Art History   Test 3
Islamic and Hindu art of India            Lecture 24         Missed this class        Friday, October 21
ISLAMIC AND HINDU ART• In India• Against depiction of human form because God  made humans and we’d be competing against  him
Summary Islam• Mohammed sleeping on Mt. Hira in Mecca and  he received God’s message• Angel Gabriel appeared to him and sa...
2 Major Architecture forms introduced         to india by muslims:1. Mosque2. Tomb (non-Muslim Indians traditionally   cre...
All Mosques1. Some type of square walled courtyard with   some part of it roofed and supported by   colonnade2. Muezzin-us...
MirabEmpty niche in wall pointing way toward Mecca
Quwwat al-Islam (Might of Islam)Pre-Mughal Period• Mosque and Minaret• Delhi, India• Iron columns from other hindu temples
Quwwat al-Islam (Might of Islam)Central arch or Mirab      Iron Column• On western side          • From Hindu temple• Poin...
Qutub Minar-@ Quwwat al IslamPre-Mughal period• Delhi, India• Minaret is 238 feel tall-tallest  stone tower in the world• ...
Qutub Minar-@ Quwwat al Islam                     Surface is decorated withPre-Mughal period   passages from the Koran and...
Mughal Control of India• 16th-18th c.• 3 most important emperors  1. Akbar  2. Jahangir  3. Shah Jahan
Jahangir EnthronedMughal Period•   Mughals have no long tradition of painting of their    own•   At this time there’s a lo...
Jahangir and Shah AbbasMughal Period• Christian symbols the lion and   the lamb• Shah on the Lamb, Janhangir   on the lion...
Taj MahalShah Jahan•   Mughal Period•   Build as tomb for Jahan’s wife, Mumtaz    Mahal by Shah Jahan•   Width of the base...
More Taj MahalMughal Period• Unlike tomb of Humayun,  main building was placed at  back of garden and larger  reflecting p...
Hindu Religion• No founder• Variety of folk beliefs    – More elite, intellectual trends that slowly coalesced into the pr...
4 types of Yoga (or ways of achieving        union with the Divine)Many deities and many ways that deities manifest themse...
Hour of CowdustRajput Painting• Mughal Period• Attention to facial features  and jewelry• Women of the village  looking ou...
Chinese Art           Lecture 25        10 Minutes LateMonday, October 24-class cancelled    Wednesday, October 26
Chinese Landscape Painting• Chinese currently employs 4000 to 5000  characters• Calligraphy is considered the basis of pai...
Northern & Southern Song Dynasty• Considered golden ages of Chinese civilization• Culture flourished• Militarily they were...
Travelers Amid Mountains and Streams    Fan Kuan•   Northern Song Dynasty•   Ink on Silk•   Nature is dominant-man is a ti...
Rock and Old TreeSu Dungpo• Northern Song Dynasty• Ink on Paper• Literati Painter- a scholar-official who engages in artis...
compareFan Kuan                     Su Dungpo                             •   Literati-a scholar, official who engages• Pr...
Fan Kuan, Travelers Amid Mountains and Streams (c. 1000), N.  Song dynasty; Su Dungpo, Rock and Old Tree (mid-11th c.)    ...
China under the Mongols• The Yuan Dynasty• 1st Emperor-Kubilai Khan who Marco Polo  visited• About ¼ of the population has...
The Rongxi StudioNi Zan•   Yuan Dynasty•   Ink on Paper•   Michelangelo of Chinese art (dynasty)-    known for his neatnes...
Auntumn Colors on the Qiao (Chao)          and Hua MountainsZhao (Jao) Mengfu• Yuan Dynasty• Blandness, flat plane• short ...
Ming DynastyMost famous for vases/ceramics        The warriors
Poet on a Mountaintop    Shen Zhou (Joe)•    Ming Dynsasty•    Ink and color on paper•    Literari Painting•    Communion ...
Chinese Art of the Ming and     Quing Dynasties           Lecture 26       Friday, October 28
Hundreds of Birds Admiring the                  PeacockYin Hong• Ming Dynasty• Ink and color on silk• Much different than ...
Forbidden City  Ming Dynasty• MONGOLS• Perhaps the most spectacular from  Ming Dynasty• Home of 24 emperors for 500 years ...
Forbidden City                     Ming Dynasty                                 Hall of Supreme Harmony• Low Horizontal fo...
Celadon, StonewareRu Ware• Song Dynasty—back to Song• 12th c.• Stoneware-pottery fired at a  much higher temperature than ...
[not needed for test] Porcelain VaseMing Dynasty•   Ming Dynasty-pottery really starts    to take off•   Porcelain- made f...
Blue-and-White Porcelain VaseMing Dynasty• White body of the porcelain is  covered with designs in cobalt  blue, which is ...
Quing Dynasty                               Queue• Quing emporors were non-  chinese people from  Manchuria but they were ...
Overglaze Enamel PorcelainsQing Dynasty• Porcelain vessels are covered  with clear glaze and fired, then  decorated with t...
LandscapeShitao• Quing Dynasty (ching  dynasty)• Ink and color on paper• One of the more prominent  individual artists• La...
One Hundred Horses in a LandscapeLang Shining(Guiseppe Castiglione)• Quing Dynasty• Castiglione was a Jesuit   who arrived...
Opium Wars and the Fall of Dynastic China• The British had a massive trade deficit with China because the British   wanted...
Ren Xiong    Self-Portrait,    Qing DynastyRen Xiong was leader of a group known as the ShanghaiSchool (based in Shanghai)...
Japanese ArtJapanese Zen Painting  and Garden Design       Lecture 27   Missed this class 
Japanese History• There have always been 2 authorities    – Emperor    – Shogun-military leader• After 12th century, Emper...
