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  1. 1. DPRO-91115 Technology Overview Serena Lambiase 25 January 2001Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionSummaryNamed after the 10th century Danish King Harald, Bluetooth is the English translation of his last name"Blatand." Just as King Harald was famous for uniting the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway and for hisextensive travels, Bluetooth technology unites separate entities (peripherals, laptops, PDAs, palmtops,cell phones) and simplifies life for people on the move. This wireless, low-cost radio solution enablessmall devices to communicate between each other and to the Internet and can also be extended to thedesktop so that printers or scanners can communicate with PCs at short range without wires. The concepthas been termed Personal-Area Network or PAN. Bluetooth operates in the 2.4GHz radio frequencyband, offers 721Kb data rates, and has a range of 10 meters.Table of Contents Technology Basics Bluetooth: How It Works Technology Analysis Business Use Benefits and Risks Standards Technology Leaders Technology Alternatives InsightList Of Figures Figure 1: IEEE 802.15 Bluetooth WPANEntire contents © 2001 by Gartner Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believedto be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or forinterpretations thereof. The reader assumes sole responsibility for the selection of these materials to achieve its intended results. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.
  2. 2. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionTechnology BasicsIntroductionThe use of mobile computing gadgets is growing exponentially— according to Gartners Dataquest,annual shipments of mobile phones and handheld computers will reach 900 million within five years.However, most users are aggravated by the difficulties they endure when attempting to have their mobileequipment exchange information: schedules, phone numbers, files, and information with other peoplesequipment. Besides resolving these issues, Bluetooth-enabled PCs and laptops will be capable of cable-free connectivity to peripherals, such as on-the-fly cable-free printing and wireless headsets for cellphones.Bluetooth: How It WorksBluetooth wireless technology is a specification designed to enable wireless communication betweensmall, mobile devices. The original idea behind the technology was to eliminate the need for proprietarycables, which are currently required to enable device connectivity. A typical example would be connectinga digital camera to a PC without cables. Expanding that idea to include all handheld mobile electronicdevices is what Bluetooth is all about.Bluetooth LineageAlthough the Bluetooth specification contains many unique features, it has borrowed heavily from severalexisting wireless standards. These include Motorolas Piano, IrDA, IEEE 802.11, and Digital EnhancedCordless Telecommunications (DECT).• Motorolas Piano was developed with the concept of forming ad hoc "Personal-Area Networks," which was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG to expand the capabilities of the original Bluetooth concept beyond simple cable replacement.• Bluetooth voice data transmission capabilities are derived from the DECT specification.• Object exchange capabilities are derived from the IrDA specifications.• Bluetooth inherits the 2.4GHz ISM band, frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), authentication, privacy, power management, and LAN capabilities from the IEEE 802.11 specification.Bluetooth Wireless ComponentsThere are four major components in any Bluetooth wireless technology system: a radio unit, a basebandunit, a software stack, and application software.The radio unit is the actual radio transceiver that enables the wireless link between Bluetooth devices.Bluetooth currently can have a maximum of 1 milliwatt (mw) of transmitter power, which allows operationover distances of up to 10 meters; however, the Bluetooth specification permits increasing transmitterpower up to 10 mw in the future.The baseband unit is hardware, consisting of flash memory and a CPU, which interfaces with the radiounit and the host device electronics at the hardware level. The baseband hardware provides all requiredfunctionality to establish and maintain a Bluetooth wireless connection between devices. Another namefor the Bluetooth baseband is "Link Control Unit." The baseband protocol supports both circuit-switchedand packet-switched communications using frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) technology.Bluetooth FHSS operates from 2.402GHz to 2.480GHz, dividing this frequency range into 79 1MHz Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 2
  3. 3. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An Introductionsubchannels and hopping from channel to channel at a rate of 1,600 hops per second. Transmitting andreceiving devices must synchronize on the same hop sequence to communicate.Compared with other wireless technologies that operate in the ISM frequency band, Bluetooth usesshorter data packets and a higher hop rate. This makes Bluetooth devices more immune to interferencefrom microwave ovens and other sources of radio frequency (FR) energy, and limits interference betweenusers. Another advantage of FHSS is that it gives users the flexibility of roaming between access devicesin different physical areas.Bluetooth wireless devices can link to a wired network, such as a corporate Ethernet LAN, through an"access point," which includes a Bluetooth transceiver and baseband controller, the circuitry to convertinformation from the Blue Bluetooth format to Ethernet format, and interface circuitry to connect theaccess point to the wired network through a cable. As long as users remain in range of an access device,they can roam about and still use the wired network resources.Communications between Bluetooth devices are normally peer to peer, with each device being equal.However, when two or more devices link into a small ad hoc network called a piconet, one device acts asthe master, and the others are slaves for the duration of the piconet connection. All devices in the piconetare synchronized to the master’s clock and hopping sequence. The Bluetooth specification supports up to10 piconets in a coverage area, with up to eight devices per piconet. Initially, Bluetooth networks are likelyto be limited to two piconets because of software restrictions. Each piconet is identified by a differentfrequency-hopping scheme.• Bluetooth Piconet example: several individuals with Bluetooth-enabled portable computers share a database in a meeting. With automatic synchronization enabled, everyone in the meeting can see any changes made in the shared database on his or her own computer.• Bluetooth Scatternet: Bluetooth supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections; piconets can be linked together into scatternets. A scatternet consists of two or more piconets linked together by one device in each piconet acting as a bridge between the piconets.SecurityThe Bluetooth specification defines three security modes: nonsecure, service-level security, and link-levelsecurity. The device does not initiate any kind of security procedure in the nonsecure mode. Service-levelsecurity offers more flexibility in application access. In the link-level security mode, the device sets upsecurity procedures before the link setup is completed; this allows knowledge of "who" is at the other endof the link and provides authentication, authorization, and encryption services. In spite of these threesecurity modes, current Bluetooth qualification processes do not yet enforce effective securityimplementation, which opens up end users to security risks.Bluetooth Products: Finally HereSince its announcement in 1998, Bluetooth has been the subject of marketing histrionics and hype:wireless headsets, "Smart Cars," wireless Web surfing with Bluetooth-enabled cell phones and Bluetooth-enabled laptops or handhelds, and inexpensive wireless computer networking are just a few of the usesBluetooth vendors have claimed will be available through this still emerging technology.Unfortunately, Bluetooth products, other than components and chips, have primarily been the province ofvaporware; however, a small group of Bluetooth-based products are finally becoming available, with manymore products expected in the immediate future. Bluetooth-enabled PC Cards from 3Com, IBM, andToshiba; headsets from Ericsson and GN Netcom; and phones from Motorola and Ericsson are amongthe first Bluetooth products that are currently hitting the market. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 3
