for large meat and
poultry manufacturers
1999 HACCP becomes mandat...
The need for an effective food safetyThe need for an effective food safety
assurance methodassurance method
Food borne di...
Terms and definitions used in HACCP planningTerms and definitions used in HACCP planning
and implementationand implementat...
Term Definition
Critical Limit A criterion that must be met for each preventive measure
associated with a critical control...
Term Definition
Monitor To conduct a planned sequence of observations or
measurements to assess whether a CCP is under con...
Who are all involved in HACCP??Who are all involved in HACCP??
The objectives of application of the HACCP systemThe objectives of application of the HACCP system
Reduction of
costs
of f...
Building and
Equipment design
Cleaning and Sanitization
Proper facilities
Storage (Cold, Dry, Chemical)
Service (Potable W...
Prerequisite programmesPrerequisite programmes
Maintenance
Waste management
Pest control
Approved
Suppliers
Staff Training...
Initial steps necessary to develop a HACCP planInitial steps necessary to develop a HACCP plan
(1) Assemble the HACCP Team...
Seven Principles of HACCPSeven Principles of HACCP
1. Conduct a hazard analysishazard analysis
2.2. Identify the CCPsIdent...
Hazard analysisHazard analysis Critical limitsCritical limits Corrective actionCorrective action
Identify theIdentify the
...
Principle 1. Conduct a hazard analysisPrinciple 1. Conduct a hazard analysis
 A list of steps in the process where signif...
Principle 2. Identify the CCPs in the processPrinciple 2. Identify the CCPs in the process
 A Critical Control Point is d...
Principle 3. Establish critical limitsPrinciple 3. Establish critical limits
 Critical limits must be established for pre...
Principle 4. Establish CCP monitoring proceduresPrinciple 4. Establish CCP monitoring procedures
 Procedures must be esta...
Principle 5. Establish corrective actionPrinciple 5. Establish corrective action
 Corrective action has to be taken when ...
Principle 6. Establish procedures for verification thatPrinciple 6. Establish procedures for verification that
the HACCP s...
Principle 7. Establish effective recordkeepingPrinciple 7. Establish effective recordkeeping
proceduresprocedures
 The ap...
1. ASSEMBLE HACCP TEAM1. ASSEMBLE HACCP TEAM
2. DESCRIBE PRODUCT2. DESCRIBE PRODUCT
3. IDENTIFY INTENDED USE3. IDENTIFY IN...
Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP
4. CONSTRUCT FLOW DIAGRAM4. CONSTRUCT FLOW DIAGRAM
6. HAZARD ANALYSIS6. HAZARD ANAL...
HAZARD ANALYSISHAZARD ANALYSIS
LIST HAZARDSLIST HAZARDS
BIOLOGICAL
CHEMICAL
PHYSICAL
BIOLOGICAL
CHEMICAL
PHYSICAL
LIST PRE...
DO PREVENTATIVE
MEASURES EXIST?
DO PREVENTATIVE
MEASURES EXIST? NO
SEE NEXT SLIDE
NO
SEE NEXT SLIDE
YES
GO TO
NEXT QUESTIO...
DO PREVENTATIVE
MEASURES EXIST?
DO PREVENTATIVE
MEASURES EXIST?
NO
NOT A CCP
REPEAT FOR NEXT
HAZARD OR STEP
NO
NOT A CCP
R...
IS STEP DESIGNED
TO ELIMINATE
OR REDUCE HAZARD?
IS STEP DESIGNED
TO ELIMINATE
OR REDUCE HAZARD?
CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION...
Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP
8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS
9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MON...
IS STEP DESIGNED
TO ELIMINATE
OR REDUCE HAZARD?
IS STEP DESIGNED
TO ELIMINATE
OR REDUCE HAZARD?
CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION...
COULD CONTAMINATION
HAZARD OCCUR
OR INCREASE ?
COULD CONTAMINATION
HAZARD OCCUR
OR INCREASE ?
NO
NOT A CCP
REPEAT FOR NEXT...
WILL SUBSEQUENT STEP
ELIMINATE OR REDUCE
HAZARD?
WILL SUBSEQUENT STEP
ELIMINATE OR REDUCE
HAZARD?
