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Experiments on humans

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Experiments on humans

  1. 1. Social Science Experiments on People Sebnem Ozdemir November 2014
  2. 2. Dr. J. Marion Sims
  3. 3. • Anthropology • Economics • Poli8cal science • Psychology • Sociology Social science is concerned with society & The rela8onships among individuals within a society
  4. 4. Contents • Being Human • The Monster Study • John / Joan Case • The Grant Study • Kitty Genovese • Stanford Prison Experiment • Credits / Sources
  5. 5. • Intelligence • Conscience • Consciousness • Discernment • Inner man • Morals • Character • Grace • Humanitarianism
  6. 6. The Monster Study
  7. 7. The Monster Study • 22 orphan children in Davenport, Iowa in 1939. • conducted by Wendell Johnson at the University of Iowa. • Johnson chose one of his graduate students, Mary Tudor, to conduct the experiment, and he supervised her research. • ANer placing the children in control and experimental groups, Tudor gave posi8ve speech therapy to half of the children, praising the fluency of their speech, and nega8ve speech therapy to the other half, beliPling the children for every speech imperfec8on and telling them they were stuPerers. • Many of the normal speaking orphan children who received nega:ve therapy in the experiment suffered nega:ve psychological effects and some retained speech problems for the rest of their lives.
  8. 8. The Monster Study • Dubbed the "Monster Study" by some of Johnson's peers, who were horrified that he would experiment on orphan children to prove a hypothesis, the experiment was kept hidden for fear Johnson's reputa8on would be tarnished in the wake of human experiments conducted by the Nazis during World War II. Because the results of the study were never published in any peer-­‐reviewed journal, Tudor's disserta8on is the only official record of the details of the experiment. • The University of Iowa publicly apologized for the Monster Study in 2001. • On 17 August 2007, six of the orphan children were awarded $925,000 by the State of Iowa for lifelong psychological and emo8onal scars caused by six months of torment during the Iowa University experiment.
  9. 9. John / Joan Case (David Reimer)
  10. 10. • David John / Joan Case (David Reimer) Reimer was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He was originally named Bruce, and his iden8cal twin was named Brian. • At the age of 6 months, aNer concern was raised about how both of them urinated, the boys were diagnosed with phimosis. They were referred for circumcision at the age of 7 months. In 1966, an urologist performed the opera8on using the unconven8onal method of cauteriza8on. The procedure did not go as doctors had planned, and Bruce's penis was burned beyond surgical repair. • The parents, concerned about their son's prospects for future happiness and sexual func8on without a penis, took him to Johns Hopkins Hospital in Bal8more to see John Money, a psychologist who was developing a reputa8on as a pioneer in the field of sexual development and gender iden8ty, based on his work with intersex pa8ents. Money was a prominent proponent of the "theory of Gender Neutrality”
  11. 11. • Money John / Joan Case (David Reimer) and the Hopkins team persuaded the baby's parents that sex reassignment surgery would be in Reimer's best interest. At the age of 22 months, baby Bruce underwent an orchidectomy, in which his testes were surgically removed. He was reassigned to be raised as female and given the name Brenda. • Psychological support for the reassignment and surgery was provided by John Money, who con8nued to see Reimer annually for about a decade for consulta8ons and to assess the outcome. This reassignment was considered an especially valid test case of the social learning concept of gender iden8ty for two reasons: – First, Reimer's iden8cal twin brother, Brian, made an ideal control because the brothers shared genes, family environments, and the intrauterine environment. – Second, this was reputed to be the first reassignment and reconstruc8on performed on a male infant who had no abnormality of prenatal or early postnatal sexual differen8a8on.
  12. 12. • Reimer John / Joan Case (David Reimer) said that Dr. Money forced the twins to rehearse sexual acts involving "thrus8ng movements", with David playing the boPom role. Reimer said that, as a child, he had to get "down on all fours" with his brother, Brian Reimer, "up behind his buP" with "his crotch against" his "buPocks”. • Dr. Money forced David, in another sexual posi8on, to have his "legs spread" with Brian on top. Dr. Money also forced the children to take their "clothes off" and engage in "genital inspec8ons”. • On at "least one occasion", Dr. Money took a photograph of the two children doing these ac8vi8es. Dr. Money's ra8onale for these various treatments was his belief that "childhood 'sexual rehearsal play'" was important for a "healthy adult gender iden8ty”.