  4. 4. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionThere are several reasons Bluetooth-enabled products have been slow to reach the market: expensivepricing, an extremely rigorous qualification process, insufficient amounts of Bluetooth chips and testingequipment. In addition, there are still software and security issues and a lack of interoperability testing.However, testing equipment and chips are now more readily available, and pricing for the chips hasstarted to drop, which is key to the widespread deployment of Bluetooth-enabled products. Until recently,Bluetooth chips were averaging US$35; prices are currently averaging closer to US$25 and are expectedto drop to US$12 by the fourth quarter of 2001. However, for Bluetooth connectivity products to trulybecome ubiquitous, pricing for the chips will need to drop even further. When Bluetooth chips drop to theUS$1 level, Bluetooth can replace cables for battery-operated devices.Technology AnalysisBusiness Use• Create wireless PANs (WPANs).• Wirelessly share presentations, files, or contacts between laptops.• Synchronize contact information contained on a phone with the contact information on a PDA, notebook, and desktop wirelessly.• Automatically synchronize notebooks and desktops when users walk into a room.• Send pages of information to a Bluetooth-enabled printer without the use of cables.• Replace the cabling now used to connect a handheld device to a PC.• Have wireless headsets that allow users to leave their mobile phones in their briefcases and make hands-free, wire-free phone calls.• Enable notebooks or PDAs to automatically access the Internet through the nearest Bluetooth- enabled device.Benefits and RisksBenefits• It replaces cables within Wireless PANs (PCs, laptops, printers, etc.).• It provides on-the-fly printing (aim a Bluetooth-enabled laptop or handheld device at any Bluetooth- enabled printer; no cables or drivers are required).• Users do not want to employ a single, not-so-great product that purports to do everything; using different best-of-class products geared to the individual situations and needs, and having those best of class products work seamlessly, is preferable. Bluetooth offers this possibility.• Point-to-multipoint capability will allow users to "roam" while performing various applications without worrying about line of sight or distance.Risks• Information could by intercepted by other devices.• There is the possibility of interference in highly congested areas.• Interoperability issues will have to be resolved before wide acceptance. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 4
  5. 5. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionStandardsThe Bluetooth SIGwww.bluetooth.comThe Bluetooth SIG was formed to promote Bluetooth technology. Formed in 1998, the Bluetooth SIG hascreated a network of Bluetooth component vendors to supply equipment manufacturers, from antennasuppliers to coaxial cable vendors. Ericsson, Intel, Microsoft, IBM, and Toshiba were the originaldevelopers of the Bluetooth technology and Bluetooth special interest group (SIG); currently, there arenine promoter companies of the SIG— 3Com, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia,and Toshiba. There are also currently just over 2,000 member companies that are developing Bluetoothproducts.The original Bluetooth 1.0 specification was announced in July 1999. The current Bluetooth spec is now1.0B. Ratified in May 2000, it had interoperability problems, forcing Bluetooth developers back to thedrawing board. A new version, 1.1, is expected to be approved in the immediate future. The upcoming 1.1specification is expected to be the new standard for gauging interoperability. Next on the drawing board isthe possible extension of the Bluetooth specification to the Radio2, or High Rate (HR) Bluetoothspecification. Rates somewhere between 2 and 12 Mbps, or possibly higher, are being considered by theIEEE 802.15.3 Working Group.The IEEE and the IEEE 802.15 WG for WPANs (Bluetooth) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), in existence since 1884, helps advanceglobal prosperity by promoting the engineering process of creating, developing, integrating, sharing, andapplying knowledge about electrical and information technologies and sciences for the benefit of humanityand the profession. The IEEE Working Group for WPANs (Bluetooth) is the IEEE 802.15 WG.The IEEE 802.15.1 Task Group 1 is licensed to create a derivative work from the Bluetooth Specificationv1.x and convert it to IEEE Format.• 802.15.1 (Standard) • Bluetooth derivative that is a formalization of the original spec• 802.15.2 (Recommended Practice) • Coexistence MAC and PHY Modeling• 802.15.3 (Standard) • WPAN-HR, High Rate >20 Mbps• 802.15.4 (Standard) • WPAN-LR, Low Rate 2 Kbps to 200 KbpsFigure 1: IEEE 802.15 Bluetooth WPAN Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 5
  6. 6. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionSource: IEEE 802.15.1 WG for WPANs.Technology Leaders3Com5400 Bayfront PlazaSanta Clara, CA 95052, U.S.A.Tel: +1 408 326 5000Fax: +1 408 326 5001Internet: www.3com.comEricsson MicroelectronicsTelefonaktiebolaget LM EricssonTelefonplanS-126 25 Stockholm, SwedenTel: +46 8 719 00 00Internet: (International Business Machines Corporation)New Orchard RoadArmonk, NY 10504, U.S.A.Tel: +1 914 499 1900 Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 6
  7. 7. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionFax: +1 914 765 7382Internet: Corporation (Santa Clara No. 4)2625 Walsh AvenueSanta Clara, CA 95052-8119, U.S.A.Tel: +1 408 765 8080Fax: +1 408 765 9904Internet: Technologies, Inc.600 Mountain AvenueMurray Hill, NJ 07974, U.S.A.Tel: +1 908 582 8500Internet: www.lucent.comMicrosoft CorporationOne Microsoft WayRedmond, WA 98052, U.S.A.Tel: +1 425 882 8080Fax: +1 425 936 7329Internet:, Inc.1303 East Algonquin RoadSchaumburg, IL 60196, U.S.A.Tel: +1 847 576 5000Internet: www.motorola.comNokia CorporationKeilalahdentie 4PO Box 226FIN-00045 Espoo, FinlandTel: +358 9 180 71Fax: +358 9 652 409Internet: Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 7
  8. 8. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionToshiba America, Inc. (TAI)1251 6th Avenue, 41st FloorNew York, NY 10020, U.S.A.Tel: +1 212 596 0600Fax: +1 212 593 3875Internet:, Toshiba, and Logitech AgreementBoth IBM and Toshiba intend to work with Motorola to offer Bluetooth functionality as a customer optionacross portions of their PC lines. Also, Motorola will work with its Digianswer subsidiary to supply a first-generation embedded solution for use inside PCs and peripheral devices such as printers and dataaccess points. Motorola also has agreed to a joint development effort with Logitech aimed at introducing anew generation of cordless peripherals based on Bluetooth technology.Ericsson and Lucent AgreementEricsson and Lucent have agreed to collaborate on developing and licensing solutions for the Bluetoothwireless technology market.Microsoft and Intel PartnershipIntel announced during June 2000 that it plans to work with Microsoft to integrate its Bluetooth softwarewith Windows. Intel claims that Bluetooth will be native to the Windows operating environment by the firsthalf of 2001. In the interim, Intel will license its current Bluetooth software stack to other vendors. Thestack is already compatible with Windows 98/2000 and offers rudimentary Bluetooth features: filesynchronization, data transfer, dial-up and networking, and the capability of identifying other Bluetooth-enabled devices. Future wireless features from the Intel-Microsoft union will include high-definition audio,video streaming, and sending print commands.Epson AmericaEpson was the first printer vendor to demonstrate printing capabilities using Bluetooth wirelesscommunication technology. Epson claims Bluetooth printing promises to be a business application thatwill enhance convenience in both the office and the home, with advantages over infrared connectivity.Hewlett-PackardHewlett-Packard is working to provide a reliable PAN solution, incorporating Bluetooth technology, to giveusers the ability to eliminate connecting cables and wirelessly synchronize data among notebook PCs,personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, and other peripherals. HP is a member of the BluetoothSpecial Interest Group (SIG) and is leading the development to help establish the Bluetooth 2.0 wirelessstandard. Bluetooth 2.0 is know as "high rate" Bluetooth, or Radio2. The IEEE 802.15.3 Working Group isresponsible for this possible extension to the Bluetooth specification.Bluetooth Phones• Motorola Timeport 270: Accepts a Bluetooth add-on; when paired with Bluetooth PC Cards from Motorola, the new phone allows users to access the Internet on portable computers from up to 30 feet. It could enable wireless mobile connections in larger handheld computers that feature PC Card Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 8
  9. 9. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An Introduction slots. In addition, the Motorola phone could be paired with Compaq Computer Corp.’s Pocket PC- based iPaq and its PC Card expansion jacket. Availability: 1H01.• Ericsson R520m: The R520m is a triple-band mobile phone featuring WAP, GPRS, high-speed data, and Bluetooth wireless technology. It is expected to ship in volume in the first quarter of 2001.Bluetooth HeadsetsBluetooth headsets connect to mobile phones by a radio link instead of a cable. The phone can be up to10 meters (30 feet) away, in briefcases, coat pockets, or in other rooms.• GN Netcoms GN 9000 Bluetooth Headset requires Bluetooth host devices to operate (GN Netcom base station, Bluetooth card, or PDA) at a range of up to 30 feet. The GN Netcom 9000 began shipping during October 2000.• Ericssons Bluetooth Headset has a built-in Bluetooth radio chip that acts as a connector between the headset and the Bluetooth plug on the Ericsson phone. When the phone rings, the user can answer by pressing a key on the headset. The Global launch was in December 2000, except for the U.S., where it is expected to launch by the end of January 2001. This is the first consumer product from Ericsson that utilizes Bluetooth.Bluetooth PC Cards• 3Com Bluetooth PC Card: the antenna pops in and out for better wear. 3Com OEMs its Bluetooth PC Card to Hewlett-Packard. In addition to the PC Card, 3Com has also announced a Bluetooth Access Point and USB adapter; the access point could be used in offices, airports, or other networked public places. Many users could get wireless access to networks through a single Access Point; the Access Point increases Bluetooths range from 10 meters to 100 meters. Delivery is expected in the first half of 2001 for all three products.• IBM Bluetooth PC Card: currently shipping as of 29 December 2000.• Toshiba Bluetooth PC Card: currently shipping in the U.S. since mid-September and in Japan since August 2000.Upcoming: Bluetooth Printing• Epson expects to be able to use a full line of its printers already on the market in conjunction with its Epson Bluetooth Print Adapter; the adapter is expected to be available by the end of the first quarter of 2001.• Lexmark and Axis Communications recently demonstrated a wireless printing solution using a Toshiba laptop computer equipped with a Toshiba Bluetooth PC Card and a Lexmark laser printer equipped with an Axis Bluetooth print device.• Xerox and Compaq held a joint demonstration of wireless printing at Comdex 2000; the demonstration linked a Compaq Armada notebook computer with a Xerox DocuPrint P1210 personal laser printer using a Bluetooth PC-Card that communicates with the printers parallel port. Xerox expects its first Bluetooth-enabled products within the next 12-18 months.Bluetooth and Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities ActBluetooth technology may soon enable workplaces to make document devices, such as printers,accessible to disabled workers. Section 508 of the Americans With Disabilities Act, issued 7 August 2000,requires all U.S. government offices to make information technology accessible to all employees. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 9