Zen (Chan) Buddhism• Develops from Buddhism, but draws on many aspects of native Chinese  religions like Daoism, such as s...
Six PersimmonsMu Qi• Song Dynasty• Only survived because  collected by Japanese  patrons• Enlightenment is all around• Rip...
The Sixth Chan Patriarch, Hui-neng, Achieves    Enlightenment while Chopping BambooLiang Kai• Song Dynasty• Only survived ...
Cottage by a Mountain StreamMinchō• Muromachi Period• If they take ideas from other  places, not bound by it but  can tran...
Catching a Catfish with a GourdJosetsu• Muromachi Period• Doing everyday things  produces enlightenment• Visual koan-zen r...
Winter LandscapeSesshū•   Muromachi Period•   Sesshu actually traveled to Ming dynasty    China to study Chinese painting ...
Splashed Ink (Haboku) LandscapeSesshū• Muromachi Period• Splashing ink onto a page  and moving around very  quickly• Rooft...
Dry Rock GardenRyōanji• Muromachi Period• Zen rock garden• Dry rock garden-walled  enclosure with clumps of rocks  arrange...
Yamato-eAnonymous• Muromachi Period• Yamato-e=“Japanese (style)  painting”• Yamato is an ancient name for  Japan• Colorful...
Summer from the FlowersKano Motonobu• Muromachi Period• From Flowers and Birds of the  Four Seasons• Hard-edged, comic boo...
Birds of the Four Seasons (with              previous slide)Kano Motonobu• Muromcahi Period
Japanese Art [2]Castles and the Tea Ceremony: Art    of the Momoyama Period            Lecture 28          MS word Notes  ...
Pines and CranesKano Eitoku• Muromachi period• New style: Art that covers the  entire walls• Painted on 3 sides/walls• Cra...
Momoyama Period• Short period…a lot of war• Ashikaga shōguns lose control of the country and rival feudal lords  attempt t...
Key terms•   Donjon-fortified stone basement•   Tenshu-timber framed structure on top•   Azuchi castle-no cement….•   Idk ...
Himegi CastleMomoyama Period• White Heron Castle• Staggered roofline, lofty quality• Relatively small windows  compared to...
CypressKano Eitoku• Momoyama Period• Gold leaf for ground and clouds, one whole picture for a big  cypress tree• Reasons: ...
Tea Ceremony Aesthetics [aesthetics=standards for judging beauty and/or art]• Humble/ugly simple structures• Zen-imported ...
Tea Ceremony Aesthetics:           wabi=elegant poverty, rustic simplicity             sabi=lean, withered, astringent•   ...
Tea Ceremony [Cha-no-yu][key terms: tokonoma=display alcove]Momoyama Period??•   Often conducted by warriors,    monks, et...
Raku Tea BowlsMomoyama Period                     • Hand made with coil method                     • Kind of a ugly, put p...
Art of the Edo Period UKIYO-E or woodblock printsAlso known as Tokugawa period             Lecture 29     Friday, November...
Edo Period• Edo period, aka Tokugawa Period…begins with  establishment of capital in Edo or modern day  Tokyo• Feudal lord...
IrisesOgata Korin• Edo Period• Background is all gold leaf• Everything pushed to  foreground• uniformity• Painted in  rhyt...
Lacquer Writing BoxOgata Korin•   Edo Period•   Korin was the founder of the Rinpa    School, which arose in the ancient  ...
On to woodblock prints…           Ukiyo-e means print or picture                Single woodblock printNot on study guide, ...
Street Scene in Yoshiwara•   Edo Period•   Yoshiwara was the red-light district of Edo, one of the only    places that men...
Kabuki• Kabuki developed in the Edo period in Edo as a popular  kind of theater patronized by the lower classes in the new...
Woodblock technique• Printer would put design face down on the  block of wood• Cut out the outlines and excess so that it ...
Actor PrintTorii Kiyomasu•   Edo Period•   At this point, prints are done in black and white, and    then hand colored in ...
Flowers of Beauty in the Floating                     WorldSuzuki Harunobu•   Edo Period•   First multicolor woodblock pri...
Highest Ranking CourtesanUTMARO•   From series Five Shades of ink from the    Northern Quarter•   Edo Period•   Most famou...
Geiki (Geisha)UTMARO• From series Five Shades of ink  from the Northern Quarter• Edo Period• Lower than courtesan• Long fa...
Actor PrintSharaku•   Edo Period•   Sharaku is something of a mystery.    He was only active for about 10    months betwee...
Great Wave of KanagawaHokusai• Edo Period• From 36 Views of Mount Fugi• People are tired of prostitutes  and actors• Prett...
Night Snow at KambaraHiroshige• From 5. Stations of the   Tōkaidō
Aztec and Inca Art       Lecture 30Monday, November 7, 2011
MIGHT WANT TO REVIEW THIS• I was KINDA DOZING IN AND OUT!!!!
The Goddess CoatlicueAztec•   Coatlicue (she of the serpent skirt)    gave birth to the Sun god    Huizilopochtli•   Her o...
Calendar StoneAztec• Calendar related to when to  perform correct rituals• Calendar has 260 days with  2 cycles one of 20 ...
Aztec Calendar StoneMore info…• 4 symbols surrounding  center represent when 4  preceding periods were  destroyed• Clockwi...
Feather Headdress of Moctezuma IIAztec• Made out of tail feathers of  Quetzal bird• Only 2 major tail feathers• Iridescent...
Schematic View of the WorldAztec• The Aztecs ordered the  universe into 5 directions:  north, south, east, west, and  cent...
