Manufacturing

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Manufacturing

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Manufacturing

  1. 1. Manufacturing Automation MAE 464-564
  2. 2. Course requirements <ul><li>Lecture classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid term and final exam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laboratory exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLC Two projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNC Programing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One research oriented paper for Grad. students </li></ul>
  3. 3. Announcements <ul><li>Interactive class - Unique opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions - One topic every two weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to it actively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources and sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research projects and Other organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://wings.buffalo.edu/academic/department/eng/mae/460-564/ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Manufacturing <ul><li>Changing raw material finish product </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of material, energy, information </li></ul><ul><li>Proceses that added value </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual design into a real product </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is manufacturing? <ul><li>Conversion of raw material to end product </li></ul><ul><li>Adding value </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation, innovation, solving problem, </li></ul><ul><li>Process of Man, material and machine o get a product </li></ul><ul><li>Time to market </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>Need or want </li></ul><ul><li>Customer sastisfaction </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Manufacturing
  7. 7. What is manufacturing <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Concept – product </li></ul><ul><li>Design realization </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential process </li></ul><ul><li>Control processes- feedback systems </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Mass –custom- mid size – </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control – </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency prductivity- </li></ul><ul><li>Safety – </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – revenue – </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Manufacturing <ul><li>Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Processes raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Product design </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Stacking/packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory control – JIT </li></ul><ul><li>Production planning </li></ul><ul><li>R& D </li></ul><ul><li>Volume manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Market survey </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is Manufacturing? <ul><li>Mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Prodction of a product </li></ul><ul><li>Design/improve product </li></ul><ul><li>Converting a concept in to product </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material into prodcut </li></ul><ul><li>Complex assemblies and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Creatino BOM </li></ul><ul><li>Quallity </li></ul><ul><li>Best process for ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Best practises for .. </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics of manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost, lead time and quality </li></ul>
  10. 10. Manufacturing <ul><li>A series of interrelated activities and operations involving design, material selection, planning, production, quality assurance, management, and marketing of discrete consumer and durable goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing is a Systematic process of converting raw materials to its value added form </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Production line </li></ul><ul><li>Least human intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>AGVs, MH </li></ul><ul><li>Timely process </li></ul><ul><li>Control of processes – </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive processes </li></ul><ul><li>Computers – Quality, motions, engineering, </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and adaptive systems imrove </li></ul><ul><li>Cell, FMS, DNC, lines, </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency, optimization, cost, effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Customization vs mass production. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What processes are manufacturing <ul><li>Metal cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Shapping </li></ul><ul><li>Turning/milling/drilling </li></ul><ul><li>Molding </li></ul><ul><li>Forging, extrusion, casting, HT </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Welding </li></ul><ul><li>Grinding </li></ul><ul><li>EDMs </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Broaching </li></ul><ul><li>Punching, stamping </li></ul><ul><li>Brazing </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroforming, waterjet cutting, explosive forming </li></ul><ul><li>ECM – PCB, </li></ul><ul><li>Induction, </li></ul><ul><li>Painting, polishing </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber forming, plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Casting </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics, polymers </li></ul>
  13. 13. What process contribute to Manufacturing? <ul><li>Machining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn, grijdin,millin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welding, brazing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stamping, forging, sheet metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrusion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molding – plastic, glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Braoching etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface finishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDM, ECM, Ultrasonic m/c </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LBM, Waterjet, EBM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HT, - Anneal,, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coating – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining, Assembling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>riveting, welding, adhesives, fastners, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etching, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid protityping, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality – CMM, prfileing, SQC, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspecion—NDT, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber, polymer, ceramics, </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What process contribute to Manufacturing? <ul><li>Casting , plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Forging/forming/etxrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Milling </li></ul><ul><li>Drilling </li></ul><ul><li>Boring/metalcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Welding – joining process </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>HT treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical – plating and coating </li></ul><ul><li>ECM – special puropse </li></ul><ul><li>EDM – Electro discharge maching – wire cutting, </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet metal forming </li></ul><ul><li>Tool and die making </li></ul><ul><li>Powder metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Sintering </li></ul><ul><li>Finishing – deburring, grinding, polishing, painting, coating </li></ul><ul><li>Composite manufacturing – carbon , metal matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid prototypeing </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing, rendering, planning </li></ul><ul><li>Water jet – Laser, EBM, </li></ul>
  15. 15. What processes are considered manufacturing ? <ul><li>CNC machining </li></ul><ul><li>Molding, casting, </li></ul><ul><li>Forging, Rolling, </li></ul><ul><li>Turning/milling,shaping, grinding, Boring, </li></ul><ul><li>EDM, LBM, Air jest, waterjet </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling putting prodcut </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrication welding, riveting, plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics plymers, glass, production </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>HT, Electroplating </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection and quality </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of manufacturing <ul><li>Process (continuous) type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steel, glass, chemical, semi-conductors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of automation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part discrete type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual parts are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quite often complex assembly is required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical, electromechanical and electronic </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What are the elements of Mfg. Automation?
  18. 18. Software or systems?
