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Iron Deficiency Anaemia

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Iron Deficiency Anaemia

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Iron Deficiency Anaemia

  2. 2. Case scenario : Trigger 3 Parameters Obeserved value RBC 4.8 million cells/mcL WBC 6000 cells/mcL Platelets 300 thousands/mcL Haemoglobin 8.4 g/dl Hematocrit 30% Diagnosis ??? Provisional diagnosis: Iron deficiency anemia
  3. 3. Iron Deficiency Anemia  "anemia" usually refers to a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells.  Iron is an essential mineral that is needed to form hemoglobin, an oxygen carrying protein inside red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia(IDA) is a condition in which the body lack enough red blood cell to transport oxygen-rich blood to body tissues
  4. 4. • IDA is the most common form of anemia and it develops over time Without enough iron, the body uses up all the iron it has stored in the liver, bone marrow and other organs. According to WHO, iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in world.
  5. 5. Etiology  Iron-deficiency anemia is usually due to :  blood loss  poor diet  an inability to absorb enough iron from food.
  6. 6. Blood Loss  Blood lost causes iron depletion In women, long or heavy menstrual periods or bleeding fibroids in the uterus. Childbirth Internal bleeding (angiodyspalsia) Gastrointestinal blood loss(GI cancer, peptic ulcer) Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Poor Diet Low iron intake. During some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood. Some studies suggest vegetarians or vegans are more at risk of IDA, due to the lack of meat in their diet
  7. 7. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your diet, your body may not be able to absorb it. This can happen if you have intestinal surgery or a disease of the intestine. Prescription medicines that reduce acid in the stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. • Chronic kidney disease
  8. 8. Other causes Other conditions or actions that cause blood loss and may lead to iron deficiency anaemia include: • inflammatory bowel disease – a condition that causes inflammation (redness and swelling) in the digestive system, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis  • oesophagitis – inflammation of the gullet (oesophagus) caused by stomach acid leaking through it • schistosomiasis – an infection caused by parasites and mainly found in Sub- Saharan Africa • blood donation – donating a large amount of blood may lead to anaemia • trauma – a serious accident, such as a car crash, may cause you to lose a lot of blood  • nosebleeds – if you have a lot of nosebleeds, this may lead to anaemia, although this is rare • haematuria (blood in your urine) – although this rarely causes anaemia and may be a symptom of another condition
  10. 10. IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT IRON SUPPLEMENT. Before using iron medication, check if you are allergic to any drugs or food dyes, or if you have: iron overload syndrome hemolytic anemia (a lack of red blood cells) porphyria (a genetic enzyme disorder that causes symptoms affecting the skin or nervous system) thalassemia (a genetic disorder of red blood cells) liver or kidney disease if you are an alcoholic; or if you receive regular blood transfusion. Most iron medication are taken on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meal.
  11. 11. TREATMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA. Iron deficiency anemia is treated with oral or parenteral iron preparation. Oral iron corrects the anemia just as rapidly and completely as parenteral iron in most cases if iron absorption from the GIT is normal. Different iron salt provide different amount of elemental iron. In iron deficient individual, about 50-80mg of iron can be incorporated in hemoglobin daily and about 25% of oral ferrous salt can be absorbed. Oral iron treatment may require 3-6 months to replenish body stores.
  12. 12. Ferrous sulfate is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Dosage: 325 mg tid, which provides 180 mg of iron daily of which 10mg is usually absorbed. Patients who cannot tolerate iron on an empty stomach should take it with food. Administration: PO
  13. 13. COMMON ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ORAL IRON THERAPY Nausea Epigastric discomfort Abdominal cramps Constipation and diarrhea. Black stool These effects are usually dose-related.
  14. 14. PARENTERAL IRON THERAPY 1) Iron Dextran- is a stable complex of ferric hydroxide and low-molecular-weight dextran containing 50mg of elemental iron per milliliter of solution. It can be given deep IM injection or IV infusion. Adverse effect: light-headedness, fever, arthralgias, back pain, urticaria, bronchospasm and hypersensitivity reaction.
  15. 15. 2)- Iron sucrose complex & iron sodium gluconate complex. These are indicated for patient with hypersensitivity reactions to oral iron salts. They are only given by IV route For patient who are treated chronically with iron, it is important to monitor the iron level to avoid serious toxicity associated with iron overload. Adverse effect same as iron dextran.
  16. 16. Treating Anemia with Transfusions  common in patients who have experienced major blood loss from physical trauma, those who are chronically ill, or those who have recently undergone major surgery  Recent clinical research investigations done to study preoperative anemia suggest , a blood transfusion can damage the immune system (the system that protects us from disease) which can lead to infection, organ dysfunction (especially of the heart, kidney, brain), prolonged hospital stays, as well as increased supplies, resources and cost in surgical patients.
  17. 17. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Another treatment for anemia includes erythropoiesis- stimulating agents (ESAs), a man-made hormone which boosts the body’s processes for making red blood cells.  These medications are approved for treating anemia in patients with cancer, chronic kidney disease or HIV/AIDS  some studies have shown the benefits of their use in other types of patients as well.
  18. 18. Non- pharmacological treatment Iron-rich diet  Good sources of iron includes: meats - beef, pork, lamb, liver, and other organ meats poultry - chicken, duck, turkey, liver (especially dark meat) fish - shellfish, including clams, mussels, and oysters, sardines, anchovies leafy greens of the cabbage family, such as broccoli, kale, turnip greens, and collards legumes, such as beans and green peas; dry beans and peas, such as pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned baked beans
  19. 19. CONCLUSION….. Oral iron replacement to correct IDA is a time consuming process. Daily iron absorption is about 2 mg. This value can increase to as much as 10 mg with  An oral iron replacement regimen would require nearly 6 months to completely correct the iron deficit in this patient. Such a time frame is unacceptable for most patients who require surgery. Two to three weeks provides a minimum window in which to correct even severe IDA Parenteral iron replacement should be used in this setting since oral iron replacement will not have time to work.
  20. 20. REFERENCES  The HealthCentralNetwork, Inc.Copyright © 2001-2011. Treatment of Iron Deficiency,retrieved on 2011-10-05. Retrieved from  A-Z Drug Facts for the Professional,Copyright © 2000-2011. Iron supplement, retrieved on 2011-10-03. Retrieved from ttp://  A-Z Drug Facts for the Professional,Copyright © 2000-2011. What should I avoid while taking iron supplement, retrieved on 2011-10-03. Retrieved from  National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA Iron supplements: a common cause of drug interactions, retrieved on 2011-10-06. Retrieved from  Basic and clinical pharmacology 10th edition, Beram.G. Katzung,MD,PhD. Professor Emertus, Department of cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco.
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Iron Deficiency Anaemia


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