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Public engagement essentials


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Just completed this draft of course. have some examples and more notes + case studies. Still refining it. Planning to teach this in 2012

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Public engagement essentials

  1. 1. Public Engagement Essentials Notes from Dr Gregory Payne Edited by Robin Low
  2. 2. public diplomacy definedAccording to the Planning Group for Integration of USIA into the Dept. of State (June20, 1997), public diplomacy is defined as follows: Public diplomacy seeks to promote the national interest and the national security of the United States through understanding, informing, and influencing foreign publics and broadening dialogue between American citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad.
  3. 3. why public diplomacy(PD)• Many of the principles and practices used by governments for public diplomacy can be applied to corporations and organizations to engage the public.• Nation branding is closely related to corporate branding. The nation can benefit from a strong corporate brand and the corporation can benefit from the nation’s brand.
  4. 4. public affairs vs public diplomacy"Public Affairs is the provision of information to the public, press and other institutions concerning the goals, policies and activities of the Government. Public affairs seeks to fosterunderstanding of these goals through dialogue with individual citizens and other groups and institutions, and domestic and internationalmedia. However, the thrust of public affairs is to inform the domestic audience."
  5. 5. Convergence of PR, PD and PA• Both PR and PD are creatures of rhetoric.• A river runs through them: the river of public opinion• PR and PD are particularly constructed to address complex issues• PR and PD are not so much about communication as they are about drama.• Communication is not a sufficient answer.
  6. 6. Convergence of PR, PD and PA• In much writing about public relations and public diplomacy, Human rationality has been overemphasized.• Public Relations is the propagation of awe.• Convergence is not a curse but an opportunity.• We are living in an age of crisis.• Convergence is a dynamic feature of the postindustrial information-communication economy.
  7. 7. origins of the term public diplomacy"Public diplomacy . . . deals with the influence ofpublic attitudes on the formation and execution offoreign policies. It encompasses dimensions ofinternational relations beyond traditionaldiplomacy; the cultivation by governments of publicopinion in other countries; the interaction ofprivate groups and interests in one country withthose of another; the reporting of foreign affairsand its impact on policy; communication betweenthose whose job is communication, as betweendiplomats and foreign correspondents; and theprocesses of inter-cultural communications.
  8. 8. "Central to public diplomacy is thetransnational flow of information and ideas."
  9. 9. public diplomacy and propagandaTo this day views differ as to whether or not "public diplomacy" and "propaganda" aresimilar.Two examples:• In 1955, Oren Stephens, author of Facts to a Candid World: Americas Overseas Information Program, called such programs (now known as "public diplomacy"), "propaganda." He referred to the Declaration of Independence as being "first and foremost a propaganda tract."• In 1961, Wilson Dizard, in the first book to be written specifically about USIA, which was then about eight years old, wrote: The United States has been in the international propaganda business, off and on, for a long time . . . propaganda played a crucial role in the war of independence."
  10. 10. "American traditions and the American ethicrequire us to be truthful, but the mostimportant reason is that truth is the bestpropaganda and lies are the worst. To bepersuasive we must be believable; to bebelievable we must be credible; to be crediblewe must be truthful. It is as simple as that." -- Edward R. Murrow (1963)
  11. 11. what is public diplomacy?Are the following Public Diplomacy?• Moon Landing• Student or Educator in a foreign country• Performing artists visiting foreign countries
  12. 12. importance‘once the stepchild of diplomats has assumed itsrightful place at the center of diplomatic relations’‘…if each country could make its own culture andcivilization understood, this will promoteinternational understanding strongly. Thegovernment will coordinate official and privateefforts, and equip them with appropriate externaland domestic institutions.’