  13. 13. • Money John / Joan Case (David Reimer) wrote, "The child's behavior is so clearly that of an ac8ve liPle girl and so different from the boyish ways of her twin brother.” The twin brother, Brian, later developed schizophrenia. • From 22 months into his teenaged years, Reimer urinated through a hole that surgeons had placed in the abdomen. Estrogen was given during adolescence to induce breast development. • This was later expanded into a full-­‐length book As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl, in which—contrary to Money's reports—when living as Brenda, Reimer did not iden8fy as a girl. He was ostracized and bullied by peers, and neither frilly dresses nor female hormones made him feel female.
  14. 14. • By John / Joan Case (David Reimer) the age of 13, Reimer was experiencing suicidal depression, and he told his parents he would take his own life if they made him see John Money again. In 1980, Reimer's parents told him the truth about his gender reassignment, following advice from Reimer's endocrinologist and psychiatrist. • At 14, Reimer decided to assume a male gender iden8ty, calling himself David. By 1997, Reimer had undergone treatment to reverse the reassignment, including testosterone injec8ons, a double mastectomy, and two phalloplasty opera8ons. On September 22, 1990, he married Jane Fontaine and became a stepfather to her three children.
  15. 15. • In John / Joan Case (David Reimer) addi8on to his lifelong difficult rela8onship with his parents, Reimer had to deal with unemployment and the death of his brother Brian from an overdose of an8depressants on July 1, 2002. • On May 2, 2004, his wife Jane told him she wanted to separate. On the morning of May 4, 2004, Reimer drove to a grocery store's parking lot and took his own life by shoo:ng himself in the head with a sawed-­‐off shotgun. He was 38 years old.
  16. 16. The Grant Study Harvard, 1938 On 724 people
  17. 17. The Grant Study
  18. 18. The Grant Study • Alcoholism is a disorder of great destruc8ve power. • Financial success depends on warmth of rela8onships and, above a certain level, not on intelligence. • Poli8cal mindedness correlates with in8macy: Ageing liberals have way more sex. • The warmth of childhood rela8onship with mothers maPers long into adulthood. • The warmth of childhood rela8onship with fathers correlated with life sa8sfac8on.
  19. 19. KiPy Genovese – Bystander Effect • Genovese had driven home from her job working as a bar manager early in the morning of March 13, 1964. Arriving home at about 3:15 a.m., she parked in the Long Island Rail Road parking lot about 100 feet (30 m) from her apartment's door, • As she walked toward the building, she was approached by Winston Moseley. Frightened, Genovese began to run across the parking lot and toward the front of her building • Moseley ran aNer her, quickly overtook her, and stabbed her twice in the back.
  20. 20. KiPy Genovese – Bystander Effect • Genovese screamed, "Oh my God, he stabbed me! Help me!" • When Robert Mozer, one of the neighbors, shouted at the aPacker, "Let that girl alone!”, Moseley ran away and Genovese slowly made her way toward the rear entrance of her apartment building. • Moseley entered his car and drove away, only to returned ten minutes later. In his car, he changed to a wide-­‐brimmed hat to shadow his face.
  21. 21. KiPy Genovese – Bystander Effect • Moseley proceeded to further aPack Genovese, stabbing her several more 8mes. • While Genovese lay dying, Moseley raped her. He stole about $49 from her and leN her in the hallway. • The aPacks spanned approximately half an hour. • A few minutes aNer the final aPack, a witness, Karl Ross, called the police. Genovese was taken away by ambulance at 4:15 a.m. and died en route to the hospital.
  22. 22. Stanford Prison A Famous Experiment in Social Psychology hPp://www.prisonexp.org/
  23. 23. The Arrest • On a quiet Sunday morning in August, a police car swept through the town picking up college students as part of a mass arrest for armed robbery and burglary. • The suspects were picked up at their home, charged, spread-­‐eagled against the police car, searched, and handcuffed.
  24. 24. Booking and Holding Cells • The car arrived at the police sta8on, the suspects were brought inside, formally booked, read their Miranda Rights, finger printed, and a complete iden8fica8on was made. – The suspects were then taken to a holding cell where they were leN blindfolded for as long as two hours.
  25. 25. Volunteering for the Experiment • College students answered a newspaper ad asking for volunteers in a study of the psychological effects of prison life, in an experiment designed by Philip Zimbardo, a Stanford psychology professor. • More than 70 applicants answered the ad and were given diagnos8c interviews and personality tests to eliminate candidates with psychological problems, medical disabili8es, or a history of crime. – 24 college students from the U.S. and Canada who happened to be in the Stanford area were selected and set to earn $15/day.
  26. 26. Constructing the Experiment • The prison was constructed by boarding up each end of a corridor in the basement of Stanford's Psychology Department building. – That corridor was "The Yard" and was the only place where prisoners were allowed to walk around, eat, or exercise. – Cells were made from laboratory rooms with specially made doors with steel bars and cell numbers.