CCP DECISION TREE QUESTI...
Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP
8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS
9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MON...
Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in
HACCP
DEVIATIONDEVIATION
9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MONITORING SYSTEM
12. RECORDS AND DOCUMEN...
Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in
HACCP
9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MONITORING SYSTEM
IN CONTROLIN CONTROL10. CORRECTIVE
ACTION
...
Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in
HACCP
12. RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION12. RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION
11. VERIFICATION11. VERI...
Designing a HACCP planDesigning a HACCP plan
The development of an HACCP plan for meat
processing begins with the constru...
Fig.1.A flow diagram for the production of frozen cooked chickenFig.1.A flow diagram for the production of frozen cooked c...
 To begin the HACCP process, a raw material control decision
tree has to be drawn in which a few questions should be
rais...
Raw material control decision treeRaw material control decision tree
Application of HACCP principlesApplication of HACCP principles
Principle 1. Hazards and risks
Raw meat is a sensitive ing...
Principle 2. CCPs
Assuming the chicken meat has been
produced and handled under GMP; step 5 is
the undisputable CCP1, sin...
Principle 3. Critical limits
Temperature is the critical parameter from steps 1
to 9
It consists of proper refrigeration...
Principle 4. Monitoring HACCP
Use chart recorders for steps 2 to 4, use
thermometers for steps 5 and 6, and
temperature r...
Principle 5. Corrective actions
These refer to deviations from critical
limits identified during monitoring of
CCPs.
Spe...
Principle 6.Verification
Overall this is an assessment of how
effective the HACCP system is performing.
Typically some m...
Principle 7. Record Keeping
This should be done by product lot number
in such a way that records are available to
verify ...
HACCP CertificationHACCP Certification
BIS offers two Certification schemes to the food industry.
i) HACCP Stand-alone Cer...
Limitations of HACCPLimitations of HACCP
 HACCP requires the education of non professional food handlers,
especially in t...
ConclusionsConclusions
 HACCP program empowers people to focus their attention
on prevention rather than digging out the ...
HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products
HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products
HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products
HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products
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HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products

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HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products

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HACCP for the safety of Livestock Products

  1. 1. for the safety of for the safety of Livestock Products Livestock Products Presented by: Irshad A.Irshad A. PhD. Scholar DPV (N) 14001 (LPT) Department of Livestock Products Technology (Meat Science)
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction 1 History & DefinitionsHistory & Definitions 2 Principles of HACCPPrinciples of HACCP 3 ConclusionsConclusions 4 OverviewOverview
  3. 3. HACCP SYSTEMHACCP SYSTEM What is HACCP? Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Food Safety Management System It Identifies, Evaluate and Controls Hazards which are Significant for Food Safety Raghavendra Adiga
  4. 4. IntroductionIntroduction • Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system leads to the production of microbiologically safe foods by analysing the hazards of raw materials that may appear at the processing and at the consumer end. • The HACCP system improves product safety by anticipating and preventing health hazards before they occur. • This concept enhances consumer confidence in the food industry while motivating developing countries to build a firm food safety control system for export.
  5. 5. ““Farm-To-Table”Farm-To-Table”
  6. 6. Brief HistoryBrief History
  7. 7. Brief HistoryBrief History HACCP was 1st developed in the 1960s to ensure food safety for the first manned National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space missions. NASA required a ‘zero defect’ program to guarantee safety in the foods astronauts consumed in space.
  8. 8. Brief HistoryBrief History WHO Europe recommends HACCP. 1959 The Pillsbury Company develops concept for NASA. 1971 HACCP- presented at the US National Conference on Food Protection. 1972 The Pillsbury Company in the United States began the application of its HACCP concept to the manufacture of its consumer food products. 1973 Pillsbury published the first comprehensive treatise on HACCP 1973 HACCP system was adopted for the Low-Acid Canned Food Regulations due to Bon Vivant Vichyssoise SoupBon Vivant Vichyssoise Soup incidenceincidence 1980 WHO/ICMSF report on HACCP. 1983
  9. 9. Brief HistoryBrief History FAO/WHO provide guidance for regulatory assessment of HACCP 1985 The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council/National Academy of Science published two books recommending the HACCP 1989 The U.S. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food (NACMCF) developed and approved a standardized and updated HACCP system for food safety 1990s Codex Alimentarius Commission for Food Hygiene standard embraced HACCP as an internationally accepted method for ensuring food safety 1997 FDA’s Seafood HAACP program becomes mandatory 1998
  10. 10. Brief HistoryBrief History 1998 HACCP becomes mandatory for large meat and poultry manufacturers 1999 HACCP becomes mandatory for small meat and poultry manufacturers 2003 FAO/WHO develop HACCP guidelines 2006 Increased worldwide use of HACCP in food safety legislation The HACCP system has grown to become the universally accepted method for food safety assurance WHY ???
