YouTube allows billions ofpeople to discover watch andshare originally–created videosStatistics• Over 800 million unique users visit YouTube each month• 72 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute• Traffic from mobile devices tripled in 2011• More than 20% of global YouTube views come from mobile devices• More than 50% of videos on YouTube have been rated or include comments from the community
Citizen journalism The Public Sphere Changing role of mainstream media
Jay Rosenhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcYSmRZuep4Citizen Journalism The act of a citizen, or a group of citizens, playing an active role in the process of collecting analyzing and disseminating news and information…[in order to] provided independent, reliable, accurate, wide-ranging and relevant information that a democracy requires Bowman and Willis (2003) in Antony and Thomas (p1284)
Habermas: A sphere which ‘mediates between society and state, in which the public organizes itself as the bearer or public opinions ‘ Habermas (p50) born around ‘sociological and phenomenological fault lines…the public and the private…experts and citizens…the moral and the ethical’ Goode in Garnham (p208)
Plurality of contemporary social spaces Modern societies can not be seen as homogenous or integrated on issues of public concern Participatory media technologies that allow for the creation and distribution of content
Watch Dogv Guard DogMedia as the 4th Estate Media protecting the interests of the powerful
The press is at once the eye and the ear of thepeople. It is the visible speech, if not the voiceof democracy…there is no such democraticdebating place as in the columns of the press WT Stead in Schultz (1998)
Discussion topic:• How do you interact with YouTube? o For what purposes do you use YouTube? o Has YouTube replaced mainstream news media as a source of news?
On 01.01.09, a group of young men were pulled from a train car at Oakland, California, and handcuffed Grant was seized and pressed facedown on the platform, then shot in the lower back Footage was recorded by multiple train passengers Transit officers attempted to confiscate all cellphone recordings
Goal: to interrogate the manner in which unfiltered media generated by non-media professionals is received by members (citizens) of the general public Analysis of viewer comments of videos – focusing only on comments that directly addressed the act of recording the event Used Orbe and Kinefuchi’s model of critical thematic analysis: Repetition Recurrence forcefulness
Oscar Grant Videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXWSgG-KNng&feature=related What was your initial reaction to the video, considering the research focus of Antony and Thomas?
Those who approved of the pro-active recording of Grant’s death Appreciation for modern communications technologies Internet as a platform for protecting citizen rights and liberties Admiration and support for citizen journalism, while advocating a need for caution
Those who were critical of the video recording of Grant’s death Poor quality of recording Passivity of bystanders
Bentley, C. H. (2011). Citizen journalism: Back to the future? Geopolitics, History and International Relations, 3(1), 103- 118 Garnham, N 2007 Habermas and the public sphere Global Media and Communitcation 3: p201 Goode, L Social news, citizen journalism and democracyNew Media Society 2009 11: 1287 http://www.groundreport.com/content.php?section=about Habermas, J 1974 The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article (1964) New German Critique 1(3) pp 49-55 Schultz, J 1998 ‘Redefining the fourth estate’ in Reviving The Fourth Estate: Democracy, Accountability and the Media, Cambridge; Melbourne: Cambridge University Press http://www.youtube.com/t/about_youtube http://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXWSgG-KNng&feature=related (Oscar Grant video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYlwMWY5PG8&feature=related (Rachael Stern interview) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcYSmRZuep4 (Jay Rosen)