IncaCapital was cusco in Peru [territory       spanned 2600 miles]
Machu PicchuInca, Peru• Undiscovered by the   Spanish, it is the only Inca   city that survives intact
Intihuatana@ Machu Picchu• Inca• Peru• Tells time of the day and  also the Spring and Winter  Equinox
Temple of the Three Windows@Machu Picchu• Inca• Peru• The three windows, which  align with 3 sacred  mountains, are there ...
Woven TunicInca• Peru
Last class
Two Grey Hills Tapestry WeavingJulia Jumbo• Navajo, New Mexico• 2003• Southwest• Weaving believed to be  created by the Sp...
Wampum Belt, William Penn’s Treaty     with the Deleware tribe• 1680s• Eastern Woodlands• Wampum=white and purple  beads m...
Baby CarrierEastern Sioux• 19th c.• Eastern Woodlands• Buckskin and porcupine quill• Decorated with quillwork,  dyed porcu...
Battle Scene, Buffalo Hide• C. 1800• Great Planes (collected by  the Lewis and Clark  expedition• Lewis and Clark lead by ...
Grizzly Bear House Partition ScreenTlingit People• Northwest Coast• C. 1840• Totem=animals having  supernatural powers, su...
Kwakwaka’wakw Mask• C. 1950• Northwest Coast• Attributed to Willie  Seaweed
Chilkat BlanketTlingit people• before 1928• Northwest Coast• More abstract
Taos Pueblo•   Laura Gilpin, photo•   New Mexico•   Southwest•   1947•   Adobe brick•   Faced with clay•   Domes things ar...
Blackware Storage JarMaria and Julian Martinez•   C. 1942•   Earthware•   Pueblo•   Southwest•   Coil method-done by hand•...
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Art history test 3!!!! spurgeon

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Art history test 3!!!! spurgeon

  1. 1. Art History Test 3
  2. 2. Islamic and Hindu art of India Lecture 24 Missed this class Friday, October 21
  3. 3. ISLAMIC AND HINDU ART• In India• Against depiction of human form because God made humans and we’d be competing against him
  4. 4. Summary Islam• Mohammed sleeping on Mt. Hira in Mecca and he received God’s message• Angel Gabriel appeared to him and said “Recite,” the recitation is the Koran…not Narrative like Bible, but a revelation• Judaism and Christianity are valid, Moses, David, and Jesus are important prophets – Muhammed however is ultimate prophet• No intercessory figures, ie no priests or churches – Faithful pray 5 times/day facing Mecca• No Depictions of human form – Thus abounds in floral and animal motifs – Uses written word-poetry, passages from Koran
  5. 5. 2 Major Architecture forms introduced to india by muslims:1. Mosque2. Tomb (non-Muslim Indians traditionally cremate the deceased)Also introduced: – Arch – Dome
  6. 6. All Mosques1. Some type of square walled courtyard with some part of it roofed and supported by colonnade2. Muezzin-used to call holy power to roof of Mohammed’s housetall tower called Minaret to do this
  7. 7. MirabEmpty niche in wall pointing way toward Mecca
  8. 8. Quwwat al-Islam (Might of Islam)Pre-Mughal Period• Mosque and Minaret• Delhi, India• Iron columns from other hindu temples
  9. 9. Quwwat al-Islam (Might of Islam)Central arch or Mirab Iron Column• On western side • From Hindu temple• Pointing towards Mecca • Columns taken from 27• Pre-Mughal Period destroyed Hindu shrines• Arch is 45 feet tall
  10. 10. Qutub Minar-@ Quwwat al IslamPre-Mughal period• Delhi, India• Minaret is 238 feel tall-tallest stone tower in the world• Impractical• as means of calling the faithful to prayer• Surface is decorated with passages from the Koran and abstract and floral motifs
  11. 11. Qutub Minar-@ Quwwat al Islam Surface is decorated withPre-Mughal period passages from the Koran and abstract and floral motifs
  12. 12. Mughal Control of India• 16th-18th c.• 3 most important emperors 1. Akbar 2. Jahangir 3. Shah Jahan
  13. 13. Jahangir EnthronedMughal Period• Mughals have no long tradition of painting of their own• At this time there’s a lot of trading…fusion of different styles• Style tends to be eclectic, borrowing from Hindu, Chinese, and European styles, which they would have known through their trading relationships• Work depicts complex allegory, with Jahangir enthroned on an hourglass and framed with a halo created by the sun and the moon• Puti’s-small angels/cupids-european• Hour glass depicting time-not usual in ISlam art• King Kames of England is in there• Jahangir-king halo as sun and moon-holding the Koran• Artist is in the bottom left corner• Mixed perspective, everything is flat except the hourglass is tipped
  14. 14. Jahangir and Shah AbbasMughal Period• Christian symbols the lion and the lamb• Shah on the Lamb, Janhangir on the lion-symbolismPutis again• Brushes made out of squirrel fir were used for faces-allowed for extreme detail• Accurate depiction of the world in the map