  10. 10. Bluetooth Wireless Technology: An IntroductionAccording to Xerox, the long list of necessary modifications could prohibitively increase the cost of thedevices; however, Bluetooth adapters could be added to the devices, which could be controlled by using awide variety of user interfaces designed to compensate for specific disabilities.Technology AlternativesAll of the technologies below are often mentioned as wireless alternatives to Bluetooth. However,Bluetooth was initially developed specifically for use as a Wireless PAN; its key use will largely be as acable replacement for WPANs and pervasive computing.IrDA• IrDA requires line of sight and is limited to point-to-point communication; Bluetooth offers point to multipoint, and line of sight is not necessary.• IrDA is already built into many notebook PCs, printers, and some cell phones, but has a poor user interface and is unable to penetrate walls; Bluetooth can penetrate walls.HomeRF• HomeRF is intended for longer-range links to 2 Mbps and is geared towards a home-LAN approach, linking PCs; DSL routers; or printers, refrigerators, TVs, and other "smart" appliances to PCs.• HomeRF is specifically geared towards the SOHO market. Bluetooth is geared more towards a business environment, such as a personal area network (PAN), and shorter ranges; however, its makers claim that Bluetooth could also be extended for use within the SOHO market.802.11b• 802.11 connections can range in transmission rates from 2 Mbps to 11 Mbps and at distances from 50 to several hundred feet. Bluetooth requires less power and is meant for transmitting small amounts of data at 1 Mbps over short distances (up to 10 meters). The Bluetooth spec has a higher power option that gives it about the same range as 802.11, although that is not expected to be the primary usage of the technology.• Bluetooth provides persistent, wireless connections between different kinds of devices, but it uses the 2.4GHz radio frequency, the same used by wireless LANs based on the 802.11 standard. When a Bluetooth connection collides with a wireless LAN connection, either or both connections can jam, resulting in a transmission error.InsightThe key application for Bluetooth technology in the foreseeable future is cable replacement and WirelessPersonal-Area Networks (PANs). However, in order for Bluetooth to truly become ubiquitous,manufacturers need to start delivering more products to the marketplace, the pricing for the chips mustbecome substantially less expensive, the software must be improved, and there must be moreinteroperability and interference testing. However, Bluetooth is still an emerging technology, andeventually these issues will be resolved. When that happens, the number of Bluetooth-enabled productswill grow exponentially. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91115 25 January 2001 10
  11. 11. DPRO-91113 Technology Overview Serena Lambiase 8 March 2001Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionSummaryWeb-to-host software uses Internet browser technology to allow large numbers of users access toinformation contained within corporate mainframes and promises to strengthen a company’s e-businessstrategy by shortening time-to-market. Until recently, most mainframe usage was accessed with fat-clientterminal emulation connectivity and provided only the proverbial "green screen" interface. The lengthylearning and training curve, software maintenance and user management resulted in steep costs. Web-to-host software changes this scenario— it offers the alluring promise of cutting costs and gaining acompetitive edge. Expensive fat-client connectivity is replaced with a user-friendly GUI, centralizedaccess management, faster responsiveness to business requirements and increased user productivity.Table of Contents Technology Basics Web-to-Host Components Technology Analysis Business Use Benefits and Risks Standards Price vs. Performance Selection Guidelines Technology Leaders Technology Alternatives InsightList Of Tables Table 1: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software Products Table 2: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software Products Table 3: PC-to-Host-ConnectivityEntire contents © 2001 by Gartner Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believedto be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or forinterpretations thereof. The reader assumes sole responsibility for the selection of these materials to achieve its intended results. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.
  12. 12. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTechnology BasicsIntroductionDespite the rise of client/server and network computing, along with Windows NT Server, most mission-critical data still resides on corporate mainframes and midrange computers. A few years ago, industrypundits predicted the demise of corporate mainframes; instead, "Big Iron" sales have actually increased.Why? One reason is the explosive growth of Internet technologies and the promise of e-business. Servingextranet and Internet clients and a growing mobile work force with host data is potentially the foundationfor an enterprise’s World Wide Web presence.What Is Web-to-Host?Web-to-host is connectivity software that enables secure browser-based access to information thatresides on mainframes and other host computer systems. Web-to-host software is designed to turn anyJava-enabled Web browser into a secure workstation. Mainframe and other host applications can beenabled for Web-to-host access without changing source code. The user accesses commercialinformation by using a Web browser. The browser communicates on the Internet by using the HypertextTransfer Protocol (HTTP). Access to proprietary host applications is achieved by using Java appletsembedded within the HTTP code, which are automatically downloaded to the browser client. Some of themore important features touted by most Web-to-host vendors include centralized access management,faster time-to-market for custom e-business applications, improved user productivity and reduced costs.Web-to-Host ComponentsJava Applets and ActiveX Controls: Web-to-host products employ Java applets or ActiveX controls—miniprograms designed to be executed from within a Web browser— which either the emulation serverhas to download for three-tier architectures or for two-tier architectures, the Web Server has to downloadif the Web browser is to talk to the host. The larger the size of the applet or control, the longer thedownload takes; applets can be locally stored or cached to eliminate future downloading for products andcan be downloaded to either the browser or hard drive. The majority of Web-to-host vendors use onlyJava applets; however, some offer a choice of either Java applets or ActiveX controls.• Java: Java applets are inherently safer than ActiveX controls— unlike ActiveX, Java applets do not make changes to the system configuration and cannot touch the hard disk or Registry; this makes them more secure. Java applets have a smaller footprint than ActiveX, which can mean a shorter- download time; this is especially important for remote access users. They are also cross-platform compatible; this is important for enterprises that have a heterogeneous mix of platforms to support. Java-enabled Web-to-host products are a good choice for enterprises that employ cross-platform interactive Web sites.• ActiveX: ActiveX controls have full access to the Windows operating system and can be written to any file on the hard drive, not just within the Web browser. This gives them more robust functionality than Java applets, but can make them less secure. Also, ActiveX controls are currently limited to Windows environments, as opposed to Java applets, which can be written to run on all platforms. ActiveX-enabled Web-to-host products are a good choice for Enterprises that are Windows-centric or maintain Web sites that are highly interactive and application laden.Architecture: Web-to-Host vendors take either a two-tier or a three-tier approach. With two tiers (client-host), the applet communicates directly with the gateway in front of the host. With three tiers (additionalserver), all traffic passes through, or via, the emulation server. In the two-tier model, there is no chance of Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 2