  11. 11. The need for an effective food safetyThe need for an effective food safety assurance methodassurance method Food borne disease are a widespread public health problem Emergence of food borne disease Increased knowledge and awareness of the serious and chronic health effects New food technologies and processing methods Increased awareness of the economic consequences of food borne disease Assurance throughout the food chain
  12. 12. Terms and definitions used in HACCP planningTerms and definitions used in HACCP planning and implementationand implementation Term Definition CCP Decision tree A sequence of questions to determine whether a control point is a CCP. Continuous Monitoring Uninterrupted collection and recording of data such as temperature on a strip chart. Control (a) To manage the conditions of an operation to maintain compliance with established criteria. (b) The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met. Control Point Any point, step, or procedure at which biological, physical, or chemical factors can be controlled. Corrective Action Procedures to be followed when a deviation occurs. Criterion A requirement on which a judgment or decision can be based. Critical Control Point (CCP) A point, step, or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels. Critical Defect A deviation at a CCP which may result in a hazard.
  13. 13. Term Definition Critical Limit A criterion that must be met for each preventive measure associated with a critical control point. Deviation Failure to meet a critical limit. HACCP Plan The written document which is based upon the principles of HACCP and which delineates the procedures to be followed to assure the control of a specific process or procedure. HACCP System The result of the implementation of the HACCP plan. HACCP Team The group of people who are responsible for developing a HACCP plan. HACCP Plan Reevaluation One aspect of verification in which a documented periodic review of the HACCP plan is done by the HACCP team with the purpose of modifying the HACCP plan as necessary. HACCP Plan Validation The initial review by the HACCP team to ensure that all elements of the HACCP plan are accurate. Hazard A biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for consumption.
  14. 14. Term Definition Monitor To conduct a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification. Preventative Measure Physical, chemical, or other factors that can be used to control an identified health hazard. Random Checks Observations or measurements which are performed to supplement the scheduled evaluations required by the HACCP plan. Risk An estimate of the likely occurrence of a hazard. Sensitive Ingredient An ingredient known to have been associated with a hazard and for which there is a reason for concern. Severity The seriousness of a hazard. Target Levels Criteria which are more stringent than critical limits and which are used by an operator to reduce the risk of a deviation. Verification The use of methods, procedures, or tests in addition to those used in monitoring to determine if the HACCP system is in compliance with the HACCP plan and/or whether the HACCP plan needs modification and revalidation.
  15. 15. Who are all involved in HACCP??Who are all involved in HACCP??