  15. 15. Taj MahalShah Jahan• Mughal Period• Build as tomb for Jahan’s wife, Mumtaz Mahal by Shah Jahan• Width of the base is equal to the height to the top of the dome 250 ft• Made of imported white marble-must be imported and is super expensive…almost bankrupted the country• Very symmetrical, ordered• 4 minarets on corner• Main building placed in the back of the garden and larger reflecting pools required a fairly complex system of hydraulics• Paradise where 4 rivers meet. Seasonal garden to create sense of paradise• More on next slide• Legend that Shah Jahan was planning to build an identical tomb for himself from black marble across the river, but then his sons imprisoned him before he could begin
  16. 16. More Taj MahalMughal Period• Unlike tomb of Humayun, main building was placed at back of garden and larger reflecting pools require a fairly complex system of hydraulics• Inlay of precious stone-single flower can contain up to 37 pieces of inlay naturalistic!• Decorative text from the Koran
  17. 17. Hindu Religion• No founder• Variety of folk beliefs – More elite, intellectual trends that slowly coalesced into the present system• Believed purpose of worship was to attempt to unite with God• 7:43• All deities are seen ultimately as manifestation of an ultimate, formless God essence that appears in various ways according to the needs of the devotee• 3 major deities 1. Vishnu 2. Shiva 3. The Goddess• Each deity can manifest in various ways in serene, active or destructive forms
  18. 18. 4 types of Yoga (or ways of achieving union with the Divine)Many deities and many ways that deities manifest themselvesAlso many ways devotee can approach union with them1. Bhakti- devotion; worshipper has a personal, almost romantic, relationship with the deity.2. Jnana- knowledge; the worshipper hopes to understand the deity through knowledge and contemplation.3. Karma- action, the worshipper attempts to gain knowledge of the deity through service to others.4. Raja- comprehensive method including meditationof course also Hatha yoga, the type of physical exercisepopular today…this is considered a supplement to other types
  19. 19. Hour of CowdustRajput Painting• Mughal Period• Attention to facial features and jewelry• Women of the village looking out at him• Higher on canvas=father away• Animals are more naturalistic than the people
  20. 20. Chinese Art Lecture 25 10 Minutes LateMonday, October 24-class cancelled Wednesday, October 26
  21. 21. Chinese Landscape Painting• Chinese currently employs 4000 to 5000 characters• Calligraphy is considered the basis of painting – Both use flexible writing brush• Calligraphy has been considered superior to painting through Chinese history because it reveals one’s level of education and character
  22. 22. Northern & Southern Song Dynasty• Considered golden ages of Chinese civilization• Culture flourished• Militarily they were weak-not interested in fighting• More interested in cultivating the arts• They were harassed by tribes to the North and West• Mongols took over china in 1279
  23. 23. Travelers Amid Mountains and Streams Fan Kuan• Northern Song Dynasty• Ink on Silk• Nature is dominant-man is a tiny piece of nature• Fan Kuan was a Professional painter-don’t know much about them; worked in painting academy attached to court• High=monumental monochrome ink landscape• Neo-Confucianism-idea that natural and human worlds are interconnected and that nature expresses a moral order. Nature is seen as embodying spiritual qualities, and if you want to improve yourself, you should contemplate nature itself or images of nature. The ideal man likened to aspects of nature: a virtuous man is like an upright pine tree or bamboo that bends without breaking in a storm: rocks are the bones of the earth and exemplify a kind of primordial energy• Not trying to portray nature realistically• Raindrop cun-texture stroke – Tip of brush and placing down and dotting along the surface to create texture – Fan Kuan one of the only ones to use texture in the rocks
  24. 24. Rock and Old TreeSu Dungpo• Northern Song Dynasty• Ink on Paper• Literati Painter- a scholar-official who engages in artistic activity in free time and doesn’t sell his work, amateur painter• “Blandness”-ideal quality of literati painting
  25. 25. compareFan Kuan Su Dungpo • Literati-a scholar, official who engages• Professional Painter in artistic activity in his free time and does not sell his work, an amateur painter (scholar who draws the boring stuff) • “blandness” (pingtan)-the ideal quality of literati painting (just being boring) • “If anyone discusses paintings in terms of formal likeness, his understanding is close to that of a child. If someone composing a poem must have a certain poem, then he is definitely not a man who knows poetry. There is one basic rule in poetry and painting; natural genius and originality….” Su Dungpo
  26. 26. Fan Kuan, Travelers Amid Mountains and Streams (c. 1000), N. Song dynasty; Su Dungpo, Rock and Old Tree (mid-11th c.) Northern Song Dynasty, ink on paper, c. 12 x 24” LITERATI PAINTER PROFESSIONAL PAINTER
  27. 27. China under the Mongols• The Yuan Dynasty• 1st Emperor-Kubilai Khan who Marco Polo visited• About ¼ of the population has died• Go back to states or family and practice art more passionately (or blandly) however you want to say it.