  27. 27. Humiliation • Each prisoner was systema8cally searched and stripped naked. He was then deloused with a spray, to convey the belief that they may have germs or lice.
  28. 28. Humiliation • The prisoner was then issued a uniform. The main part of this uniform was a dress, or smock, which each prisoner wore at all 8mes with no underclothes. • On the smock, in front and in back, was his prison ID number. • On each prisoner's right ankle was a heavy chain, bolted on and worn at all 8mes.
  29. 29. Becoming a Prisoner • The chain on their foot was used in order to remind prisoners of the oppressiveness of their environment. – When a prisoner turned over, the chain would hit his leg, waking him up and reminding him that he was s8ll in prison. • The process of having one's head shaved is designed in part to minimize each person's individuality. It is also a way of gesng people to begin complying with the arbitrary, coercive rules of the ins8tu8on.
  30. 30. Enforcing the Law • The guards were free, within limits, to do whatever they thought was necessary to maintain law and order in the prison. – The guards made their own set of rules. • All guards were dressed in iden8cal uniforms of khaki, and wore a whistle around their neck and a Billy club borrowed from the police. – Guards also wore mirror sunglasses which prevented anyone from seeing their eyes or reading their emo8ons.
  31. 31. Asserting Authority • At 2:30 A.M. prisoners were awakened from sleep by blas8ng whistles for the first of many "counts." The counts served as a way to familiarizing the prisoners with their numbers. – More importantly, they provided a regular occasion for the guards to exercise control over the prisoners.
  32. 32. Physical Punishment • Push-­‐ups were a common form of physical punishment imposed by the guards, for infrac8ons of the rules or displays of improper astudes toward the guards or ins8tu8on. • One of the guards stepped on the prisoners' backs while they did push-­‐ups, or made other prisoners sit on the backs of fellow prisoners doing their push-­‐ups.
  33. 33. Prisoner #8612 • Less than 36 hours into the experiment, Prisoner #8612 began suffering from acute emo8onal disturbance, disorganized thinking, uncontrollable crying and rage. • ANer a mee8ng with the guards where they told him he was weak, but offered him “informant” status, #8612 returned to the other prisoners and said “You can't leave. You can't quit.” • Soon #8612 “began to act ‘crazy,’ to scream, to curse, to go into a rage that seemed out of control.” – It wasn’t un8l this point that the psychologists realized they had to let him out.
  34. 34. Back to Reality • Zimbardo said, "Listen, you are not #819. You are [his name], and my name is Dr. Zimbardo. I am a psychologist, not a prison superintendent, and this is not a real prison. This is just an experiment, and those are students, not prisoners, just like you. Let's go." • He stopped crying suddenly, looked up and replied, "Okay, let's go,“ as if nothing had been wrong.
  35. 35. An End to the Experiment • Chris8na Maslach, a recent Stanford Ph.D. brought in to conduct interviews with the guards and prisoners, strongly objected when she saw our prisoners being treated so poorly. – Out of 50 or more outsiders who had seen our prison, she was the only one who ever ques8oned its morality. • Once she countered the power of the situa8on, however, it became clear that the study should be ended. Maslach was dating Zimbardo at the time. They are still married to this day.
  36. 36. In the End • “By the end of the study, the prisoners were disintegrated, both as a group and as individuals. There was no longer any group unity; just a bunch of isolated individuals hanging on, much like prisoners of war or hospitalized mental pa8ents. The guards had won total control of the prison, and they commanded the blind obedience of each prisoner.” -­‐Philip Zimbardo
  37. 37. The End of the Experiment • ANer only six days, the planned two-­‐week prison simula8on was called off. • Do we see similari8es to present day?
  38. 38. Jeremy Meeks’ star-­‐quality mugshot taken aNer his arrest this week on felony weapons charges has become an Internment sensa8on, with more than 100,000 'likes' on Facebook. The 30-­‐year-­‐old career criminal has become an object of lust for women the world over who took to Facebook and TwiPer lavishing praise on his high cheekbones, full lips and piercing blue eyes.
  39. 39. See also • Milgram Experiment • An American Crime • Josef Mengele, Angel of Death • Nazi Experiments • Unit 731 • Prisoner’s Dilemma • Psmme8chus Experiment • Lost Wallet Test • Asch‘s Conformity Experiments • !................................
  40. 40. Greek eu: "good/real" + "social"
  41. 41. Credits & Sources • Prisoner’s Dilemma game (Ahmed & Salas 2008). • AP Psychology Mr. Tusow • hPp://www.prisonexp.org/ • Wikipedia • Acikbilim.com • Eksisozluk.com

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