  16. 16. The objectives of application of the HACCP systemThe objectives of application of the HACCP system Reduction of costs of food analysis More efficient QA system
  17. 17. Building and Equipment design Cleaning and Sanitization Proper facilities Storage (Cold, Dry, Chemical) Service (Potable Water, ventilation) Personal Hygiene Hand Washing Good Hygienic Habits Prerequisite ProgrammesPrerequisite Programmes
  18. 18. Prerequisite programmesPrerequisite programmes Maintenance Waste management Pest control Approved Suppliers Staff Training Operational Control (policy, procedures, work instructions) Think Hygiene
  19. 19. Initial steps necessary to develop a HACCP planInitial steps necessary to develop a HACCP plan (1) Assemble the HACCP Team (2) Describe the food and its distribution (3) Identify the intended use and consumers of the food (4) Develop flow diagram (5) Verify flow diagram (6) Conduct hazard analysis: (a) identify and list steps in the process where the hazards of potential significance occur (b) list all identified hazards associated with each step (c) list preventative measures to control hazards
  20. 20. Seven Principles of HACCPSeven Principles of HACCP 1. Conduct a hazard analysishazard analysis 2.2. Identify the CCPsIdentify the CCPs in the process 3. Establish critical limitscritical limits for each CCPs 4. Establish CCP monitoringmonitoring requirements 5. Establish corrective actioncorrective action for deviation from the critical limit 6. Establish procedures for verificationverification that the HACCP system is working correctly 7. Establish recordkeeping procedures for documentingdocumenting the HACCP system
  21. 21. Hazard analysisHazard analysis Critical limitsCritical limits Corrective actionCorrective action Identify theIdentify the CCPsCCPs MonitoringMonitoring VerificationVerification && DocumentingDocumenting Principles of HACCPPrinciples of HACCP
  22. 22. Principle 1. Conduct a hazard analysisPrinciple 1. Conduct a hazard analysis  A list of steps in the process where significant hazards occur should be prepared and their preventive measures should be described.  Hazards are categorized into three general areas: biological, chemical, and physical. For the most part, biological, which includes pathogens, is the hazard that most plans are used to prevent.  The challenge that faces the HACCP Team is to determine what are truly significant versus insignificant hazards.  The team must weigh both risk and severity when analyzing hazards. (Stevenson and Bernard, 1995)
  23. 23. Principle 2. Identify the CCPs in the processPrinciple 2. Identify the CCPs in the process  A Critical Control Point is defined as a point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels.  This differs from a Control Point, which is a less specific and important step in the process.  The selection of CCPs is aided by the use of a CCP Decision Tree.  This Decision Tree is designed to allow the Team to ask specific and logical questions to help determine, what is truly a Critical Control Point versus a Control Point or something that could be handled under the GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) or SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures).
  24. 24. Principle 3. Establish critical limitsPrinciple 3. Establish critical limits  Critical limits must be established for preventive measures associated with each identified CCP.  Critical Limits serve as the boundaries for each CCP. Examples of Critical Limits are preventative measures such as temperature, pH, time, moisture level, etc.
  25. 25. Principle 4. Establish CCP monitoring proceduresPrinciple 4. Establish CCP monitoring procedures  Procedures must be established for using the results of monitoring to adjust the process and maintain control.  CCP monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification.  Monitoring is focused on preventing deviations (those occurrences outside the Critical Limits) from happening. If deviations do occur, monitoring will provide the information as to when problems occurred so that corrective action can be taken.  Monitoring is performed best in real-time, i.e., measuring the process as it occurs rather than taking samples and sending to a laboratory.
  26. 26. Principle 5. Establish corrective actionPrinciple 5. Establish corrective action  Corrective action has to be taken when monitoring indicates that there is a deviation from an established critical limit.  There are three areas that corrective action plans address: (a)to determine the disposition of non-compliance product, (b)to fix or correct the cause of noncompliance to assure that the CCP is under control, and (c)to maintain records of the corrective actions that have been taken where there has been a deviation from Critical Limits.
  27. 27. Principle 6. Establish procedures for verification thatPrinciple 6. Establish procedures for verification that the HACCP system is working correctlythe HACCP system is working correctly  Verification is an on-going process that helps in ensuring that the HACCP Plan is doing what it is supposed to do: prevent hazards from becoming a part of the food supply.  Outside experts play an important role in giving input to the Team as to ways to improve the Plan.