  28. 28. The Rongxi StudioNi Zan• Yuan Dynasty• Ink on Paper• Michelangelo of Chinese art (dynasty)- known for his neatness (neat freak) – Used ink like gold…sparingly• Ink on paper (not silk) – Less valuable• Pronunciations: – X=sh – Zh=j – Q=ch• Colophon-inscription on a work of art• Bland landscape• very sparing use of ink, very dry brush gives it almost a poorness feel• Used ink like Gold…vary sparingly• Stamps attached by subsequent owners
  29. 29. Auntumn Colors on the Qiao (Chao) and Hua MountainsZhao (Jao) Mengfu• Yuan Dynasty• Blandness, flat plane• short hand scroll• hemp-fiber texture stroke-adds texture to mountains and water• Simple Childlike trees• Trying to depict 2 specific mountains, but not trying to make them look like actual mountains-demonstrates something about his character• Full of Colophon writing
  30. 30. Ming DynastyMost famous for vases/ceramics The warriors
  31. 31. Poet on a Mountaintop Shen Zhou (Joe)• Ming Dynsasty• Ink and color on paper• Literari Painting• Communion of self with nature• Shows personality of well rounded sophisticated person if you’re truly a scholar you will embrace nature• Not concerned with detail…variety of tones• Texture on mountains, looking off into nature• Poem- nature good not people• White clouds like a scarf enfold the mountain’s waist• Stone steps hand in space-a long narrow path…Alone leaning on my cane, I gaze intently at the scene…And feel like answering the murmuring brook with the music of my flute
  32. 32. Chinese Art of the Ming and Quing Dynasties Lecture 26 Friday, October 28
  33. 33. Hundreds of Birds Admiring the PeacockYin Hong• Ming Dynasty• Ink and color on silk• Much different than literari [literari is not striving for any type of effect]• Taking time to study birds…using fine line technique with fine brush• On a palace wall• Birds of different seasons=auspicious• Peacock=emperor-other birds paying homage to him
  34. 34. Forbidden City Ming Dynasty• MONGOLS• Perhaps the most spectacular from Ming Dynasty• Home of 24 emperors for 500 years during Ming and Qing dynasties; also home to wives, consorts and children; staffed by eunuchs (castrated males); oriented from North to South, a little over a square mile with 980 buildings. Constrution lasted over 15 years and involved about 1 million workers. It is the world’s largest surviving palace compound.• Oriented from north to south• World’s largest palace compound• Central meridian/axis
  35. 35. Forbidden City Ming Dynasty Hall of Supreme Harmony• Low Horizontal focus• Areas in front staging grounds• Double room• Hipped roof• Post and lintel architecture
  36. 36. Celadon, StonewareRu Ware• Song Dynasty—back to Song• 12th c.• Stoneware-pottery fired at a much higher temperature than earthenware causing the silica in the clay to melt and form a hard, stone-like surface; celadon (green, blue green on greenish brown) glazes were an attempt to imitate jade• Crackware-if lucky when brought from hot air to cool air would create a pretty crackle
  37. 37. [not needed for test] Porcelain VaseMing Dynasty• Ming Dynasty-pottery really starts to take off• Porcelain- made from fine hard white clay called Kaolin which when fired at an extremely high temperature 1400 C with another type of fine clay vitrifies (melts) to form an extremely hard white body, which can be made very thin (often called eggshell porcelain)• China knew the secret of porcelain by the 8th c while the west only discovered it in the 17th. Because of this, Westerners imported huge quantities of Chinese porcelain over the centuries, especially blue- and white porcelain.
  38. 38. Blue-and-White Porcelain VaseMing Dynasty• White body of the porcelain is covered with designs in cobalt blue, which is then covered with a clear glaze. Cobalt is on of the only colors that can withstand this high temperature needed to fire porcelain• Because the decoration is placed under the glaze, it is called underglaze porcelain• “barbaric” design
  39. 39. Quing Dynasty Queue• Quing emporors were non- chinese people from Manchuria but they were good rulers who tried to become more Chinese than the Chinese• They introduced the queue- long hairstyle with braids like on slide
  40. 40. Overglaze Enamel PorcelainsQing Dynasty• Porcelain vessels are covered with clear glaze and fired, then decorated with the enamel glazes and refired at a much lower temperature, causing the enamel to fuse with the clear glaze• Because a second glaze is put over the first, this is called overglazed enamel porcelain – This was done in order to add more colors other than just blue!
  41. 41. LandscapeShitao• Quing Dynasty (ching dynasty)• Ink and color on paper• One of the more prominent individual artists• Landscape, scholar, pavilion, mountain swallowing scholar??
  42. 42. One Hundred Horses in a LandscapeLang Shining(Guiseppe Castiglione)• Quing Dynasty• Castiglione was a Jesuit who arrived in Beijing in 1715 (Jesuits arrived in 1600); he began to learn about Chinese culture to better convert the Chinese – Obviously had art training before China• 3 dimensionality because of tree bark and foreshortening of horses• Foreshortening of the horses
  43. 43. Opium Wars and the Fall of Dynastic China• The British had a massive trade deficit with China because the British wanted Chinese luxury goods, especially porcelain, silk, and tea, but the British had nothing that the Chinese wanted. The British grew opium in their Asian colonies and sold it to the Chinese. The Government protested, but it was ultimately defeated.• It is estimated that one quarter of the Chinese population was addicted to opium around this time.• First Opium War 1839-1842; Second Opium War 1856-1860• When the Chinese lost, this allowed Western powers, starting with Britain, to begin to carve up the country into protectorates.• The Opium Wars led to the Taiping Rebellion, which lasted from 1850- 1864, in which a charismatic Chinese leader attempted to overthrow the Qing rulers and expel the foreigners. This was one of the bloodiest periods of human history (second only to WWII), and between 20 and 30 million people died. Republic of China 1912-1949 [Nationalists under Chang Kai-shek] People’s Republic of China 1949-present [Communists under Mao Zedong]
  44. 44. Ren Xiong Self-Portrait, Qing DynastyRen Xiong was leader of a group known as the ShanghaiSchool (based in Shanghai) in the later Qing dynastywho sought to revive Chinese painting by adoptingelements of Western styles, while also maintaining theChinese emphasis on the calligraphic line.The inscription reads:With the world in turmoil, what lies ahead of me? Ismile and bow and go around flattering people in hopeof making connections; but what do I know of affairs?In the great confusion, what is there to hold on to andrely on? How easy it is merely to chat about this!....When I calculate back to my youth, I didn’t start outthinking this way; with a sense of purpose I portrayedthe ancients for display [as paragons]. But who are theignorant ones, who are the sages? In the end, I have noidea. In the flash of a glance, all I can see is theboundless void.• Very calligraphic lines=trying to combine Chinese calligraphy and western art• Combining Calligraphy with Painting
  45. 45. Japanese ArtJapanese Zen Painting and Garden Design Lecture 27 Missed this class 
  46. 46. Japanese History• There have always been 2 authorities – Emperor – Shogun-military leader• After 12th century, Emperor became a figurehead and the Shogun took power• Different families of Shoguns rise to power at different times• Mongols-under Yuan Dynasty of China• Muromachi period-ashikaga shoguns are in power in kyoto…not very strong or efficient and they only maintain a tenuous peace among rival clans. Chinese culture is enthusiastically imported at this time, especially within Zen monasteries, which maintain diplomatic and trading ties with the continent• At this point, Ming dynasty, rules china.• Since the newest form of painting comes from China, it is called kanga (Chinese Painting)-Kanga develops with the Zen monastic institutions of Japan, but it draws on a range of Chinese styles, including those of the professionals, literati and Chan Monks
  47. 47. Zen (Chan) Buddhism• Develops from Buddhism, but draws on many aspects of native Chinese religions like Daoism, such as spontaneity, intuition and a distrust of language• Based on a direct mind-to-mind transmission outside of scriptures• Practice revolves around mediation and solving Chan “riddles” *koan] like, “What is the face that you had before your parents were born?,” meant to free your mind from rational categories of thought• Often practiced by literati, some of whom became Chan monks, but many of whom went to monasteries on retreat .• The many literati who were involved in Chan temples brought with them their ideas about art, so there is a question of whether there something we can really call Chan/Zen art, or whether it is just a version of literati painting. There is also a question of whether this art is mean to convey a religious meaning, or whether it is a kind of sophisticated hobby.
