Production Technology


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In this presentation, we will talk about the importance of technology and factory automation, along with automated manufacturing systems, types of automation, automation principles and strategies.
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Production Technology

  1. 1. Production Operations managementChapter 8Production Technology
  2. 2. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION Production automation is fundamental to Japanscompetitiveness in terms of the cost and quality of itsconsumer electronic products. In addition, a growing labor shortage, demands forimproved working environments, and company-widecomputer-integrated manufacturing have made automation anecessity for many companies. Since most fabrication activities have already beenautomated, the current focus of attention is on theautomation of assembly lines, where labor content has beenhighest. There are several stages of assembly line automation, withvarying impacts on flexibility and product design.
  3. 3. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION The move from hand assembly to robot assembly ofexisting products can be termed "first-generation"automation. "Second-generation" lines require some productdesign changes for assembly line automation. Automationthat requires broad product design changes is termed "third-generation" automation. The JTEC panel observed widespread automation duringits plant tours. The leading Japanese electronic companieshave implemented the following FA concepts (Kahaner1993, 33-56): in-line systems with a series of progressive operations
  4. 4. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION computer control of raw material storage and retrieval automated guided vehicles used in the delivery of materialto the assembly line, and in some cases, automated loadingof the assembly equipment bar code identification of raw material and product mix machine instructions downloaded from a host computer in-line automated assembly and process equipment in-line automated inspection and testing equipmentfollowing each preceding assembly or fabrication operation automated real-time process control to achieve automatedcalibration of assembly equipment and products
  5. 5. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION Key benefits cited for the use of automation includereducing factory set-up time, manufacturing defects, productlead time, and direct labor, and increasing the ability torapidly deploy manufacturing operations around the world. Sony management described the following as an exampleof the benefits gained from the companys factoryautomation activities: It took three to four months to start up Sonys original production lines in Japan, but it requiredonly two to three weeks to bring replicated lines up to speedin Singapore and France. Changing models required only9.1% of additional capital investment in Sonys firstchangeover, 3.5% in the second changeover, and only 1.5%in the third changeover.
  6. 6. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION In addition, the move to automation resulted in improvedquality. The best defect rate using manual labor was 2000parts per million (PPM), compared to 20 PPM after the firstweek of automation. Sonys personnel policy was to remove employees frommanual labor jobs through automation so that "they couldbecome more creative in solving problems and improvingoperations." Due to Sonys strong knowledge base in automation andits focus on design for manufacturability, between 1987 and1990 it increased sales by 121% with an increase of only 35employees.
  7. 7. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION Automation for Miniaturization Japanese electronics companies have made and continueto make large investments in production technologies andfactory automation because of their commitment tominiaturization as well as to high product reliability and lowproduct cost. As electronic components shrink to as small as1.0 mm by 0.5 mm (called "1005" parts), and as componentlead pitch approaches 0.2 mm, human assembly is no longerfeasible. The Japanese strategy to develop key components for usein electronic products has also required investments inequipment development.
  8. 8. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION "Off-the-shelf" equipment is generally inadequate to meetthe manufacturing needs of new component technologies.Without exception, each Japanese company the JTEC panelvisited was designing and building critical equipment in-house. According to these companies, equipment provides amajor competitive advantage because it is designed torespond to the specific manufacturing requirements of thecompanies components or products. The JTEC panel was impressed by the fact that someJapanese component suppliers also supplied buyers with theequipment required to assemble their advanced components.TDK, Murata, and Matsushita,
  9. 9. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION for example, developed internally the productiontechnology to make 1005 parts, and they also supplied theassembly equipment required for customers to utilize theseultra small parts in SMD assembly. The equipment makersintroduced the equipment at the same time as the newminiature parts were made available to the market. Theproduction technology is being developed to ensure that newcomponents are rapidly included in next-generation productdesigns. Miniaturization is forcing assembly technologies tobecome faster and more precise. Precision robots haveimproved repeatability from .05 to .01 mm over the pastdecade.
  10. 10. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES Final Assembly Design Techniques In assembly operations, parts handling and feeding andline control are very complex; however, with the advancesmade in equipment, production control, and computers overthe past decade, automated assembly lines are no longerunusual.. There are three critical advances (Kahaner 1993,34): positioning technology for robot control flexible line construction technology for mixed flowproduction of multiple product modelsmodular product design technology for assembly lineautomation
  11. 11. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES Positioning is the most common problem for assemblyautomation. Different sizes and shapes of components makeassembly difficult. Precision positioning of parts for printedcircuit boards in consumer electronic products is especiallychallenging. If the board is out of position, the problem is compounded.This is a problem with board warp age where accurate sensordetection is especially difficult. NEC in Gunma Prefecturedeveloped a triangular measuring optical sensor that is usedin a procedure to detect the height of three points on a printboard.
  12. 12. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES A two-dimensional curving warp can be represented bythree points, so the company had to come up withinnovations in measurement point selection and interpolationtechniques. Jigs are fundamental to positioning parts properly beforeassembly. Complex part shapes can make such positioningdifficult. Visual sensors can detect the positions of parts and alsoallow for mixed-flow production operations. These sensorscan also detect parts shapes and therefore are useful inproduct quality control applications. Toshibas most recent application of CCD technology tovisual sensors has allowed for 0.02 mm positioning accuracy.
  13. 13. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES More typical sensors, combined with the mechanical errorof a robot, result in errors of several hundred microns. Flexible lines are required to cope with the demands ofmultiple-model, mixed-flow production. Movable jigs andvisual sensors are used to adjust to changing parts shapes. Inmixed-flow assembly lines, product model information mustbe controlled to match parts with the models on the line.Some companies have used memory cards on parts pallets toachieve this control. Integration of such parts flows withmixed-line assembly is based on sophisticated parts-feedingequipment, which may account for 80% of the automationsuccess.