  19. 19. Manufacturing Automation <ul><li>Manufacturing with little or no intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing human error </li></ul><ul><li>Agv – Automated material handling </li></ul><ul><li>Improve prcision in higher volume </li></ul><ul><li>CNC machines </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer lines </li></ul><ul><li>FMS – Flexible manufacturing – Cellular sys </li></ul><ul><li>PLCs </li></ul><ul><li>Computer vision – </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly process – </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine control soft = Post processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control and measurment – CMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communcation – between PLC, between machines, plants, control centers </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Manufacturing Automation? <ul><li>CNC </li></ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyor – MH </li></ul><ul><li>AGV – </li></ul><ul><li>SQC, </li></ul><ul><li>USM, </li></ul><ul><li>FMS, </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and retraival </li></ul><ul><li>Production – line – assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>Controllers, </li></ul><ul><li>CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Auto gauging – CMMs </li></ul><ul><li>Auto tool changers </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging, </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of automation, </li></ul><ul><li>JIT, Kanban, Agile, Lean mnaufacturing, Six Sigma, </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizan, </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Software – CADm-CAM </li></ul><ul><li>PDM, </li></ul><ul><li>PPC, MRP I, II </li></ul><ul><li>ERP </li></ul>
  22. 22. Manufacturing Automation? <ul><li>Transfer of parts </li></ul><ul><li>Automation in hazardous env. </li></ul><ul><li>Robot </li></ul><ul><li>CNC machines milling, edm, lathes, dril, etc etc </li></ul><ul><li>Pipe bending machines, </li></ul><ul><li>Presses, forging , stamong presses, forming, </li></ul><ul><li>CAD-CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Automted machines CAM </li></ul><ul><li>PLC s </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>CMM, automated measurements sensors, inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Finishing processes, </li></ul><ul><li>Deburring, polishing </li></ul><ul><li>PPC, MRP II, inventory control, </li></ul><ul><li>Packging etc </li></ul><ul><li>Web retailing, Supply chain etc I2 </li></ul>
  23. 23. What types of Mfg. Automation? <ul><li>Moving assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Tools which aid some process </li></ul><ul><li>AGVs </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and retreival </li></ul><ul><li>CAD-CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>CNC machines </li></ul><ul><li>Routing </li></ul><ul><li>PLCs </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling, production </li></ul><ul><li>Lay-out of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Production planning </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing, lead-time of process </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Tool magement </li></ul><ul><li>MRP </li></ul>
  24. 24. Manufacturing Automation <ul><li>Organized and Systematic method of increasing the productivity and reducing the product development cycle. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Well Defined Enterprise PEOPLE PROCESSES TOOLS TECHNOLOGIES BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Good Business </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul>SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS Finance Marketing Human Resources Design Manufacturing Information Systems Logistics / Support Etc.
  26. 26. History of Automation <ul><li>When did automation start ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAM based machines were used in 1930 and 40s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple head turning and milling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow line assembly with several repetitive machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLCs and computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNC machines, CAD, FMA cellular systems. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Competitive Advantage Proper Strategy Formulation <ul><ul><li>Understand customer desires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal rapid response mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster and cost effective products </li></ul></ul>Manufacturing Perspective <ul><li>1970’s - Cost focused </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s - Quality first </li></ul><ul><li>1990’s - Delivery performance, customization, and environmental issues </li></ul><ul><li>2000’s - Information and Knowledge integration </li></ul>
  28. 28. Design for Manufacturing <ul><li>(Verb) The process of creating a specification for construction of a part which involves synthesis, analysis, and optimization. </li></ul><ul><li>(Noun) The resulting specification and includes geometry, topology, tolerances, material, and other parameters necessary for manufacturing the part. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Highly Agile Product Automation Missing Link Design Automation CAD Manufacturing Automation CAM Design for: Manufacturing Assembly Automation Inspection Manufacturing Processes: to allow easy design
  30. 30. Made to order? Customer Specs. Planning Design Manufacturing Software Information Automation Hardware Automation
  31. 31. Enterprise Level Automation <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>PLCs </li></ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul><ul><li>CNC </li></ul><ul><li>AGVs </li></ul><ul><li>Soft </li></ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>GT-based </li></ul><ul><li>CAPP </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>FMS </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>based </li></ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>PMI </li></ul><ul><li>ERP </li></ul>
  32. 32. Types of Automation <ul><li>Fixed and Hard Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAM, levers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is it used ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High volume, High reliability, High production rates, High initial investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexible Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable automation, Low production rates, medium quantity and varied production batches. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Key elements <ul><li>In the year 2001, this may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient algorithms and methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CA “X” - CAM CAD CAPP CAI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and closed architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet and WEB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D printing </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Philosophies of automation <ul><li>Concept A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines which are completely automated should be used in production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines with limited automation, intelligence and capabilities aided by human intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use machines for what it does the best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use human to ease the complexities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Robotics <ul><li>How can robot help ? </li></ul><ul><li>What level of intelligence ? </li></ul><ul><li>Theory behind programming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead through, CAD based, Interactive VR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telerobotics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment not safe for humans to work </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Features and Geometry <ul><li>Cognitive foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Features in engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feature based automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic development of CNC programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Assembly design </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Product development <ul><li>CAD-CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Solid modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CSG, B-Rep, Parametric modeling, NURB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design - FEM </li></ul><ul><li>Integration - Manufacturing </li></ul>
  38. 38. Information <ul><li>Product Management Information </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>MRP II </li></ul><ul><li>Web based Databases etc. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Topics to be covered <ul><li>Theory of Automation: PLC, Concept of Assembly languages </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics - Definitions, design, applications in manufacturing, programming, planning, sensors, vision etc </li></ul><ul><li>CAD-M interface and automation issues </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Engineering - Modeling from data </li></ul>
  40. 40. Key challenges <ul><li>Globalization and virtual enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>One of a Kind production (OKP) as opposed to mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Co-existence of various hardware and software systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol, networks, standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of vast knowledge base - information overload ? </li></ul><ul><li>Making the manufacturing ready for internet </li></ul>
  41. 41. Contd. <ul><li>Rapid prototyping - different applications. </li></ul><ul><li>AI techniques in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual environments - hardware, software, concepts in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Web centric engineering and its application in manufacturing </li></ul>
  42. 42. Next class <ul><li>Next class we will start PLCs </li></ul><ul><li>Read section 6.8 of the text book </li></ul>

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