  13. 13. Web-to-Host Software: An Introductionthe emulation server acting as a bottleneck, since traffic does not travel through it— therefore, two-tierarchitecture can be a good choice in situations that require quicker runtime for remote users. In the three-tier scheme, the emulation server could slow things down; however, three-tier provides better scalability.Impact of Architecture on Security: One thing often overlooked when discussing security issues is theimpact of the architecture (two-tier versus three-tier) on security. Two-tier solutions send the entire hostdata stream to the client— even if the client runs some customization which masks the display of sensitivedata, the data still resides in memory on the client, which could create a security exposure. However, ifthe customers are using their own Web-to-host software for trusted users to remote sites, the quickerruntime the customer receives from the two-tier, direct-connect model might be the better choice.Security and Encryption: Web-to-host software exposes the mainframe to the rest of the world, sosecurity is extremely important. All Web-to-host vendors offer elementary password authenticationfeatures, and most offer SSL encryption to protect legacy data passing through the network (RUMBA2000 being the exception). Since there is sometimes a performance penalty to encryption and decryption,it is best to offer a variety of methods and strengths. Sensitive data can use the highest level ofencryption, and more public information can be passed along with less encryption.Web-to-Host Security Methods: A detailed discussion of the security methods employed by Web-to-hostvendors and how they work is beyond the scope of this introductory report. The following list contains abrief discussion of security methods for Web-to-host software.• RACF, ACF and TopSecret are legacy security methods and still command the lions share of the high-end security market. Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) was developed 21 years ago by IBM and lends itself well to the distributed environment; ACF and TopSecret were developed by Computer Associates. Virtually all Web-to-host products support RACF, ACF and TopSecret.• Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is the de facto standard for Web-to-host security. Transport Layer Security (TLS) extends SSL v3 slightly and incorporates it into the Internets open standards process; WRQ is currently the only vendor deploying TLS. SSL works by using a private key to encrypt data that is transferred over the SSL connection. Web pages that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:. Currently, all Web-to-host vendors that employ SSL use server-side authentication, but more recently, some have started to add SSL client-slide authentication for further security.• Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): a system of digital certificates, Certificate Authorities and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an Internet transaction.• Digital/x.509 Certificates: A digital certificate is an attachment to an electronic message used for security purposes; the most widely used standard for digital certificates is X.509.• Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): In addition to its strong directory capabilities, LDAP is increasingly being used by Web-to-host vendors to obtain e-mail addresses and Public Keys, thereby strengthening security.• Virtual Private Network (VPN): These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted. Some Web-to-host vendors have started to add VPN support to their software.• Proxy Servers: For increased security, some Web-to-host venders use proxy servers to sit between the Web browser and server, in order to filter requests. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 3
  14. 14. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionGateways: With Web-to-host software, an SNA gateway strips off the IP encapsulation at the host end.Some vendors package this component with their software; others say their products are designed to talkto third-party gateways, specifically, the SNA Gateway from Microsoft or NetWare for SAA from Novell.Management Support• LDAP: Directories based on LDAP will eventually play a large role in the deployment and management of remote clients. Several Web-to-host vendors have started to support LDAP for their products, because of its strong group and user-management features.• Browser-Based Management: Most of the major Web-to-host vendors offer browser-based management capabilities; it gives administrators the greatest flexibility in managing, configuring and deploying clients, without having to physically manage from one centralized server. This feature alone is often enough to justify moving to Web-to-host technology for many companies, because of the cost-savings that central management brings.Application Server Compatibility: Compatibility with Web application servers (i.e., Netdynamics fromSun and Kiva Enterprise Server from Netscape) can effect the overall response time by reducing thenumber of times a client has to go to the host to access legacy data by caching data locally. Most of themajor Web-to-host vendors support Web application servers.Application Development and GUI Screen Rejuvenation: Prospective Web-to-host customers shouldquery the vendor about the inclusion of HACL, and whether such features as open APIs and VB Scriptand Jscript are supported for customization of applications. Also, most Web-to-host vendors support afeature that allows the "green screen" to be automatically changed to a more user-friendly, GUI-likescreen; this is referred to as an "on-the-fly" GUI. Vendors offer varying degrees of support for this feature,and a minority does not yet offer it at all.Printing Support: The majority of Web-to-host vendors support the capability to print host-based screensto a local printer and copy-and-paste features. However, due to the inherent weakness of Java for printingsupport, the printing features for Web-to-host products that employ Java applets are not as robust as theprinting features available with fat-client computing. For instance, Java does not support graphicsprinting— ActiveX and fat-client PC emulators do. IBM HOD and Persoft Persona 4.3 are currently theonly Web-to-host products that offer improved printing solutions, including PDF capability.Platform Support: Since Java is supposed to be cross-platform, technically any Java-enabled Web-to-host product could be considered platform independent. Indeed, that is what most Web-to-host vendorsclaim. If that is the case, why do we see a detailed list of platforms listed for some vendors, while othervendors simply claim their software will work on any Java-enabled machine?It is not enough for Web-to-host vendors to claim that since their software is Java-enabled, the Web-to-host software will work on any Java-enabled machine running in a standard browser. Despite the hype,the "write once, run anywhere" promise of Java has not yet fully materialized. There are minor differencesbetween the different JVM, some of which can affect product function or performance or both. When auser is evaluating a particular vendors Web-to-host software for an environment that is fairlyheterogeneous, the user should question the vendor as to whether the Web-to-host software has beenpreviously tested with the users various platforms and whether the vendor will guarantee that its Web-to-host software will work with those platforms.Emulation Support: Terminal emulation drivers enable PCs to emulate a particular type of terminal sothat users can logon to a mainframe. All of the Web-to-host products in this class include emulationsupport for mainframe, AS/400 and VT (DEC) emulations; however, some offer a very limited number of Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 4
  15. 15. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionVT emulation levels. Other emulations supported by some, but not all, are for HP, CICS, Linux and WYSE50/60.Technology AnalysisBusiness Use• Corporate intranets/extranets: host access for employees, business partners and remote workers or sales forces.• Custom e-business Applications: custom applications for e-business can be quickly deployed without changing code.• Wireless Web-to-Host: some vendors are designing Web-to-host products for use on personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones to enable business transactions. These Java-based products connect mobile wireless users and business partners to a host.• Financial Industry: Web-to-host vendors claim users can securely access account information, investment performance and execute trades from their Web browser.• Colleges/Universities: students can access grades, registration, admissions, etc; this enables schools to reduce overhead and improve service.• Manufacturing: browser-based access to host information lowers operational costs, expands profit margins and fulfills customers needs. Companies can quickly match buyers with sellers.Benefits and RisksRisks• GUI front-ends are not always an improvement over "green screen" interfaces, particularly for massive data entry or complex application navigation. Switching over entirely to Web-to-host technology in this instance could pose the risk of slowing down production. These types of enterprises may want to incorporate Web-to-host technology for their remote users and casual users, along-side their standard PC-to-host and fat-client technologies.• In spite of the many obvious benefits that come with Web-to-host technology, there are security risks to consider when providing access to legacy applications to business partners, suppliers, customers and employees. Some users may need to support both Web-to-host and PC-to-host concurrently; however, as the security methods used for Web-to-host continue to evolve and improve, this will eventually change.Benefits• The time and expense required to train employees and business partners on traditional terminal screens is eliminated with the more user-friendly GUI that most people are already familiar with; costs are lowered even further with the central administration of applications formerly on fat-client PCs and simplified maintenance.• Now that the expenditures and time spent on Y2K issues are over, many corporations are looking for ways to quickly and inexpensively put legacy business systems and data on end-user desktops, hoping to expedite their e-business strategies.• Web-to-host computing reduces or eliminates the challenges of remote backup and data security; since all data remains on the central server, backup of data from remote laptops and PCs is not required. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 5