  14. 14. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES Modular product designs are used to reduce equipmentcosts and to improve product reliability. It is essential toimplement design features that are compatible withautomated assembly operations. It is then possible tosimplify assembly and enhance operational reliability byorienting all the assembly steps in one direction oremploying connection techniques amenable to automation.For complex assembly operations that could be handled byrobots, Fujitsu developed special supplemental mechanismsthat required changes in such details as screw shape. Product structures are divided into a number of modulesfor design purposes.
  15. 15. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES Each module is assembled on a sublime, and the assemblyoperations not amenable to automation are concentrated inthe final assembly line. It is easy to achieve higherautomation rates in the total assembly process because eachmodule is designed to be compatible with automatedassembly. In the personal computer, for example, everycomponent used in final assembly simply slides into a slot orconnector without difficulty. At NECs PC assembly factory,each module is designed to be compatible with automation ofthe total assembly process.
  16. 16. Production Technology FACTORY AUTOMATION ISSUES Now that robots have become highly functional, SeikoEpson has designed its printers for the lowest totalmanufacturing cost and then constructed its assembly lineaccordingly. It has set about improving the automation ratewhile developing ways to handle multiple-module, mixed-flow production. The mixed-flow production approach helpshold down equipment costs and allows for flexibility inadjusting to demand fluctuations. Development of designscompatible with assembly automation is a new key conceptthat has great potential.
  17. 17. Production Technology Automated Manufacturing Systems CAD ,CAE ,CAPP CAM ,CIM Computer Aided Fixed Automation (transfer lines) Hard automation, automation for mass production Produces large numbers of nearly identical parts High initial investment for custom engineeredequipment Product design must be stable over its life Advantages: equipment fine tuned to application -decreased cycle time, infrequent setups, automatedmaterial handling - fast and efficient movement of parts,very little WIP Disadvantage: inflexible
  18. 18. Production Technology Types of AutomationProgrammable Automation (NC, CNC, robots) Sequence controlled by a program High investment in general purpose equipment Lower production rates Flexibility to deal with variation Suitable for batch production Smaller volumes (than fixed) of many different parts More flexible than fixed automation Major disadvantage: setup prior to each new part Large batch size (due to setups) Speed sacrificed for flexibility
  19. 19. Production Technology Types of Automation Flexible Automation (FMS) Extension of programmable automation No time lost for change over High investment in custom-engineered systems Production of product mix Flexibility to deal with design variations Low to medium quantities Compromise between fixed and programmableautomation in speed and flexibility Advantage: programming and setup performed off-line
  20. 20. Production Technology Types of Automation More expensive - size and tool change capabilities Small batch sizes are justified - reduced WIP and leadtime Typical parts are expensive, large and require somecomplex machining Strengths of Humans Sense unexpected stimuli Develop new solutions to problems Cope with abstract problems Adapt to change Generalize from observations Learn from experience Make difficult decisions based on incomplete data
  21. 21. Production Technology AUTOMATION PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIESTen Strategies for Automation1. Specialization of operations.2. Combined operations.3. Simultaneous operations.4. Integration of operations.5. Increased flexibility.6. Improved material handling and storage.7. On line inspection.8. Process control and optimization.9. Plant operations control.10. Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM).
  22. 22. Production Technology AUTOMATION PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIESAutomation Migration StrategyPhase 1: Manual production using single stationmanned cells operating independently.Phase 2: Automated production using single stationautomated cells operating independently.Phase 3: Automated integrated production using a multi-station automated system with serial operations andautomated transfer of work units between stations.
  23. 23. Production Technology AUTOMATION ADVANTAGESReduce work-in-processparts being processed, part waiting to be processedlarge WIP: longer time to fill orders, more storage space, valueof unfinished goods that could be invested elsewherereduced WIP: better control and scheduling Reduce manufacturing lead timeprocessing time, setup time, waiting timesetup time: flexible automation, common fixtures and toolingprocessing time: combining or eliminating operations, increasespeed (work measurement principles) Increase qualityrepeatable operations through every cycle - tighter controllimits, easier detection when process is out of controlstatus of manufacturing operations
  24. 24. Production Technology AUTOMATION ADVANTAGESIncrease productivityReduce labor costAddress labor shortagesReduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasksHealth and SafetyMay be the only optionStay up-to-date (avoid cost of catching up)
  25. 25. Production Technology Factories of Future Aerospace Typically, complex, three-dimensional shapes, exoticmaterials, medium-volume to low-volume productionquantities Military and space technology filters down to industrialapplications Pioneered work in NC machining, CAD/CAM, compositesand flexible manufacturing system applications Goals: energy efficiency, high strength-to-weight ratio
  26. 26. Production Technology Factories of Future Automotive Relatively large production quantities, multiple options:automated assembly is difficult Traditionally, primary processes were metalworking:machining of power train parts, forming and bending sheetmetal; assembly by spot welding and mechanical fasteners;finishing by spray painting and plating New materials: plastics, fiberglass Increasing automation: robots for spot welding and spraypainting Improved quality with production groups that assemblelarge portions of the automobile
  27. 27. Production Technology Factories of Future Chemical Chemical processes for man-made fibers and plastics, oildistillation and pharmaceutical industries Continuous flow of product and byproducts; some batchprocessing reasonably easy to automate Food Large volume industry Standard products and operations, therefore reasonablyeasy to automate Many products use continuous processes; discreteprocesses includes packaging
  28. 28. Production Technology Factories of Future Semiconductor Large volume industry Emphasis on design and production of low-cost integratedcircuits Smaller size and more stringent requirements forcleanliness Process requirements have forced automation
  29. 29. Plant UtilitiesEnd OfChapter 8
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