  13. 13. initial definition‘…public diplomacy is distinct from (but relatedto) a foreign ministry’s public affairs role, withsimilar activities and techniques directed atone’s own citizens…to help them interpret theoutside world from a nationalist perspective andraise awareness of their own country’s role andthat of its own diplomatic service.’ From Dr. Gregory Payne
  14. 14. evolution of definitionPublic diplomacy (PD) originally referred toattempts by governments to influence foreignpublics, to shape their views on issues and totake a more favorable view of them. It has beencalled: ‘efforts by the government of one nationto influence public or elite opinion in a secondnation for the purpose of turning the foreignpolicy of the target nation to advantage.’
  15. 15. evolution of definitionJoseph Nye has taken a completely differentapproach, equating PD with ‘soft power’. Basedon that approach, Jozef Batora defines PD as‘the development and maintenance of acountry’s soft power of persuasion andattraction’.
  16. 16. evolution of definition‘The new public diplomacy is no longer confined tomessaging, promotion campaigns, or even directgovernmental contacts with foreign publics servingforeign policy purposes. It is also about buildingrelationships with civil society actors in othercountries and about facilitating networks betweennon-governmental parties at home and abroad…Inorder to safeguard their interests in a globalizingworld, countries need “permanent friends” in othernations.’
  17. 17. in short• It covers activities that address publics and other non-state entities, at home and aboard, advocating the home country’s viewpoint on external issues.• The initiators of PD may be governments, but also include non- official actors that contribute to the country’s external policy, such as tourism, media, education organizations, and others.• The country’s external image sums up the way it is perceived abroad, and is a dimension of its PD. We also call this its ‘soft power’.• The broadest definition compares it with relationship management, and outreach to all non-state partners. That takes it to cover a large portion of contemporary mainstream diplomatic activity.
  18. 18. influence of social media• In 2012, there will be 1 billion people on Facebook. With the proliferation of mobile devices and social media, it is easier to reach people and listen to ground sentiments.• People can organize faster, people can influence each other. (with or without you)• Keeping quiet causes speculation, and rumors; which may do more harm than the truth.
  19. 19. influence of social media• Social media is international. Something interesting can become viral in the matter of days.• Things happening in the country does not need the official new channels to proliferate, it can be shared through peers online.• Collective minds can be harnessed, reducing time, costs and efforts.
  20. 20. internal objectives of PD• The government wants people, and different home institutions including think -tanks, academia and other stakeholders, to support the country’s foreign policy goals. This is especially important if a delicate negotiation is underway; the foreign ministry then wants pre-empt the other side from winning over home publics, in favor of the other country’s position. There is thus both an offensive and a defensive purpose. Even in normal times, the government in power seeks public support to win elections and remain in office.
  21. 21. internal objectives of PD• Educated public opinion is an asset to the government. It particularly wants the foreign affairs community to appreciate its policies. This amorphous group consists of scholars, retired diplomats and military and civil officials, the media, and all those who may be engaged in track-two or track-three activities directed at foreign countries, usually at neighbors.
  22. 22. internal objectives of PD• Governments also need the support of the publics at large, in relation to external policy. This is gauged by opinion polls that measure the scale of public support on key issues, as well as the popularity of the government and individual leaders. This is vital for the government in power, in the arena of partisan domestic politics.• Foreign ministries also seek public support, in appreciation of their work, and for the good reputation of their diplomatic services and embassies.
  23. 23. external objectives of PD• First, it tries to appeal to the important non- state agencies (and individuals ) that influence foreign policy, especially the way that target country behaves towards one’s own country. These are the think tanks, political parties, the chambers of business and industry, and the civil society activists concerned. This group also includes the scholars who specialize on one’s country and region, newspaper commentators and the like.
  24. 24. external objectives of PD• The foreign media are in a special category, always important as the window through which the foreign publics see the world, including one’s own country. Media management and diplomacy has long been a specialized genre of diplomacy.• The foreign publics at large, who are affected by the stereotyped images that they hold, and are perhaps the hardest to influence, because of their diffused nature and size. Image management is important, for tourism and for business relations with external partners.
  25. 25. PD activitiesForeign ministries usually take the lead inworking with other agencies in projecting acoherent and consistent image and message, beit in relation to tourism promotion ormobilization of trade and investments.Governments where this is not done are thelosers in terms of missed opportunity forsynergy and getting a bigger bang for the buck.