  16. 16. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionStandardsOpen Host Interface Objects (OHIO)Although Web-to-host vendors incorporate very similar technologies and features within their products,there has yet to emerge a common, nonproprietary Web-to-host connectivity standard. IBM andAttachmate hope to change this situation with the proposed "OHIO" Web-to-host standard. IBM andAttachmate jointly collaborated on the development of the "OHIO" Web-to-host standard which wassubmitted for review to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) during 1998.HLLAPI has been for many years the de facto standard for writing applications that access host data.OHIO is a set of object classes that defines a new open-programming interface for accessing host data,especially via the Internet, which will enable e-business applications to access either mainframe orAS/400 data. The open APIs, which are based on tn3270 and tn5250 protocols, will work with Webgraphical user interfaces and business applications, such as CICS, that need access to legacy data.Security, service location, response time and session balancing are a few of the issues that could bestandardized by the OHIO standard. Incorporating the OHIO standard would allow Web-to-hostdevelopers to create e-business applications that do not require proprietary solutions.Price vs. PerformanceAccording to Gartner, the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for Web-to-host software versus traditionalterminal emulation software is a 25 percent savings:• Technical Support: (includes training users and tech support staff, software distribution and inventory reviews): 15 percent savings• Administration: 45 percent savings (reflects reductions in desktop security tasks, policy administration and formal audits of desktop computer equipment)• Capital Costs (equipment): 9 percent savings• Total Cost of Ownership: 25 percent savingsSelection Guidelines• Java Versus ActiveX: Java-enabled Web-to-host products are a good choice for Enterprises that employ cross-platform interactive Web sites. ActiveX-enabled Web-to-host products are a good choice for Enterprises that are Windows-centric or maintain Web sites that are highly interactive and application laden.• Management: Users should question Web-to-host vendors about LDAP support for more robust management needs.• Printing Capability: The printing capabilities of Java-enabled Web-to-host products are somewhat limited for Mainframe and AS/400 and lack graphics-printing capability. Users that require graphics printing may want to consider Web-to-host products that offer ActiveX. If extensive printing features are a must, users should consider a Web-to-host product that offers an improved printing solution for Java-enabled Web-to-host software.• Platform Support: Web-to-host vendors should be questioned as to whether their Web-to-host software has been previously tested with the users various platforms— users should not rely solely on Javas cross-platform capabilities. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 6
  17. 17. Web-to-Host Software: An Introduction• Emulation Support: Web-to-host Vendors should be questioned as to whether their Web-to-host software will meet the users emulation requirements. All of the Web-to-host products in this class include support for mainframe, AS/400 and VT emulations; however, some offer a very limited number of VT emulation levels. Other emulations supported by some, but not all, are for HP, CICS, Linux and WYSE 50/60.Technology LeadersAttachmate Corp.P.O. Box 90026Bellevue, WA 98009-9026, U.S.A.Tel: +1 425 644 4010; +1 800 426 6283Fax: +1 425 747 9924Internet: www.attachmate.comsupport@attachmate.comAttachmate e-Vantage Host Access ServerAttachmate e-Vantage Host Access Server is geared towards companies who need to extend theirenterprise information using Internet technologies. Host Access Server differs from its competitors in theway it has been designed as part of an extremely modular architecture and licensing scenario. Forcompanies which require basic Web-to-host technology for occasional users, the "Standard Viewer" partof Host Access Server is usually all they will need. For companies that require more robust capabilities forintensive users, the "Enterprise Viewer" part of Host Access Server provides full-featured desktopemulation, plus licenses for both Java-based technology and ActiveX thin-client applets. This makesAttachmate a good choice for companies that are currently using thick-client PC-to-host connectivity andare looking to upgrade or to add Web-to-host connectivity.Attachmate eVantage Host Access Server offers an easy-to-use interface and strong platform support; italso includes the capability of loading both Java and ActiveX clients locally. The eVantage ManagementConsole component of Host Access Server is its strongest feature. Other features include support forLDAP and the major directory services for group and user management. However, eVantage offers onlyone level of Virtual Terminal (VT) support, VT420, and lacks HP emulation support. Also, FTP from theAS/400 requires ActiveX, which limits its use to Windows clients. Enterprises looking to move theirbusiness to the Web will want to evaluate Attachmate eVantage Host Access Server.Esker, Inc.Persoft, an Esker Co.465 Science DriveP.O. Box 44953Madison, WI 53744-4953, U.S.A.Tel: +1 608 273 6000Fax: +1 608 273 8227Internet: Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 7
  18. 18. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionPersoft Persona 4.3Esker, Inc., acquired Persoft during July 1999. All Esker and Persoft Web-to-host software products arecontrolled from Persoft’s Madison, Wisconsin, corporate facility. Persoft is now referred to as "Persoft, anEsker company." The Esker Web-to-host product line includes TunPLUS, Esker Corridor for Active Serverand the Persoft Persona family of Web-to-host products.Persona 4.3 offers users Web-based, inexpensive, public plumbing; remote access; three-tier capabilityand robust security features. This makes it ideal for secure remote access through the Internet (three-tier). When the user’s fundamental need is to replace PC-based terminal emulation with an intranetsolution, TunPLUS is recommended. Corridor for Active Server is a three-tier HTML conversion solutionfor Internet/extranet environments geared towards Web commerce.IBMNew Orchard RoadArmonk, NY 10504, U.S.A.Tel: +1 914 499 1900Internet: WebSphere Host On-Demand, Version 5.0IBM WebSphere Host On-Demand 5.0 supports direct (two-tier) connections, excellent security features,including SSL 3.0 on both the client and server side and triple DES centrally administered sessions andLDAP support, "on-the-fly" GUI screen rejuvenation, XML scripting, built-in application developmentsupport and the broadest amount of platform support among its competitors. (IBM is currently the onlyvendor that is using both client-side and server-side SSL). However, WebSphere HOD lacks built-inimport capability for NT user databases and does not support HP and higher-end DEC VT terminalemulations.WebSphere HOD is part of the overall IBM Host Integration Solution; because of this, an enterprise’sentire portfolio of connection types can be incorporated into the per-user license fee. Also, the importanceof the Cisco/IBM agreement should not be overlooked: On 23 February 2000, IBM announced that it hadjoined with Cisco Systems to provide Cisco customers with IBM’s host integration products, whichincludes IBM WebSphere Host On-Demand. According to IBM, WebSphere Host On-Demand is the onlyWeb-to-host product that Cisco intends to actively recommend to its customers. Companies that want toreplace their existing thick-client terminal-emulation software or increase the range of users that can gainaccess to their legacy applications will want to evaluate WebSphere Host On-Demand.NetManage, Inc.10725 North De Anza BoulevardCupertino, CA 95014, U.S.A.Tel: +1 408 973 7171Fax: +1 408 257 6405Internet: www.netmanage.comNetManage RUMBA 2000 4.0 Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 8
  19. 19. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionRUMBA 2000 4.0 offers fast, simple deployment through a browser, with Java tools for installation androbust emulation support. It is designed to provide Java or ActiveX connectivity to mainframes, Unix andVAX systems through VT terminal emulation, AS/400 and HP3000. Among its competitors, RUMBA 2000supports the largest number of emulation choices. RUMBA 2000 offers a strong migration path forcustomers who are already using PC-to-host technology and want to switch to Web-to-host connectivity orwho require mainframe or AS/400 compatibility. However, it lacks LDAP support and product-levelsecurity (no SSL), making it a poor choice for use outside the firewall. In its efforts to become an industryleader and a single-source provider of Web-to-host, PC-to-host and Web integration solutions,NetManage has acquired several companies with both similar and disparate products. Its challenge willbe to assimilate these products as quickly as possible and to do so without losing existing customerbases.OpenConnect Systems, Inc.2711 Lyndon B. Johnson Highway, #80Dallas, TX 75234, U.S.A.Tel: 1+ 972 484 5200Fax: 1+ 972 484 6100Internet: www.openconnect.comOC://WebConnect Pro 4.4OC://WebConnect Pro provides the capability to automatically rejuvenate user interfaces ("on-the-fly" GUIimplementation), optimize performance through applet caching and provide users quick access to hostinformation (mainframes, AS/400, etc.) via a Web browser. It offers robust security features, such as DES,triple-DES (168-bit) and 40- or 128-bit RC4 out to their applets. It also supports all legacy security such asRACF, TopSecret and ACF2 and a patented technology that extends SNA session control over theInternet; however, it lacks HP and higher-end VT terminal emulation. OC://WebConnect Pro is best suitedfor customers who need to integrate mainframe access into their existing Web application environment,and it is geared towards extranets in the business-to-business class. OC://WebConnect Pro containsabove average features within the Web-to-host product class, and it would make a good evaluation choicefor users wishing to Web-enable their sites and enter the age of e-business.SEAGULL3340 Peachtree Road, N.E., Suite 900Atlanta, GA 30326 U.S.A.Tel: 1 + 404 760 1560Fax: 1 + 404 760 0061SEAGULL was founded in the Netherlands in 1990, and initially focused its expertise in developing andimplementing customized, integrated software solutions for customized client requirements in the AS/400market. During 1998, SEAGULL expanded into the mainframe market with the announcement of WinJA,which is geared towards rapid e-business enablement. More recently, SEAGULL has also expended intousing wireless technology to leverage legacy data (wireless-to-host). SEAGULL’s Web-to-Host product isWinJa, whose main strength is using Java to connect to mainframe data.WRQ, Inc. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 9
