Ensuring access to animal-source foods

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Presented by Tom Randolph at the Science Forum 2013, Bonn, Germany, 23‒25 September 2013

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Ensuring access to animal-source foods

  1. 1. Ensuring access to animal-source foods Tom Randolph Science Forum 2013 Nutrition and health outcomes: targets for agricultural research, Bonn, Germany, 23‒25 September 2013
  2. 2. Our challenge Protect and enhance adequate access of both rural and urban poor to a particularly valuable nutritional resource in their diet: animal-source foods • Demand growing faster than capacity to supply • Aspects of both food and nutritional security • Change from traditional CGIAR focus on livestock for livelihoods • Conclusion: Not simply a production or nutrition issue  Requires a multidimensional food systems approach
  3. 3. Our reasoning Food & Nutrition Security •Access to an appropriately diverse diet Poor rely on local production •Smallholder farms + informal marketing systems, especially in rural areas •Often competitive vis-à-vis larger- scale, industrial, formal systems
  4. 4. Limited success in supporting smallholder supply response 0.06 0.08 0.03 0.17 0.06 0.11 0.04 0.2 Meat (kg output/kg biomass/yr) 1980 2005 411 1021 517 4226 397 1380 904 6350Milk (kg/cow/yr) 1980 2005
  5. 5. Promoting ‘smarter’ pro-poor animal-source food systems • Producing and delivering more, good quality food • Serving the poor and targeting the nutritionally challenged • Ensuring it can be sustained and adaptive • Managing potential trade-offs: environmental, resource use, role in diet, health risks Value chain approach – Harness market incentives to promote uptake... – While identifying opportunities to enhance nutritional benefits as broad food-based intervention
  6. 6. Premise for CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish Research for development and impact that: • Puts together and pilots an integrated intervention across the targeted value chain • While conducting longer-term research on more fundamental productivity constraints • Works together with development partners from the start so they can take intervention to scale • Focuses on only a few selected value chains
  7. 7. Focus, focus, focus! Working in 8 target value chains  accountability PIGS AQUACULTURE SHEEP & GOATS DAIRY
  8. 8. Status • Partnership of 4 CGIAR Centers • Officially started January 1st, 2012 • Activities and momentum achieved in 4 value chains
  9. 9. Will it work? Can livestock & aquaculture interventions improve nutrition security? Series of literature reviews (Webb, 2012) have concluded: • Projects rarely have explicit food or nutrition security objectives • Among those, very few appropriately designed impact studies • Weak evidence, but suggests positive benefits, especially if accompanied by nutrition education Nutrition influenced through several pathways
  10. 10. Mapping the links for a smallholder dairying household Randolph et al. (2007) Animals owned Human nutritional (growth) status Human health status + + Probability of zoonotic disease Animal production Food crop production Food crop sales Animal & product sales + + + + - HH Income + + Dietary intake + Level of care/feeding behavior + Labor allocated to livestock + - Labor demands on (female) caregiver Total labor demands + + Health inputs + Food crop purchases ASF purchases HH crop consumption HH ASF consumption + + + + + Chronic disease risk + - Land allocation to feed Traction, nutrient cycling + - + + + + + Environmental toxin concentration - + test test Food-borne diseases + - Water contamination + -
  11. 11. Evaluating a major dairy project East Africa Dairy Development Project (Heifer Project Int’l) • Objective: double dairy income in 179,000 households • Also improving nutrition? Qualitative study by ILRI and Emory University • Project areas in Western Kenya, June-August 2010 • Test hypotheses about 4 main pathways • 27 focus groups: men, women, mothers with young children • 94 randomly sampled households, stratified: o No milk o Emerging (<6l) o Advanced (>6l)
  12. 12. Direct consumption pathway • Milk consumption increased with intensification • Children <5 in advanced hhs received more milk than children in emerging or no milk • Children 12-18 mo in advanced hhs receiving 2x than in emerging or no milk: 1.14 vs 0.50 cups a day • Children 18-24 mo: 2.17 vs 1.25 cups. • Reference child went without milk at least 1 time in the preceding 30 days in 3 of 10 hhs in ‘no milk’ vs 1 of 10 emerging hhs vs no household in advanced
  13. 13. Income-mediated pathway • Effects less clear • Dairy income increased but total hh income marginally • Women lose some direct control of dairy income (controlled by HH head in 44% of advanced vs 33% in emerging), but offset by more joint decision-making (28% vs 14%) • Improvements in dietary diversity score across categories, but ability to control for income was limited
  14. 14. “MILK BELONGS TO THE WOMAN AND THE MONEY BELONGS TO THE MAN”- MALE FARMER, EMERGING GROUP, CHEBORGE “MEAT IS A MUST WHEN WE GET PAID [FROM THE DAIRY].”- MALE FARMER, EMERGING GROUP, KIPKELION Soundbites FROM THE FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS:
  15. 15. Childcare pathway • Increased workload for women in emerging category meant a significant share of daytime childcare entrusted to pre-teen siblings (25%) • Transition dynamic : workload decreased among advanced hhs, as did daytime childcare by siblings • Cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of other foods advances across intensification categories  role for nutrition education
  16. 16. Health pathway • Inconclusive: samples too small and other measurement challenges to detect differences in disease incidence as measure of exposure to risk of zoonoses • Similarly, data on health expenditures too limited to evaluate offsetting effect
  17. 17. Summing up… • It’s complicated, and that was just for on-farm… • Teasing out clear net benefits will require large samples and extensive surveys, and even then… • Consider challenges at community or regional level when extending to other actors in the value chain
  18. 18. From our perspective • Major progress: o Systematic conceptualization of food systems to understand the links between agriculture and nutrition • Major gaps: o Framework for considering  role of different food commodities in achieving appropriate diet accessible to the poor  Implications for policy to influence land use and investment • Innovative approaches: o Systems approach / scenario analysis to putting nutritional objectives into a food systems context, and how different food systems contribute to an appropriate diet
  19. 19. Acknowledgements • Int’l Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi – Isabelle Baltenweck – Delia Grace – Jemimah Njuki – Thomas Randolph • Emory University, Atlanta – Aimee Girard-Webb (faculty, HDGH, Nutrition) – Craig Hadley (faculty, Anthropology, HDGH) – Peter Little (faculty, Anthropology, Development Studies) – Claire Null (faculty, HDGH, Economics) – Usha Ramakrishnan (faculty, HDGH, Nutrition) – Shreyas Sreenath (student, Economics) – Amanda Watkins (student, Nursing) – Amanda Wyatt (student, Hubert Dept of Global Health, HDGH) – Anna Yearous-Algozin (student, Nursing) – Kathryn Yount (faculty HDGH, Sociology) • University of Nairobi, Nairobi – Prof. Erastus Kang’ethe • Egerton University, Njoro – Samwel Mbugua • East Africa Dairy Development Project • The Global Health Institute, Emory University • The Halle Institute, Emory University • Program in Development Studies, Emory University Collaborators (alphabetical order) Funding
  20. 20. CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish livestockfish.cgiar.org

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