  26. 26. PD activitiesImage projection works best when a range ofnon-state actors is harnessed to join themarketing effort. These include the operators ofthe tourism industry, the chambers of commerceand industry, the external media agencies(whether or not they have semi-governmentalstatus), the education authorities that receiveforeign students, and other agencies that arestrong in their external actions.
  27. 27. PD activitiesThe foreign ministry can provide leadership andcoordination even when these agencies are notanswerable to the government, on the simplepremise that they can be persuaded to see theholistic task, and their self-interest incooperation. The foreign ministries in France andUK run ‘public diplomacy boards’ where anumber of different agencies meet periodically tocoordinate their actions. Such action deserveswider emulation.
  28. 28. PD activitiesWhen a branding or re-branding effort is to becarried out, public private partnerships are of muchutility. Such partnerships also work in other specificactivities, such as running a brand equity fund thatsupports home enterprises to develop own brands inforeign markets, and indirectly contribute to thecountry image. This has precisely been India’sexperience, overcoming the problems in runningsuch a state-financed fund, when it handed over thefund’s operation to a leading industry association
  29. 29. PD activitiesThe US is the leading user of PD as an instrument toreshape the way foreign publics respond to US foreignpolicy, in particular in the Arab and Islamic world. Itdevotes vast resources to its PD campaign, and includes inits arsenal TV networks such as Al Hurrah, radio stationsand a range of other outreach activities. The effectivenessof this effort is open to question, as shown in numerousstudies carried out by official and private US agencies. Thekey missing element in the entire US effort is a two-waycharacter to the process, namely that besides offeringone’s own message to foreign publics in the mostpersuasive manner possible, PD is also about listening toforeign publics.
  30. 30. PD activitiesChina is the leading user of PD as an instrument ofdomestic outreach, primarily using the impressivepenetration that the internet has achieved in thiscountry. For this authoritarian regime, multilayereddialog with the Chinese people is a way of conveying tothem the official interpretation of international affairs,and giving these publics a safety valve for venting theirviews, in the expectation that these would be taken intoaccount in shaping official policy. In particular, the highlysensitive relationship with Japan is a hot topic in theseexchanges.
  31. 31. crowdsourcing• Social media has been very good at crowdsourcing funds, ideas and other information.• Open source, co-creation, idea platforms are common in businesses to get new ideas.• Can there be more open dialog to discuss issues and ideas?• Can there be an open platform on social media for governments to engage with public?
  32. 32. methods• Mobilizing one’s think-tanks and other institutions for outreach to counterparts; they often need financial support, as well as good interconnections with the MFA, so as to improve their work. This is especially true in countries where new think-tanks have to be built up.• Reaching out to potential non-official allies in foreign countries through networked diplomacy, as a mirror activity to the above.
  33. 33. methods• Parliamentary groups abroad are especially important targets, though such a policy can be pursued only in relation to major countries when issues of major importance are involved. Nurturing such contacts attracts increasing attention, and involves careful planning.• Enlisting the different home players to work on a coherent strategy. This is a classic MFA coordination task; the PD ‘boards’ mentioned above are one method of achieving this
  34. 34. methods• Harnessing ethnic communities in foreign countries to play a role in their local context in favor of the home country. While this may not be feasible as overt activity in all situations - outside the Western countries such communities often cannot play a political role - they are often influential, and are excellent sources for information on the local scene.
  35. 35. bilateral and multilateral relations• How can PD be utilized in bilateral relations?• How effective is PD in enhancing multilateral relations?• Do we have any “Best Practices” in PD for building relations?
  36. 36. further readings• Public Goods vs. Private Goods• Different Definitions of PD• Communication• Audience• Allies & Enemies
  37. 37. specialists, partnerships & diplomats• The report on the March 2006 Wilton Park conference on the theme ‘Public Diplomacy: Key Challenges and Priorities’ declares: ‘There are differing views as to whether public diplomacy should be mainstreamed across all diplomatic work, or should be the preserve of specialists. Partnerships with external institutions are critical, whether with the media, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or the private sector. Effective public diplomacy is only as good as the policies it portrays.