  48. 48. Six PersimmonsMu Qi• Song Dynasty• Only survived because collected by Japanese patrons• Enlightenment is all around• Ripe persimmon in center=more enlightened mind, one not in line=working outside the boundaries, done very quickly, done calligraphically
  49. 49. The Sixth Chan Patriarch, Hui-neng, Achieves Enlightenment while Chopping BambooLiang Kai• Song Dynasty• Only survived because collected by Japanese patrons• Enlightened minds• Patriarch-chopping Bamboo-daily activities when achievement enlightenment• Calligraphic
  50. 50. Cottage by a Mountain StreamMinchō• Muromachi Period• If they take ideas from other places, not bound by it but can transform it??• FG, MG, BG, Mist in MG like Fan Kuan• Copied previous masters
  51. 51. Catching a Catfish with a GourdJosetsu• Muromachi Period• Doing everyday things produces enlightenment• Visual koan-zen riddle, how do you catpture this catfish with this gourd• Ameteur• Mountain done in ink wash• Deliberately awkward body
  52. 52. Winter LandscapeSesshū• Muromachi Period• Sesshu actually traveled to Ming dynasty China to study Chinese painting at its source• He is most famous however for transforming Chinese styles into his own stylistic language• He is arguably the most famous painter in Japanese history• Not very realistic…more comic booky more edgy• Looking at sessu’s mind• Put together like a jigsaw puzzle• What we are looking at is not an actual scene, he is just showing off his painting techniques
  53. 53. Splashed Ink (Haboku) LandscapeSesshū• Muromachi Period• Splashing ink onto a page and moving around very quickly• Rooftops under tree• Two fisherman on a boat
  54. 54. Dry Rock GardenRyōanji• Muromachi Period• Zen rock garden• Dry rock garden-walled enclosure with clumps of rocks arranged asymmetrically in scraped gravel with circular pattern around the rocks• Veranda to temple building• Monks come here to meditate
  55. 55. Yamato-eAnonymous• Muromachi Period• Yamato-e=“Japanese (style) painting”• Yamato is an ancient name for Japan• Colorful, decorative, stylized art, no sense of depth, no need for realism, height in the background like in Chinese
  56. 56. Summer from the FlowersKano Motonobu• Muromachi Period• From Flowers and Birds of the Four Seasons• Hard-edged, comic book like• Fusing Yamato-e and Kanga arts-universla style – Kanga-chinese like, hard rocky cliffs – Yamato-e-the trees are natrual and pretty soft• Weird stylized drawing manga water and the misty mist is really realistic
  57. 57. Birds of the Four Seasons (with previous slide)Kano Motonobu• Muromcahi Period
  58. 58. Japanese Art [2]Castles and the Tea Ceremony: Art of the Momoyama Period Lecture 28 MS word Notes Wednesday, November 2, 2011
  59. 59. Pines and CranesKano Eitoku• Muromachi period• New style: Art that covers the entire walls• Painted on 3 sides/walls• Crane=longevity• Trees colored in monochrome ink (very Chinese) and calligraphic, but the crane is really fine and detailed and Japanese• Everything is pushed to the foreground (kind of Japanese)• Gold Paint to indicate clouds
  60. 60. Momoyama Period• Short period…a lot of war• Ashikaga shōguns lose control of the country and rival feudal lords attempt to gain control. Three major lords rise, and eventually Tokugawa Ieyasu takes control of the country after a massive battle. He had himself declared shōgun and established a system of government that lasted for about 250 years [what we call the Tokugawa period (1615-1868)].• This is also a period when the Portuguese, led by Jesuit missionaries, are very active in Japan. They introduce firearms, which contributes to the craze for castle building. In this short period of 42 years, almost 60 castles are built by rival feudal lords in their territories. These castles become the center of provincial life, as well as a symbol of the lords’ authority, and they are often lavishly decorated with a lot of gold leaf. Unfortunately, few of them survive to the modern day.
