INTRODUCTIONBluetooth is a high-speed, low-powermicrowave wireless linktechnology, designed to connectphones, laptops, and other portableequipment together with little or nowork by the user.
Guest Author - Cathy Spearmon Since the development of Bluetooth in 1994 by Swedish telecommunications firm Ericsson There have been more than 1800 companies worldwide who have signed as members of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in order to build products to the wireless specification.
Bluetooth is the name for a short-range radiofrequency (RF) technology that operates at 2.4GHz and is capable of transmitting voice anddata. Bluetooth is a wireless communicationtechnology that allows devices, within a 10meter proximity, to communicate with eachother.
BLUETOOTH COMPONENTS Any Bluetooth solution consists of four major components are: antenna/RF Bluetooth Software Protocol Stack Bluetooth Radio and Baseband Bluetooth application
Antenna/RF The antenna and RF design portion is interesting in that it requires a unique solution for each device. Even single chip solutions require specialized antenna design, depending on the device. Antenna design requires specialized skills to ensure that the Bluetooth radio will operate within its specification.
BLUETOOTH APPLICATIONS The Bluetooth radio is the hardware transceiver unit . The purpose of the specification is to provide compatibility between Bluetooth devices that operate in the 2.4GHz ISM band. Data synchronisation need never again be a problem as your Bluetooth enabled PDA, PC or laptop all talk to each other and update their respective files to the most recent ones.
Bluetooth Software Protocol Stack The Bluetooth software protocol stack can be thought of as driver code GNU license code . This code allows the application software to send and receive information from the Bluetooth module. Major components of the protocol stack are the Link Manager (LM), Logical Link Control, Human Interface Device (HID) and other high level protocols.
Bluetooth Radio and Baseband TheBluetooth radio is the hardware transceiver unit that implements the Bluetooth radio specification. The purpose of the specification is to provide compatibility between Bluetooth devices that operate in the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and to define the quality of the system.
SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURESThe Bluetooth specification was developed in1994 by Jalap Hearten and Sven Mattisson, whowere working for Ericsson .The specifications were formalized bythe bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG). TheSIG was formally announced on May 20, 1998.
BLUETOOTH V1.0 & V1.0BVersions 1.0 and 1.0B had manyproblems, and manufacturers had difficultymaking their products interoperable.Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also includedmandatory Bluetooth hardware deviceaddress (BD_ADDR) transmission in theConnecting process.
BLUETOOTH V1.1 Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed. Addedsupport for non-encrypted channels. (RSSI)Received Signal Strength Indicator.
BLUETOOTH V1.2 Faster connection and discovery AdaptiveFrequency Hopping (AFH) spread spectrum which improves resistance to radio frequency interface. (HCI)Host Controller Interface support for three-wire (uart).
BLUETOOTH V2.0 + EDR The main difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer. The nominal rate of EDR is about 3 megabits per second. The specification is published as "bluetooth v2.0 + EDR" which implies that EDR is an optional feature.
BLUETOOTH V2.1 + EDR This improves the pairing experience for bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security. See the section on pairing below for more details. 2.1 allows various other improvements, including "extended inquiry response" (EIR), which provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection.
BLUETOOTH V4.0 On June 12, 2007, nokia and bluetooth SIG had announced that WIBREE will be a part of the bluetooth specification, as an ultra-low power bluetooth technology. On December 17, 2009, the bluetooth SIG adopted bluetooth low energy technology as the hallmark feature of the version 4.0 the provisional names wibree and bluetooth ULP (ultra low power) are abandoned.
BLUETOOTH LOW ENERGY In bluetooth v4.0. It allows two types of implementation. dual-mode and single-mode. In a dual-mode implementation, bluetooth low energy functionality is integrated into an existing classic bluetooth controller. Single-mode chips, which will enable highly integrated and compact devices and secure encrypted connections at the lowest possible cost.
Bluetooth Technology & ItsChallenges Technology Bluetooth has evolved over time. As user needs increased, the Bluetooth standards expanded to accommodate user needs. Standards improved frequency-hopping technology to help with audio quality. Bluetooth has continued to improve audio quality, data reliability and security through improvements to encryption system and frequency hopping technology.
Bluetooth Technology & ItsChallenges Usually Single Device Although some Bluetooth devices support connecting more than one device, most will only pair to a single device. In some cases, this is a security consideration. Range Many current models and older devices are limited to a 30-foot radius. This limits Bluetooth usability for close, room-based networking.
Bluetooth Technology & ItsChallenges Pairing Issues Sometimes a device will not recognize another device. In rare cases, two devices that are paired will not communicate properly. These issues are rare and usually be solved by consulting technical support. Battery Consumption Bluetooth devices use very low power. However, battery consumption can still be a problem. Rechargeable devices with built-in batteries often run out of power and require specialized charging systems.
Bluetooth is one among many proximity technologies, likeInfrared, RFID, and contact less Smart cards. They areconcerned aboutusefulness, acceptance, applications, security, usability, and reliability of technology. In order to overcome theserisks, Bluetooth Special Interest Group is continuouslyworking to add or improve profiles into this. Bluetoothversion 2 can handle many of the above issues. Bluetoothcan provide auto connections between devices, withcompromise to security. Though independently Bluetoothmost advanced and useful technologies.
REFERENCES We want to thank all those resources which help us in completing our project. Following websites help us:-1) www.google.com2) www.ieee.com3) www.bluetoothwikipedia.com Other resources like Newspaper, Magazines text books like Information technology and our textbook (foundation semester) .