  38. 38. PD in relation building• One of the (expanded) goals of PD is relationship building, in the sense of creating linkages between home and counterpart institutions in different fields where countries are engaged, be it education and academia, research, civil society activities and the rest.=> Similarity with Traditional Diplomacy
  39. 39. government outreach• Credibility (Ethos)• Incompetency (24/7, online, foreign)• Help from other actors
  40. 40. domestic outreach task• Imagine that as the Deputy Director of the Foreign Ministry’s PD Division you had the task of approaching a cluster of top management institutes or engineering colleges: what arguments would you use to appeal to them to join in a national PD effort, built on the method of public-private partnership (PPP), to market your country as a destination for foreign students? How would you sell this proposition to them in terms of its PD benefits?
  41. 41. canada• Key method developed in 2003 involves outreach to home scholars, especially university students and others, to get them to think about world issues and the policy response that the country should adopt. Using the internet, a ‘Canadian International Policy’ dialog is pursued, covering issues identified as important by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, run by this Department, but with minimal intervention
  42. 42. china• In 2004 the Foreign Ministry created a PD Department, which runs its website and conducts a series of activities aimed at the home publics. While debate via this website is restricted to registered users, a wide range of foreign affairs issues are covered; comment by the public is posted on the site, of course after due screening. China has used PD in a substantive way to influence foreign elites, engaging scholars and others who are seen as friends of the country.
  43. 43. kazakhstan• Borat• Official reaction vs. Media Effect
  44. 44. qatar• Home of Al Jazeera• AJ’s effects on building relations with the West and with the neighboring Arab countries
  45. 45. words of a german diplomat• ‘Whatever their *diplomats’+ area of responsibility is, they must always ask themselves the question: how can I “sell” my topic under the auspices of Public Diplomacy? Is there a public angle in what I am doing which can be exploited? This is perhaps the most innovative aspect of Public Diplomacy”
  46. 46. in short• Effects of domestic circumstances• What should an embassy do?• Can countries network? :The necessity of building relations• Negative images may sometimes paradoxically deliver positive value.• Reactive PD vs. Proactive PD• PD to gain support in disputes.• Hard power vs. Soft power?
  47. 47. public opinion• It is very important to engage the public in conversation on issues. It gives the public: – A sense of shared ownership – The power to determine their future – Dignity that they are smart enough to make decisions – A chance to share their views and opinions – A collaborative way to contribute to society
  48. 48. Hard Power, Soft Power, and Smart Power• What are the definitions of hard, soft, and smart power?• How important are these power in post 9/11 world?• What role does communication play in international power games?
  49. 49. readings (Pratkanis)• Soft power is the use of the attractiveness of a country’s culture, political ideas, and policies to get others to follow those ideals and then follow one’s lead.• Using soft power during a conflict (Kuwait vs. Hussein)• The importance of PR during a conflict• Using Social Influence• Being a hawk – being a dove – being the social influence eagle
  50. 50. readings (Nye)• Soft power is the ability to obtain what you want through attraction.• Soft Power can be wielded not just by States, but by all actors in International Politics, such as NGOs, or International Institutions.• The primary currencies of Soft Power are an actors Values, Culture, Policies and Institutions.• “The Powers to Lead” – the application of soft and hard powers to business/personal life. *Leader / follower relation is important.