  61. 61. Key terms• Donjon-fortified stone basement• Tenshu-timber framed structure on top• Azuchi castle-no cement….• Idk what these are for though 
  62. 62. Himegi CastleMomoyama Period• White Heron Castle• Staggered roofline, lofty quality• Relatively small windows compared to most japanese architecture• Enormous pillar inside to stabilize whole castle and earthquake- proof• Really tenchu-z looking with surrounding layout• Moats and stuff…inside, there’s the Kano Eitoku’s paintings
  63. 63. CypressKano Eitoku• Momoyama Period• Gold leaf for ground and clouds, one whole picture for a big cypress tree• Reasons: warlords have a very gaudy taste and Gold helps reflect the light into the room• Kanga Style-strong Chinese brushwork, craggy rocks
  64. 64. Tea Ceremony Aesthetics [aesthetics=standards for judging beauty and/or art]• Humble/ugly simple structures• Zen-imported from china-drinking tea to make you peaceful• Wabi-elegant poverty, rustic simplicity• Sabi-lean, withered, astringent
  65. 65. Tea Ceremony Aesthetics: wabi=elegant poverty, rustic simplicity sabi=lean, withered, astringent• Asymmetry-irregularity• Simplicity• Austerity or dryness• Naturalness• Suggestiveness
  66. 66. Tea Ceremony [Cha-no-yu][key terms: tokonoma=display alcove]Momoyama Period??• Often conducted by warriors, monks, etc• Made to look like a farmer’s cottage in the middle of the mountains• Tiny little house with 6ft square main room• Crawl door=you leave behind worldly status so you have to be humble and equal• Tokonoma-display alcove to hang works of art and put bits of nature in there• Looks really shabby inside• Special place in the floor for the tea
  67. 67. Raku Tea BowlsMomoyama Period • Hand made with coil method • Kind of a ugly, put powdered tea in it and whisk in hot water…not like steep tea • Raku-matt glaze, not shiny
  68. 68. Art of the Edo Period UKIYO-E or woodblock printsAlso known as Tokugawa period Lecture 29 Friday, November 4, 2011
  69. 69. Edo Period• Edo period, aka Tokugawa Period…begins with establishment of capital in Edo or modern day Tokyo• Feudal lords and retainers required to spend alternate years in Edo, making it largely a city of bachelors• Now there’s centers of urban entertainment
  70. 70. IrisesOgata Korin• Edo Period• Background is all gold leaf• Everything pushed to foreground• uniformity• Painted in rhythmic, decorative way—no sky, etc• Only using 3 colors• Ogata Korin is big on multimedia
  71. 71. Lacquer Writing BoxOgata Korin• Edo Period• Korin was the founder of the Rinpa School, which arose in the ancient capital of Kyoto during the Edo period• Not connected with linear perspective…moreso filling up space in interesting way• Japan is supree in Lacquer technique (poisonous-layer on layer) 40 layers??!• Inlaid with pearls, etc• Ogato Korin probably just designed• Ogato Korin is better known as a painter
  72. 72. On to woodblock prints… Ukiyo-e means print or picture Single woodblock printNot on study guide, but Moronobu was one of the firstmajor print artists of Edo period…did the pg-13 and R rated prints
  73. 73. Street Scene in Yoshiwara• Edo Period• Yoshiwara was the red-light district of Edo, one of the only places that ment could escape from the strict social control of the time and find some female companionship• Places like Yoshiwara were known as the “floating world,” Moronobu and the term ukiyo-e often used for woodblock prints, means “images (e) of the floating world”• Yoshiwara was the primary district• New metropolitcan culture---now people are proud to be from a certain city• One of the only places that men could escape from the strictness and find a woman companion• Women were often sold into this life – If you became a famous prostitute/courtesan, you could control your own prices – Expected not just to have sex, but to sing and dance and have good conversation – Women expected to know the tea ceremony, sing and dance and lots of social skills• Gated Community• Often wore head coverings when going to this city• Guy in the back didn’t need to worry about his reputation• On the left, all the women trying to tempt the men• We are floating above the piece…little bit of linear perspective, but not uniform• Floating world…like a fantasy world??
  74. 74. Kabuki• Kabuki developed in the Edo period in Edo as a popular kind of theater patronized by the lower classes in the newly established entertainment districts.• Commoner theater• It was bold and dramatic to appeal to this new audience, with many dramatic costumes and fight and dance sequences. Unlike more aristocratic theater, it drew its inspiration from the present day (often from the Yoshiwara) or from heroes in old tales. Men played both male and female parts.• Prostitutes and Kabuki actors were the primary subjects of woodblock prints throughout the 17th and 18th centuries.
  75. 75. Woodblock technique• Printer would put design face down on the block of wood• Cut out the outlines and excess so that it would show up• Made different blocks for different colors• Then BAM printed• Apparently requires substantial financial investment
  76. 76. Actor PrintTorii Kiyomasu• Edo Period• At this point, prints are done in black and white, and then hand colored in shades of reddish brown, yellow, and orange.• The Torii family of print makers began as Kabuki actors from Osaka, who moved to Edo in the late 17th cThe Torii family soon became involved in designing posters for the shows they were in, as well as those of other actors.• This represents a kabuki play on The revenge of the Soga Brothers, one of the most popular themes in Japanese history. Set in the late 12th c., the story focuses on the two Soga brothers, Juro and Goro, who were very young when their father was killed by a rival. They swore revenge and waited almost 20 years to carry it out. Afterward, they were executed. This makes them both paragons of filial piety (a Confucian trait) and of samurai values (following one’s lord into death).