  20. 20. Web-to-Host Software: An Introduction1500 Dexter Avenue, N.Seattle, WA 98109, U.S.A.Tel: 1+ 206 217 7500Fax: 1+ 206 217 7509Internet: www.wrq.comReflection for the Web 4.1 offers top-notch security and data encryption: SSL/TLS, triple DES andoptional security proxy server and VPN support. Currently, it is the only Web-to-host vendor that supportsTLS security. It also offers broad terminal-type support and with the Professional Edition, "on-the-fly"green-screen to GUI features. It is a highly scalable product— the number of possible users is not tied tothe servers capability since their applets are used to bypass the Web Server. However, platform supportis limited to Windows 95/98/NT and Mac, and the direct-connect model means that applicationdevelopment will be somewhat limited. Reflection for the Web provides secure Web-based host accessacross enterprises and beyond the firewall, and it is a competitively priced product. Companies that arelooking to Web-enable their enterprise for e-business will want to evaluate Reflection for the Web.Table 1: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Attachmate Corp. IBM NetManage, Inc. OpenConnect Systems, Inc.Product Name e-Vantage Host IBM WebSphere NetManage RUMBA OC://WebConnect Access Server Web- Host On-Demand 2000 Pro to-Host Applets/Clients Java; ActiveX Java ActiveX (Host Pro Java and Host Express); JavaBeans (Host Java) Architecture Two tier or three Two tier Two tier or three Two tier or three tier tier tier Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 10
  21. 21. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 1: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Attachmate Corp. IBM NetManage, Inc. OpenConnect Systems, Inc.Product Name e-Vantage Host IBM WebSphere NetManage RUMBA OC://WebConnect Access Server Web- Host On-Demand 2000 Pro to-Host Platform Support Client: Client: Browser-based host Client: Supports Windows 95/98/NT; Windows 95/98/NT access; deploys any Java-enabled Windows NT 4.0 with SP3; across an intranet machine running in Terminal Server; Windows 2000; IBM from virtually any a standard browser, Citrix AIX, 4.2/3; IBM Web server although somewhat WinFrame/MetalFra OS/2 WARP, limited with Macs me; Apple Mac OS Version 4; HP-UX 8.x 10.20, 11.0; Sun Server: Sun Solaris, Solaris 2.5.1, 2.6; IBM AIX, HP-UX, Server: Red Hat Linux, Windows NT Windows NT Server Version 5.2, 6.0, 4.0 SP3 or higher 6.1; Caldera with IIS; Unix OpenLinux 2.2; Edition supports Pacific HiTec Sun Solaris 2.7, TurboLinux 3.6; HP-UX 11.0, Red SuSE Linux 6.1 Hat Linus 5.2, AIX 4.3 and Windows Server: 4.0 SP4, each with Windows NT 4.0; JVM supporting Windows 2000; IBM 1.1.7b JDK AIX, Version 4.2/3; IBM OS/2 WARP Version 4 and Warp Server; Novell NetWare, Version 5 with JVM 1.17b; Sun Solaris Release 2.6; IBM OS/400, V4R2, V4R3, V4R4; HP- UX 10.20, 11.0; Red Hat Linux, Version 5.2, 6.0, 6.1; Caldera OpenLinux 2.2; Pacific HiTec TurboLinux 3.6; SuSE Linux 6.1; IBM OS/390, V2R5, V2R6, V2R7, V2R8 Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 11
  22. 22. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 1: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Attachmate Corp. IBM NetManage, Inc. OpenConnect Systems, Inc.Product Name e-Vantage Host IBM WebSphere NetManage RUMBA OC://WebConnect Access Server Web- Host On-Demand 2000 Pro to-Host Emulation Support Mainframe, AS/400; Mainframe, AS/400; Mainframe, AS/400; Mainframe, AS/400; VT420; Unix/VMS VT52/100/220; VT52/100/101/102/ VT220 and NVT Linux; CICS Java 125/131/220; transport Note: Lacks HP Gateway Access VT240/241/320/330 emulation /340/420; HP 3000; Note: Lacks HP Note: Lacks HP VAX/Unix emulation; VT emulation emulation ends at Note: Supports 220 largest number of emulation choices File Transfer IND$file; DISOSS; IND$file; FTP file IND$FILE + FTP IND$FILE Functions FTP transfer (AS/400) (Host Pro and Host Note: FTP from the Java); FTP (Host AS/400 requires Express ActiveX Gateways Supports third-party HOD supports any RUMBA products Supports any TN- gateways; optional TN server; IBM support wide range based gateway; e-Vantage SNA Communications of SNA or TN includes Cisco CIP, gateway Server included gateways; third- Cisco IOS, with the IBM "Host party support OpenConnect Integration includes Microsoft Server, TCP/IP for Solution" SNA Server, IBM MVS and VM Direct, NetWare for TCP/IP for AS/400, SAA, OpenConnect Microsoft SNA SNA Server and TN3270/TN3270E Optional: WebConnect SNA Access Server Printing Support Print screen; Print screen; 3270E; TN5250E + 3287 LU1/LU3; LU1/LU3; TN3270e; LU1/LU3; 5250 host Print Transform; screen print; 3812 TN5250e HPT printing HP3000 print Passthrough, Optional: VAX/Unix Interface Systems’ Passthrough; Document Server Screen Print receives print streams and converts into PCL, postscript or PDF Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 12
  23. 23. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 1: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Attachmate Corp. IBM NetManage, Inc. OpenConnect Systems, Inc.Product Name e-Vantage Host IBM WebSphere NetManage RUMBA OC://WebConnect Access Server Web- Host On-Demand 2000 Pro to-Host Security and SSL 3.0 (server- SSL 3.0 (client- and Supports public SSL 3.0, public Encryption side); RC4, and server-side); RC2, key/digital key/digital Triple DES; public RC4, DES, Triple certificates, RAS certificates; HTTPS; key/digital DES; public and VPN; optional RC2, RC4, DES, certificates; key/digital RUMBA Security Triple DES Windows NT certificates Services provides Domain and Novell authentication NDS/Bindery Note: HOD is the encryption over authentication; only product with single HTTPS port RADIUS, CHAP, both server- and Secure ID client-side SSL Note: Lacks SSL authentication; and built-in product Attachmate VPN level security Management Robust access Web-based remote Supports Browser-based control to administration; customizable user management; administrative LDAP support for and group profiles, Group and user capabilities via e- storing user license management Vantage profiles; IBM management to features offered Management License Use manage and through HTML user Console; includes Management monitor concurrent interface software support; User and users, and support management, group for several NT Note: Lacks LDAP usage metering, management; domains support license control, AS/400 simultaneously. LDAP and directory RSTLICPGM services support install; S/390 Note: Lacks LDAP SMP/E install from support tape; Service Location Protocol (SLP) load- balancing support; IBM SecureWay On-Demand Server integration Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 13
  24. 24. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 1: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Attachmate Corp. IBM NetManage, Inc. OpenConnect Systems, Inc.Product Name e-Vantage Host IBM WebSphere NetManage RUMBA OC://WebConnect Access Server Web- Host On-Demand 2000 Pro to-Host Application Open APIs; HACL Host Access Class Robust API support JHLLAPI allows Development included; Host Library API for Java for customization; interfaces to be Session Services (HACL); Host API supported: constructed enables custom- Access Beans for EHLLAPI (32 bit), between any third- developed Java, including WinHLLAPI, party development applications that Terminal, Session; (WOSA), DDE, tool and reside on the server File Transfer, EHLLAPI (16 bit), WebConnect Pro; and are not Macro and other DOS EHLLAPI; Autovista converts downloaded to the beans; Host Access Keyboard mapping; green-on-black client ActiveX Controls color mapping; auto mainframe format macro (login); User to a GUI display; macros OpenVista provides an IDE for custom development of applets GUI "HotGUI" feature Default GUI Lacks "on-the-fly" Visual Rejuvenation automatically provides limited capability Tool option offers changes green "on-the-fly" robust "on-the-fly" screen to GUI-like rejuvenation; GUI capability; screen. converts any Persistent 3270/5250 screen Connection keeps Note: "HotGUI" is into its graphical client screens standard with the equivalent synchronized with Unix edition the mainframes Optional add-on: Screen Customizer provides robust "on- the-fly" host application rejuvenation.Table 2: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Persoft, an SEAGULL WRQ, Inc. Esker CompanyProduct Name Persoft WinJa/JWalk WRQ Reflection for the Web Persona Applets and Java; C++ Java; ActiveX Java Clients Architecture Three tier Two tier or three tier Two tier Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 14
