Tree Cover and Nutrition in Indonesia
Amy Ickowitz, CIFOR
Presentation for World Congress on Agroforestry
New Delhi, Febru...
• Prevalence of stunting in children under 5:
• 25.2% and 39.2% in urban and rural areas
• 29% of Indonesian households ha...
• This study (Ickowitz, Rowland, Powell, and
Sunderland) explores whether trees and forests
contribute to better nutrition...
Why might forests and tree-filled landscapes be
important for dietary quality?
 Collection of nutritious NTFPs
 Farming ...
 Several papers discuss some of these plausible links (Colfer et al.,
2005; Vinceti et al., 2008; Arnold et al., 2011), b...
• Children living near forests in Indonesia have better
quality diets than children living in other rural areas
because
• ...
• Also likely to be income poor and have less market
access
• So possible that others can afford to buy more,
nutritious f...
We merge
• Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data from
2003
• Frequency child ate from various food groups in the...
• Number of times in the last 7
days child (between 1 and r5
years old) ate:
• Vitamin A rich fruits
• Vitamin A rich vege...
Independent Variables
% Tree Cover
Child characteristics
 Age
 Age squared
 Currently breastfeeding
 sex
Household ...
Sample: about 3000 children between ages 13 and
59 months in 25 provinces across Indonesia
Main Result
There is a statistically
significant positive
relationship between
% tree cover and
frequency of
consumption o...
 There is a statistically significant positive relationship
between the % of a village’s area that overlapped with an
oil...
• Vitamin-A rich fruits
• Wild forest or agro-forest?
• Animal Source Foods
• Bushmeat or fish
• Legumes
• Tofu and tempeh...
 We have found preliminary support for the hypothesis
that forests are important for nutrition in Indonesia
 We need mor...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Thank you!
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Session 3.3 effect of tree cover on child nutrition

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Session 3.3 effect of tree cover on child nutrition

  1. 1. Tree Cover and Nutrition in Indonesia Amy Ickowitz, CIFOR Presentation for World Congress on Agroforestry New Delhi, February 11, 2014
  2. 2. • Prevalence of stunting in children under 5: • 25.2% and 39.2% in urban and rural areas • 29% of Indonesian households have a caloric intake below RDA • Poor dietary quality • About 40% of Indonesians suffer from one or more micronutrient deficiencies , the most common : • iron, vitamin A, zinc and iodine • The average Indonesian consumes 102 kg of rice per year with very low quantities of vegetables, fruits and animal source foods (BPS 2008) Food Security and Nutrition in Indonesia
  3. 3. • This study (Ickowitz, Rowland, Powell, and Sunderland) explores whether trees and forests contribute to better nutrition in Indonesia • There is much rhetoric on forests vs. food security • The kind of food security often referenced in these kinds of arguments is calories • But when we broaden the focus to include dietary quality, the importance of micronutrient-rich foods becomes apparent • If we focus on consumption of fruits, vegetables, and animal source foods, it is possible that forests actually make a contribution to food security Forests, Trees, and Nutrition
  4. 4. Why might forests and tree-filled landscapes be important for dietary quality?  Collection of nutritious NTFPs  Farming mosaics may promote more diverse diets  Agro-forestry and fruit production  Ecosystem services of forests for agriculture  Availability of fuel wood  May provide ‘back up’ foods for lean season
  5. 5.  Several papers discuss some of these plausible links (Colfer et al., 2005; Vinceti et al., 2008; Arnold et al., 2011), but little empirical evidence  Johnson et al. (2013) finds that net forest loss associated with less dietary diversity in Malawi  Recent paper by CIFOR food security team finds that there is a positive relationship between tree cover and child dietary diversity in a sample of 21 countries in Africa Is there evidence?
  6. 6. • Children living near forests in Indonesia have better quality diets than children living in other rural areas because • They have access to micronutrient-rich forest foods (wild fruits, vegetables, bushmeat) • More likely to practice shifting cultivation and/or agroforestry which more likely to offer greater variety of foods Hypothesis
  7. 7. • Also likely to be income poor and have less market access • So possible that others can afford to buy more, nutritious foods in markets • Are micronutrient-rich foods readily available in rural markets? • Can the relatively poor afford them? • Do they choose to buy them? But…
  8. 8. We merge • Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data from 2003 • Frequency child ate from various food groups in the last 7 days with • GLCF MODIS data (250 m resolution) on percentage tree cover • Along with several other variables from various data sets • We run several regressions to see if there is a statistically significant relationship between frequency of consumption of various foods and tree cover Testing the hypothesis
  9. 9. • Number of times in the last 7 days child (between 1 and r5 years old) ate: • Vitamin A rich fruits • Vitamin A rich vegetables • Green leafy vegetables • Animal Source Foods • Legumes • Dairy • Grains • We restrict sample to rural areas and only one observation per mother Dependent Variables
  10. 10. Independent Variables % Tree Cover Child characteristics  Age  Age squared  Currently breastfeeding  sex Household Characteristics  Wealth index  Mother’s education  Father’s education  Muslim Community Characteristics  % 5km band overlapping with palm oil concession  Distance to coast  Distance to city  Aridity  Elevation 25 Regional Dummies
  11. 11. Sample: about 3000 children between ages 13 and 59 months in 25 provinces across Indonesia
  12. 12. Main Result There is a statistically significant positive relationship between % tree cover and frequency of consumption of: • Vitamin-A rich fruits • Animal Source Foods
  13. 13.  There is a statistically significant positive relationship between the % of a village’s area that overlapped with an oil palm concession and the frequency of consumption of  Dairy  Legumes  Vitamin-A rich vegetables Another interesting result
  14. 14. • Vitamin-A rich fruits • Wild forest or agro-forest? • Animal Source Foods • Bushmeat or fish • Legumes • Tofu and tempeh • Dairy • Powdered and condensed milk Conjectures and unanswered questions
  15. 15.  We have found preliminary support for the hypothesis that forests are important for nutrition in Indonesia  We need more detailed and fine-grained data to help us understand how and why children in areas with more tree cover in Indonesia consume fruits and animal source foods more frequently  We also found preliminary evidence that oil palm concessions are associated with more frequency of consumption of other foods  Are there trade-offs?  If so, what do these mean for dietary quality?  What do these mean for discussions of forests and foods security? Conclusions
  16. 16. THINKING beyond the canopy Thank you!

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