  77. 77. Flowers of Beauty in the Floating WorldSuzuki Harunobu• Edo Period• First multicolor woodblock print-nishiki-e (brocade print)• Collaboration with group of Edo literati who sends their friends printed calendars at new year but become so popular took of calendric markings and sold as prints• Became so popular everyone now wants color prints• Sadly many times people would sell their daughters• Would be groomed from a young age to become a prostitute• Young girl with older prostitute that has a pipe• Japan is now a closed country-expelled all the Westerners who were trying to convert them• Very subtle, wanting to give intimate view of Yoshiwara• Much less pornographic than Harunobu is used to doing• 2 western ideas-PIPE and TELESCOPE
  78. 78. Highest Ranking CourtesanUTMARO• From series Five Shades of ink from the Northern Quarter• Edo Period• Most famous artist of Courtesans [UTAMARO]• This Courtesan has paintbrush in her hand to show she is more educated• Long and narrow face• Not trying to capture personality…trying to capture rank• 5 shades of ink=5 levels ofprostitues• Hair down
  79. 79. Geiki (Geisha)UTMARO• From series Five Shades of ink from the Northern Quarter• Edo Period• Lower than courtesan• Long face• Not trying to capture personality-trying to capture rank• Hair up
  80. 80. Actor PrintSharaku• Edo Period• Sharaku is something of a mystery. He was only active for about 10 months between 1794-1795 and then disappeared completely. Some scholars claim that his images were too caricatured to be popular with the general audience while others note that he designed 150 prints, which would seem to indicate some kind of popularity.• Making fun of actors? Small eyes and mouth• Played a samaurai role• Flat planes of color
  81. 81. Great Wave of KanagawaHokusai• Edo Period• From 36 Views of Mount Fugi• People are tired of prostitutes and actors• Pretty landscapes are IN• Edo…the actual capital becomes the focus..people are proud to be from Edo• This is a souvenir of Edo…tourist print• Idea of a Series-more images, the more people will buy• Actually has 46 instead of 36• Frames Mt Fuji
  82. 82. Night Snow at KambaraHiroshige• From 5. Stations of the Tōkaidō
  83. 83. Aztec and Inca Art Lecture 30Monday, November 7, 2011
  84. 84. MIGHT WANT TO REVIEW THIS• I was KINDA DOZING IN AND OUT!!!!
  85. 85. The Goddess CoatlicueAztec• Coatlicue (she of the serpent skirt) gave birth to the Sun god Huizilopochtli• Her other children, the stars and moon wanted to kill him but he emerged from his mother’s body and drove them off killing and dismembering the moon goddess in the process• Coatlicue is beheaded but 2 serpents rise up from her body• Very monumental and imposing• Strength• Subtle detals…snake scales, snake skin
  86. 86. Calendar StoneAztec• Calendar related to when to perform correct rituals• Calendar has 260 days with 2 cycles one of 20 named days and one of 13 numbered days• Takes 260 days for 2 cycles to realign at the beginning• More but I missed it
  87. 87. Aztec Calendar StoneMore info…• 4 symbols surrounding center represent when 4 preceding periods were destroyed• Clockwise it’s 4 Jaguar, 4 Wind, 4 Rain, 4 Water• Together with the central symbol they represent 4 motion….more
  88. 88. Feather Headdress of Moctezuma IIAztec• Made out of tail feathers of Quetzal bird• Only 2 major tail feathers• Iridescent green• Bound to form headdress
  89. 89. Schematic View of the WorldAztec• The Aztecs ordered the universe into 5 directions: north, south, east, west, and center. At the center is the god Xiuheteculi, god of fire, time, and the calendar. Radiating from him to the four directions are pairs of gods, each facing a different species of tree with a different type of bird on top.
  90. 90. IncaCapital was cusco in Peru [territory spanned 2600 miles]
  91. 91. Machu PicchuInca, Peru• Undiscovered by the Spanish, it is the only Inca city that survives intact
  92. 92. Intihuatana@ Machu Picchu• Inca• Peru• Tells time of the day and also the Spring and Winter Equinox
  93. 93. Temple of the Three Windows@Machu Picchu• Inca• Peru• The three windows, which align with 3 sacred mountains, are there to represent the 3 caves from which the children of the sun emerged
  94. 94. Woven TunicInca• Peru
  95. 95. Last class
  96. 96. Two Grey Hills Tapestry WeavingJulia Jumbo• Navajo, New Mexico• 2003• Southwest• Weaving believed to be created by the Spider Woman who taught the technique to the first human woman• Female activity• Important part of Navajo economy
  97. 97. Wampum Belt, William Penn’s Treaty with the Deleware tribe• 1680s• Eastern Woodlands• Wampum=white and purple beads made form various shells and used by tribes of the Eastern Woodlands as both a kind og currency and a way to cement alliances
  98. 98. Baby CarrierEastern Sioux• 19th c.• Eastern Woodlands• Buckskin and porcupine quill• Decorated with quillwork, dyed porcupine and bird quill worked into various patterns• antelopes and thunderbirds, a popular mythological bird though to create thunder with its wings.
  99. 99. Battle Scene, Buffalo Hide• C. 1800• Great Planes (collected by the Lewis and Clark expedition• Lewis and Clark lead by sacagawea• Buffalo hide is painted and decorated with horses and stick figures fighting each other. Small amounts of color
  100. 100. Grizzly Bear House Partition ScreenTlingit People• Northwest Coast• C. 1840• Totem=animals having supernatural powers, such as eagle, wolf, bear, from whom specific clans are believed to descend• Ovoid shape=face and body• Shaman=“medicine man”• Faces all over body, eyes, ears, etc• Bird feet
  101. 101. Kwakwaka’wakw Mask• C. 1950• Northwest Coast• Attributed to Willie Seaweed
  102. 102. Chilkat BlanketTlingit people• before 1928• Northwest Coast• More abstract
  103. 103. Taos Pueblo• Laura Gilpin, photo• New Mexico• Southwest• 1947• Adobe brick• Faced with clay• Domes things are ovens for baking bread, corn and rice
  104. 104. Blackware Storage JarMaria and Julian Martinez• C. 1942• Earthware• Pueblo• Southwest• Coil method-done by hand• She and her husband began experimenting with black slip ware• Made from coil method using varieties of locally available• Burnished-rubbed until smooth• Considered a woman’s art• She taught technique to women of her village then began signing all pottery so everyone could get more money for them

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