  25. 25. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 2: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Persoft, an SEAGULL WRQ, Inc. Esker CompanyProduct Name Persoft WinJa/JWalk WRQ Reflection for the Web Persona Platform Client: Client: Client: Will support any Java- Support Platform Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000; enabled machine running in a independent Windows NT Terminal Sever; standard browser; native platform Cit4ix, any JVM 1.1 and 1.18 support limited to Windows and Server: Any compliant devices running served Mac running Mac OS Runtime for Windows NT- Java clients through a browser. Java 2.1.1+ based Web server Server: Server: Supports major Web Windows NT/2000; Sun Solaris; servers OS/390 2.5 or higher (WinJa only); OS/400 V4R3 or higher (Jwalk only) Emulation Mainframe, WinJa includes its own internal Mainframe, AS/400; Unix; Support AS/400; emulator for mainframe; external OpenVMS; VT52/100/102; VT52/100/101/ emulators not required. VT220/400; extensive HP 102, Supported: RUMBA 5.2; emulations VT220/320/42 Attachmate Extra! 6.1 – 6.4; 0; Data NetManage Chameleon 8.02; General IBM Personal Communications (Persona 4.2; TCP/IP to SNA Server Insight) Note: Lacks HP emulation File Transfer Not supported Not supported IND$FILE Functions Gateways Microsoft SNA Supports gateways of third Not required; supports SNA Server parties Server and NetWare for SAA, as well as other SNA gateways Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 15
  26. 26. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 2: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Persoft, an SEAGULL WRQ, Inc. Esker CompanyProduct Name Persoft WinJa/JWalk WRQ Reflection for the Web Persona Printing Supports local Screen and GUI panel printing for TN3270E; Screen printing for all Support printing all client types; emulations through the Text spool file and full TN5250E browser; for JWalk supports delivery of host reports to IBM 3270 or 5250 users in PDF format Note: Currently the only Web-to- host product with a built-in PDF delivery feature Security and SSL 3.0; SSL 3.0; SSL/TLS; DES and Triple DES; Encryption Authenticode Proprietary encryption method for Java-based security proxy server; 2.0, Diffie- Java Clients VPN support; HTTP tunneling; Hellman; WRQ VeriSign certificate public provides applet verification (no key/digital HTTP proxy server required) certificates; RC2, DES, Note: WRQ is currently the only Triple DES; Web-to-host vendor that supports MD5; SHA-1 TLS security Note: 168-bit is optional (Triple DES) Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 16
  27. 27. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTable 2: Features and Functions: Web-to-Host Software ProductsCompany Persoft, an SEAGULL WRQ, Inc. Esker CompanyProduct Name Persoft WinJa/JWalk WRQ Reflection for the Web Persona Management Windows- Servers managed with XML- Browser-based management based based server management includes HTML content and Java console; console (SMC) applets central management; Note: Lacks LDAP, but can port Note: No LDAP; Lacks any built- supports LDAP info into WinJa or JWalk in user or group access control; Windows NT must use authentication and NTFS-based authorization features built into file systems the Web server Note: Lacks LDAP support and user/group management Application Browser script Open APIs to Java, VB; Java-based APIs automate logon Development integration: "Collector" technology gathers tasks, access dialog boxes, JavaScript, screen maps and display files create Web framework; Java- VBScript, CGI based APIs accessible through scripts and HTML, JavaScript, VBScript and Macros; Applet Java parameters GUI "On-the-fly" Complete customization; also "On-the-fly" GUI features only GUI features "On-the-fly" GUI capability available with the Professional EditionTechnology AlternativesTable 3: PC-to-Host-ConnectivityThick-Client Thin-Client Installed on individual desktops; the user interface is a Installed at a single point to a Citrix or TSE network Windows GUI, and the client platform is Windows. server; the user interface is a Windows GUI, and the Geared towards power users that require high client platform can be Windows or non-Windows. performance and end-user flexibility. Geared toward users that require flexibility and IT personnel that require better administrative control.Traditional Emulation Connectivity Versus Web-to-HostWeb-to-host connectivity promises to deliver mission-critical host information to a broader user base—faster, easier and more cost-effectively than traditional emulation software. More importantly, it promisesto open the doors to the data contained within legacy systems to a broader user base while maintainingcentralized control and lowering software ownership costs; this can be key to a companys e-business Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 17
  28. 28. Web-to-Host Software: An Introductionstrategy. Does this mean that companies should switch to Web-to-host? Not quite; process-intensivetypes will probably want to continue using their traditional tools. Many companies will find they need toincorporate Web-to-host alongside thick-client and thin-client PC-to-host technologies.InsightWeb-to-host furnishes point-and-click access to the proprietary information contained within corporatemainframes quicker, easier and cheaper than traditional PC-to-host connectivity methods— users cansimply link their Java-enabled Web browsers to the "big iron". Downloading a thin-client terminalemulation applet to establish sessions can free management from administering and maintainingtraditional client terminal emulation software on each PC; this adds up to considerable savings.Additionally, the cost of Web-to-host software is substantially cheaper than traditional terminal emulationsoftware for PCs. More importantly, Web-to-host can enable companies to implement e-businessstrategies more quickly. However, there are still security concerns, and for some process-intensive types,Web-to-host may not be enough. On the other hand, Web-to-host is still evolving; as vendors continue toadd more robust security and customization features, even larger numbers of users will be able to employWeb-to-host technology.Web-to-Host GlossaryActiveX Control: A local resident control based on Microsoft’s Component Object Model (COM) that loads within aWeb browser providing host-access capability.Applet: A Java program that is run from inside a Web browser.Certificate: A digital document that contains information about a person or organization, including the identity andpublic keys.Client: The computer that displays the Web page that contains an applet.Data Encryption Standard (DES): An algorithm for encoding messages by breaking them into logical blocks andencrypting each one.Diffie-Helman: A key agreement protocol allowing two entities to agree upon and exchange public keys prior tocombination with private keys.Host Access Class Library (HACL): A core set of classes and methods that allow development of platform-independent application that can access host information at the data-stream level.Host: The mainframe or midrange computer to which the PC connects.Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of SGML that uses tags to mark text and graphics in adocument. Web browsers use the tags to structure and format Web pages.Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): A client/server protocol that allows information exchange between Web serversand browsers.Proxy: A server that works in conjunction with a firewall to provide network security.Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): The de facto security standard used with most Web-to-host software; a group ofprotocols based on public-key cryptography and digital certificate for encrypting private information.Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): A set of communication protocols that allowcommunication between computers on a local network or the Internet.Terminal Emulation: The capability of personal computers to act as if they were a particular type of terminal andcommunicate with another computer, such as a Unix system or a mainframe.Telnet: A protocol that allows a user to access a remote computer on a TCP/IP network as if the user were using atext-based terminal, such as a 3270 terminal. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 18
  29. 29. Web-to-Host Software: An IntroductionTransport Layer Security (TLS): A group of protocols incorporating the specifications used in other securityprotocols, including SSL for encrypting private information.TN3270 and TN5250: Protocols used by an IBM mainframe or AS/400 to communicate with other devices, includingPCs.VT Emulation: The use of software that enables a client to emulate Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC) terminals suchas the VT52, VT100, VT200 and VT220. VT emulation is widely used with Unix systems. Copyright © 2001 DPRO-91113 8 March 2001 19
  30. 30. DPRO-97205 Technology Overview Serena Lambiase 5 April 2001Peer-to-Peer Computing Technologies: An IntroductionSummaryThe newly updated peer-to-peer networking model is currently being referred to by many in the industry(most notably Intel) as a paradigm that is about to change IT in much the same way the Internet has.What is peer-to-peer computing, why is there so much industry hype concerning it, what are the benefitsand risks, and are there viable business uses?Table of Contents Technology Basics Technology Analysis Business Use Benefits and Risks Standards Technology Leaders InsightList Of Tables Table 1: Peer-to-Peer Companies and CategoriesEntire contents © 2001 by Gartner, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to bereliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretationsthereof. The reader assumes sole responsibility for the selection of these materials to achieve its intended results. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.