  28. 28. Principle 7. Establish effective recordkeepingPrinciple 7. Establish effective recordkeeping proceduresprocedures  The approved HACCP Plan and associated records must be on file at the establishment for documenting the HACCP system.  For the most part, this may be the only part of the HACCP Plan that will be audited or reviewed by customers or regulators. 1. Temperature Charts 2. Cleaning Schedules 3. Pest Control Records 4. Equipment Maintenance Records 5. Training Records 6. Delivery Checks 7. Non conformance Reports
  29. 29. 1. ASSEMBLE HACCP TEAM1. ASSEMBLE HACCP TEAM 2. DESCRIBE PRODUCT2. DESCRIBE PRODUCT 3. IDENTIFY INTENDED USE3. IDENTIFY INTENDED USE Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCPDecision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP
  30. 30. Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP 4. CONSTRUCT FLOW DIAGRAM4. CONSTRUCT FLOW DIAGRAM 6. HAZARD ANALYSIS6. HAZARD ANALYSIS 5. ON SITE VERIFICATION OF FLOW DIAGRAM5. ON SITE VERIFICATION OF FLOW DIAGRAM
  31. 31. HAZARD ANALYSISHAZARD ANALYSIS LIST HAZARDSLIST HAZARDS BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL PHYSICAL BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL PHYSICAL LIST PREVENTATIVE MEASURES LIST PREVENTATIVE MEASURES FOR EVERY STEP IN THE FLOW DIAGRAMFOR EVERY STEP IN THE FLOW DIAGRAM
  32. 32. DO PREVENTATIVE MEASURES EXIST? DO PREVENTATIVE MEASURES EXIST? NO SEE NEXT SLIDE NO SEE NEXT SLIDE YES GO TO NEXT QUESTION YES GO TO NEXT QUESTION CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 1CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 1
  33. 33. DO PREVENTATIVE MEASURES EXIST? DO PREVENTATIVE MEASURES EXIST? NO NOT A CCP REPEAT FOR NEXT HAZARD OR STEP NO NOT A CCP REPEAT FOR NEXT HAZARD OR STEP CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 1CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 1 YES MODIFY STEP PROCESS OR PRODUCT YES MODIFY STEP PROCESS OR PRODUCT NO IS CONTROL AT THIS STEP FOR SAFETY? NO IS CONTROL AT THIS STEP FOR SAFETY?
  34. 34. IS STEP DESIGNED TO ELIMINATE OR REDUCE HAZARD? IS STEP DESIGNED TO ELIMINATE OR REDUCE HAZARD? CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 2CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 2 CCP YES NO GO TO NEXT QUESTION NO GO TO NEXT QUESTION
  35. 35. Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP 8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS 9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MONITORING SYSTEM FOR EACH CCPFOR EACH CCP
  36. 36. IS STEP DESIGNED TO ELIMINATE OR REDUCE HAZARD? IS STEP DESIGNED TO ELIMINATE OR REDUCE HAZARD? CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 2CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 2 CCP YES NO GO TO NEXT QUESTION NO GO TO NEXT QUESTION
  37. 37. COULD CONTAMINATION HAZARD OCCUR OR INCREASE ? COULD CONTAMINATION HAZARD OCCUR OR INCREASE ? NO NOT A CCP REPEAT FOR NEXT HAZARD OR STEP NO NOT A CCP REPEAT FOR NEXT HAZARD OR STEP CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 3CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 3 YES GO TO NEXT QUESTION YES GO TO NEXT QUESTION
  38. 38. WILL SUBSEQUENT STEP ELIMINATE OR REDUCE HAZARD? WILL SUBSEQUENT STEP ELIMINATE OR REDUCE HAZARD? CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 4CCP DECISION TREE QUESTION 4 CCP NO YES NOT A CCP REPEAT FOR NEXT HAZARD OR STEP YES NOT A CCP REPEAT FOR NEXT HAZARD OR STEP
  39. 39. Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP 8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS8. ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS 9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MONITORING SYSTEM FOR EACH CCPFOR EACH CCP
  40. 40. Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP DEVIATIONDEVIATION 9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MONITORING SYSTEM 12. RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION12. RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION 11. VERIFICATION11. VERIFICATION IN CONTROLIN CONTROL 10. CORRECTIVE ACTION 10. CORRECTIVE ACTION
  41. 41. Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP 9. MONITORING SYSTEM9. MONITORING SYSTEM IN CONTROLIN CONTROL10. CORRECTIVE ACTION 10. CORRECTIVE ACTION FOR EACH CCPFOR EACH CCP DEVIATIONDEVIATION
  42. 42. Decision Tree/ Logic sequence in HACCP 12. RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION12. RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION 11. VERIFICATION11. VERIFICATION IN CONTROLIN CONTROL REVIEWREVIEW
  43. 43. Designing a HACCP planDesigning a HACCP plan The development of an HACCP plan for meat processing begins with the construction of a flow diagram for the entire process. The diagram should begin with the acquisition of raw materials and include all steps through packaging and subsequent distribution. A flow diagram for the production of frozen cooked chicken patties is illustrated in Fig. (Tompkin, 1990).
