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  1. 1. Name: Student id: Introduction Bluetooth is a method for data communication that uses short-range radio links to replace cables between computers and their connected units. Many companies have been mulling over this idea, but it was Ericsson Mobile Communication that finally (in 1994) started the project that was named Bluetooth. As computerized implementations have grown and become increasingly more common in our environment, there has also been a growing need for cables of varying kinds, to tie all these units together and ensure communication between them. These cables, when they grow into a multitude, are not only unsightly but also increasingly cumbersome to handle, both directly and (even more so) indirectly. Consider this list of drawbacks (below): The Bluetooth Standard A fundamental Bluetooth wireless technology strength is the ability to simultaneously handle both data and voice transmissions. This enables users to enjoy variety of innovative solutions such as a hands- free headset for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronizing PDA, laptop, and mobile phone applications to name a few.
  2. 2. Name: Student id: Core Specification Versions Version Data Rate Version 1.2 1 Mbit/s Version 2.0 + EDR 3 Mbit/s Version 3.0 + HS 24 Mbit/s Specification Make-Up Unlike many other wireless standards, the Bluetooth wireless specification gives product developers both link layer and application layer definitions, which supports data and voice applications
  3. 3. Name: Student id: Spectrum Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. The 2.4 GHz ISM band is available and unlicensed in most countries Country Frequency Range Channels available Europe & USA 2400 - 2483.5 MHz 2402 to 2480 MHz (79 channels) Japan 2471 - 2479 MHz 2473 to 2495 MHz (23 channels) Spain 2445 - 2475 MHz 2449 to 2471 MHz (23 channels) France 2446.5 - 2483.5 MHz 2454 to 2476 MHz (23 channels) Interference Bluetooth technology’s adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) capability was designed to reduce interference between wireless technologies sharing the 2.4 GHz spectrum. AFH works within the spectrum to take advantage of the available frequency. This is done by detecting other devices in the spectrum and avoiding the frequencies they are using. This adaptive hopping allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum, providing users with greater performance even if using other technologies along with Bluetooth technology. The signal hops among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals to give a high degree of interference immunity
  4. 4. Name: Student id: Range The operating range depends on the device class:  Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet  Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 30 feet  Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet
  5. 5. Name: Student id: Power The most commonly used radio is Class 2 and uses 2.5 mW of power. Bluetooth technology is designed to have very low power consumption. This is reinforced in the specification by allowing radios to be powered down when inactive Data Rate Version Data Rate Version 1.2 1 Mbit/s Version 2.0 + EDR 3 Mbit/s Version 3.0 + HS 24 Mbit/s Bluetooth Security Bluetooth wireless technology has, from its inception, put great emphasis on wireless security so that users of this global standard can feel secure while making their connections. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), made up of over 4000 member manufacturers, has a Bluetooth security experts group made up of engineers from its member companies who provide critical security information and feedback that is taken into account as the Bluetooth wireless specification evolves. Product developers that use Bluetooth wireless technology in their products have several options for implementing security. There are three modes of security for Bluetooth access between two devices. Security Mode 1: non-secure Security Mode 2: service level enforced security Security Mode 3: link level enforced security There are many security attacks in Bluetooth world like blue jacking, blue bugging and Car Whisperer I will explain each one in details:
  6. 6. Name: Student id: as for blue jacking, it allows phone users to send business cards anonymously using Bluetooth wireless technology. Blue jacking does NOT involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. These business cards often have a clever or flirtatious message rather than the typical name and phone number. Blue hackers often look for the receiving phone to ping or the user to react. They then send another, more personal message to that device. Once again, in order to carry out a blue jacking, the sending and receiving devices must be within 10 meters of one another. Phone owners who receive blue jack messages should refuse to add the contacts to their address book. Devices that are set in non-discoverable mode are not susceptible to blue jacking. On the other hand blue bugging allows skilled individuals to access the mobile phone commands using Bluetooth wireless technology without notifying or alerting the phone’s user. This vulnerability allows the hacker to initiate phone calls, send and receive text messages, read and write phonebook contacts, eavesdrop on phone conversations, and connect to the Internet. As with all the attacks, without specialized equipment, the hacker must be within a 10 meter range of the phone. This is a separate vulnerability from bluesnarfing and does not affect all of the same phones as bluesnarfing. Another security attack is Bluesnarfing, which allows hackers to gain access to data stored on a Bluetooth enabled phone using Bluetooth wireless technology without alerting the phone’s user of the connection made to the device. The information that can be accessed in this manner includes the phonebook and associated images, calendar, and IMEI (international mobile equipment identity). By setting the device in non-discoverable, it becomes significantly more difficult to find and attack the device. Without specialized equipment the hacker must be
  7. 7. Name: Student id: within a 10 meter range of the device while running a device with specialized software. Only specific older Bluetooth enabled phones are susceptible to bluesnarfing. Finally what is Car Whisperer? The car whisperer is a software tool developed by security researchers to connect to and send or receive audio to and from Bluetooth car-kits with a specific implementation. An individual using the tool could potentially remotely connect to and communicate with a car from an unauthorized remote device, sending audio to the speakers and receiving audio from the microphone in the remote device. Without specialized equipment, someone using the tool must be within a 10 meter range of the targeted car while running a laptop with the car whisperer tool. The security researchers’ goal was to highlight an implementation weakness in a select number of Bluetooth enabled car- kits and pressure manufacturers to better secure Bluetooth enabled devices.
  8. 8. Name: Student id: Different Types of Connectivity Compared To start off the discussion, here is a table to show the major differences between the main types of wireless connectivity and traditional networking. Type Speed Range Comments Wi-Fi 1Mb - 54Mb Range of about 10 m (33 ft). Wi-Fi refers to any of the three 802.11 types of wireless service below, and to future new subcategories yet to be released. Acts like a regular wired network in most respects. Either built in or available as add-on cards or adapters for desktop computers. Bluetoot h 120kb - 723kb 30ft - 300ft Class 3 devices (e.g. in most personal computing type devices) have a short 30ft range, high powered Class 1 devices have the longer range. Either built in or available as add-on cards. 3G 2Mb stationary, wherever suitable cell A largely futuristic technology not much
  9. 9. Name: Student id: 384kb moving with good signal, 144kb moving fast/poor signal phone coverage deployed (yet) in the US which promises amazingly fast data transfer. Sprint PCS Vision and AT&T EDGE (100-130kb) are the closest things to 3G in the US at present.
  10. 10. Name: Student id: Is Bluetooth a Wireless LAN (WLAN)? No, Bluetooth is not intended as a wireless extension of ordinary LANs. Both Bluetooth and WLANs are based upon the IEEE 802.11-standard. But there are too many differences for these systems to replace each others:  Bluetooth hops very fast (1600 hops/second) between frequencies, which does not allow for long data blocks. A Bluetooth channel cannot handle as high data throughput as a WLAN.  Bluetooth relies on ad-hoc-connectivity. This does not square well with (predominantly) server-based LANs. The problem: It uses the 2.4 GHz radio frequency, the same used by wireless LANs based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. But these two technologies have different functions. Bluetooth requires little power and is meant for transmitting small amounts of data (at 1Mbps) over short distances (up to 10 meters). 802.11 connections can range in transmission rates from 2 Mbps to 11 Mbps and at distances from 15 to about 100 meters. Conclusion Bluetooth promises to be a low cost, convenient, and simple way of enabling your various computer devices to talk to each other and to their peripherals. The reality has yet to match the promise, but Bluetooth is becoming more widespread and functional every day. Bluetooth is almost certainly in your future
  11. 11. Name: Student id: References: Word count: 1493 words