  31. 31. Peer-to-Peer Computing Technologies: An IntroductionTechnology BasicsSince peer-to-peer computing has existed from the very beginnings of PC computing, why has it recentlybecome so popular, and what are the implications for businesses and enterprises? How was the "old"model of peer-to-peer computing implemented, and what has suddenly caused this model of networkingto be resurrected into new uses?Peer-to-Peer Networking versus Client/Server NetworkingThe original PC networks were based on file-sharing peer-to-peer architectures. In a peer-to-peernetwork, each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities; this differs from today’sclient/server architectures, in which some computers are dedicated to serving the others. Peer-to-peernetworks were simpler to implement, but they did not offer robust performance under heavy loads. In the1990s, PC LAN computing evolved because the capacity of the file sharing was strained as the number ofonline users grew (it can only satisfy about 12 users simultaneously) and graphical user interfaces (GUIs)became popular. As a result of the limitations of file-sharing architectures and the faster speeds thatbecame available through technologies such as Ethernet, the client/server architecture for networkingbecame the preferred model of business networking, where every computer on a client/server network iseither a client or a server.The Impact of Recent Industry Changes on Peer-to-Peer DevelopmentOver the past few years, the sheer number of PCs has increased exponentially. At the same time, thecomputing capabilities of PCs have become more powerful; in fact, most PCs today are more powerfulthan earlier servers. Broadband has become more readily available, and PCs have also become bothmore powerful and affordable. During this same time frame, Internet technologies have drasticallyimproved; the increasing availability of broadband, together with more powerful PCs, has led to newbusiness uses for Internet technology (intranets, extranets, using browsers to gain access to mainframedata, etc.).During 2000, file-sharing peer-to-peer networks such as Napster became extremely popular. Napsterallows users to utilize the worldwide reach of the Internet to share music files stored on their local harddisks. Although the Napster program initially gained notoriety because of its music-pirating ability, the realnews here is the importance of its very powerful distribution platform and search engine that Napsterprovides. This simultaneous occurrence of the changes and improvements within the PC industry,including the newer Internet technologies, and the wildly popular Napster phenomenon has given rise tothe possibility of an entirely new type of peer-to-peer (P2P) business model for computing.The New Peer-to-Peer Computing ModelsThe new peer-to-peer model abandons the networking notions of separate clients and servers andinstead allows every networked machine to connect to another machine. New peer-to-peer applicationswill enable people to search for information stored on an individual users hard drive via the Internet— theoriginal P2P networks worked by exchanging information directly between computers. This would not bepossible if PCs had not become ubiquitous, more powerful, and had more broadband available. The newP2P models can be implemented in a pure peer-to-peer fashion as totally server-free implementationsthat directly connect desktops over an IP network, or Napster-style, using servers to direct traffic. Peer-to-peer proponents claim that new Internet-based standards and protocols will make P2P computing easierto implement and believe it will soon become practical for many businesses. Many universities and DPRO-97205Copyright 2001 5 April 2001 2
  32. 32. Peer-to-Peer Computing Technologies: An Introductionresearch organizations have been using P2P models for years; now these technologies are beingdeveloped for the enterprise space.Peer-to-peer technology allows enterprises to leverage their computing resources by enabling a directexchange of services between computers. This includes exchanging data, processing cycles, cachestorage, and disk storage. This past year has seen a plethora of start-up companies materialize that aregeared towards utilizing P2P computing. Distributed computing (reducing computation costs), file sharing(protected content distribution), collaboration (secure file sharing in ad hoc groups), intelligent agents(cooperative search engines), and distributed storage sharing (reduce the need for file servers; migratefiles to area of use) are examples of the ways P2P is being developed by these companies.Technology AnalysisBusiness UsePeer-to-Peer Distributed Computing and Cycle SharingThe Boeing Aerospace company, oil company Amerada Hess, and Intel claim they have been able toreduce the need to buy high-end computer systems, including mainframes, by using P2P networking totap into the processing power that is already available on their companies’ desktop PCs. Enterprisemanagers can use existing resources for storage and computing from every computer on the network ona global basis. Companies that stand to benefit from P2P Distributed Computing are in the followingindustries: biotech, search engines, computer-aided design, film animation, and financial services.Peer-to-Peer CollaborationPeer-to-peer collaboration applications can be used for real-time meetings and communications andsecure file sharing in ad hoc groups. Business groups can form and dissolve self-organized webs forcollaboration on projects. Peer-to-peer collaboration can also be used to speed the development of newproducts and to decrease the cost and time involved in developing manufactured products, as exemplifiedby Oculus Technologies, Inc. Several companies are currently developing P2P collaboration applicationsgeared towards the investment management industry. They claim the more simplified and automatedworkflow process will allow participants in the financial services community to connect directly withinvestment managers without going through an intermediary, currently represented by the B2Bexchanges; this could have significant impact on B2B exchanges. NextPage is an example of this type ofcompany.Peer-to-Peer File Sharing and SuperdistributionPeer-to-peer can also be used to disseminate the latest security measures in real-time, including antivirusand personal firewall updates to an entire enterprise. Another use for the new P2P model would be theauthorized peer-to-peer sharing of music or book files, giving retailers and consumers the ability to passcontent to multiple recipients; this would be geared towards companies in the media industries.Benefits and RisksBenefitsPeer-to-peer tools can save time and money by lessening the need for corporate IT to expand some oftheir services, such as Web servers, backup storage, and replacing outdated documents. Peer-to-peercomputing also has the potential to allow a certain amount of network traffic to move from the corporatebackbone to less expensive infrastructure, such as switches, hubs, and routers. DPRO-97205Copyright 2001 5 April 2001 3