  44. 44. Fig.1.A flow diagram for the production of frozen cooked chickenFig.1.A flow diagram for the production of frozen cooked chicken pattiespatties 1. Receiving (chicken) ↓ 2. Mincing ↓ 3. Mixing ↓ 4. Forming ↓ 5. Cooking (CCP1) ↓ 6. Freezing (CCP2) ↓ 7. Boxing (CCP2) ↓ 8. Distributing (CCP2) ↓ 9. Reheating ↓ 10. Serving
  45. 45.  To begin the HACCP process, a raw material control decision tree has to be drawn in which a few questions should be raised.  When this is done, the answer to all (yes) is mentioned as below. It is likely to find that the raw material must be managed as a CCP.  Q1. Is there a hazard? Raw ground chicken patties are known to be vehicles for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.  Q2.Will the hazard be processed out? This will be achieved in step 5 (cooking)  Q3. Is there a risk of cross contamination? This can occur in steps 7, 8 and 10.
  46. 46. Raw material control decision treeRaw material control decision tree
  47. 47. Application of HACCP principlesApplication of HACCP principles Principle 1. Hazards and risks Raw meat is a sensitive ingredient and the cooked product is subject to recontamination after processing and during distribution.
  48. 48. Principle 2. CCPs Assuming the chicken meat has been produced and handled under GMP; step 5 is the undisputable CCP1, since it can eliminate the hazards. CCP2s may be assigned to steps 6, 7 and 8. CCP1 is the most important and effective CCP of the product. CCP2 is comparatively less important not an absolute CCP.
  49. 49. Principle 3. Critical limits Temperature is the critical parameter from steps 1 to 9 It consists of proper refrigeration temperature in steps 1 to 4; proper cooking temperature in step 5; freezing in steps 6 to 8; and heating in step 9. The overall objective is to keep the fresh chicken meat at or below 4o C at all times, cook patties to 80o C, freeze to -20O C and store at the same temperature.
  50. 50. Principle 4. Monitoring HACCP Use chart recorders for steps 2 to 4, use thermometers for steps 5 and 6, and temperature recorders for step 8.
  51. 51. Principle 5. Corrective actions These refer to deviations from critical limits identified during monitoring of CCPs. Specific corrective actions to be taken should be clearly spelled out. For example, if the target temperature in step 5 is not reached, will the batch be discarded, reprocessed, or assigned to another use?
  52. 52. Principle 6.Verification Overall this is an assessment of how effective the HACCP system is performing. Typically some microbial analysis are done in order, for example, were all relevant pathogens destroyed in step 5? Have the products in retail stores been contaminated after being cooked?
  53. 53. Principle 7. Record Keeping This should be done by product lot number in such a way that records are available to verify the events in steps 2 to 4. Where room temperatures are involved, chart recorder tracings should be kept.
  54. 54. HACCP CertificationHACCP Certification BIS offers two Certification schemes to the food industry. i) HACCP Stand-alone Certification against IS 15000:1998 ii) HACCP based Quality System Certification provides for two Certification through one audit Certification of Quality System against IS/ISO 9000 and Certification of HACCP against IS 15000:1998
  55. 55. Limitations of HACCPLimitations of HACCP  HACCP requires the education of non professional food handlers, especially in the food service industry and in homes.  The failure of the individuals to get a proper understanding of HACCP could lead to its failure.  To be effective this concept must be accepted not only by food processors but also by food inspectors and public.  It is anticipated that experts will differ as to whether a given step is a CCP and how best to monitor such steps. This has the potential of eroding the confidence of others in HACCP.  Even after the best application of HACCP principles at the processor level, there is a need to exercise usual precautions between the purchase and consumption of the product.
  56. 56. ConclusionsConclusions  HACCP program empowers people to focus their attention on prevention rather than digging out the cause after a food borne outbreak occurs.  HACCP is not a set of seven independent principles; each must build on the other.  As with any other endeavour, all components must be working for the total plan to be effective and successful.  This system must be implemented by everyone to better assure a safer food/meat/milk/licestock product supply.

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