  51. 51. readings (Leonard)• Working in a complicated environment – Target audience – Two-way communications – Role of Pathos• Competitive vs. Cooperative PD• Different actors: Diaspora, Political Parties (European level politics)
  52. 52. readings (Hart)• Gary Harts fourth power, defined as the power of principle, is in many respects similar to soft power, as the following quote suggests: Grand strategy has to do with the application of power and resources to achieve large national purposes. In the case of the United States in the twenty-first century, its powers are economic, political, and military. In each category these traditional powers are orders of magnitude greater than those of any other nation - friend or rival - and, in the case of military power, greater than those of most of the next several strongest nations combined. America also possesses a fourth power, the power of principle, which may well be one of its greatest strategic assets in the twenty-first century. Much depends on whether and how this asset is deployed. (Hart, 2004, p.1)
  53. 53. readings (Hart)• The choices for the United States are finite. One is to act unilaterally. Another is to form ad hoc coalitions of the willing. Another is to involve existing international institutions such as the United Nations. The final choice is to devise new institutions not yet known or tried. The alternative argued for here is an anticipatory internationalist policy (that is, one that does not await for crises to arise) based on collaborative sovereignty, the collective decision by nation-states to aggregate their sovereignty to deal with both threats and opportunities in a structured way that benefits the interest of all. If we want to lead the world, we may stay engaged in and ahead of the world in a way that respects the people of the world. (Hart, 2004 p105-6)
  54. 54. readings (Yun & Toth)• Realist PD: (a) the “state” as the principal or most important actor in the world system and (b) power politics and national security as the paramount concern.• Liberalist PD: In the eyes of liberalists, the world has entered a new era of complex interdependence (Keohane & Nye, 1977) on a global scale, in which crude projection of military force as the rule of world politics has become diluted and ineffective and soft power takes the place of hard power as a daily currency in world politics.• Sociological Globalism PD: “network public diplomacy”
  55. 55. Soft PowerSoft the ability to get what you wantthrough attraction rather than coercion orpayments. It arises from the attractiveness of acountrys culture, political ideals, and policies.When our policies are seen as legitimate in theeyes of others, our soft power is enhanced.(Nye, 2004, p.x)
  56. 56. soft power vs. influenceSoft power is not merely the same as influence.After all, influence can also rest on the hard powerof threats or payments. And soft power is morethan just persuasion or the ability to move peopleby argument, though that is an important part of it.It is also the ability to attract, and attraction oftenleads to acquiescence. Simply put, in behavioralterms, soft power is attractive power. In terms ofresources, soft power resources are the assets thatproduce such attraction (Nye, 2004 p.6)
  57. 57. american soft powerAmerica has long had a great deal of soft power. Thinkof the impact of Franklin Roosevelts Four Freedoms inEurope at the end of World War II; of young peoplebehind the Iron Curtain listening to American musicand news on Radio Free Europe; of Chinese studentssymbolizing their protests in Tiananmen Square bycreating a replica of the Statue of Liberty; of newlyliberated Afghans in 2001 asking for a copy of the Bill ofRights; of young Iranians today surreptitiously watchingbanned American videos and satellite televisionbroadcasts in the privacy of their homes. These are allexamples of Americas soft power. (Nye, 2004 p.6)
  58. 58. another concept: sticky powerSticky power refers to economic attraction and isclosely related to those dimensions of softpower dealing with products, financialinstitutions, trading opportunities upon whichmany of the cultural assets that prove soattractive are based. Once enmeshed in theeconomic systems which underlie stickypower, it is difficult to extricate oneself, hencethe term.
  59. 59. soft Power/hard Power & PD• Nye distinguishes between soft power as a guiding principle and public diplomacy as an executive practice• How can hard power be involved (if it can be) in PD process?
  60. 60. three dimensions of PD• Reacting to news events as they occur in a way that tallies with our strategic goals• Proactively creating a new agenda through activities and events which are designed to reinforce core messages and influence perceptions• Building long-term relationships with populations overseas to win recognition or our values and assets and to learn from theirs
  61. 61. in short• Hard power (obtained from the use of military and/or economic coercion) is outdated and not effective.• Soft power is obtained through attraction.• Sticky power is the economic power.• Smart power is the ability to use a mixture of soft & hard power.• The fourth power is the power of principles.• Communication stands as the key method to imply soft, sticky, smart, and the fourth power.
  62. 62. diktat vs. dialogue: Importance of Communication• What are the differences between one-way communication streams and two-way communication bridges?• What ultimately does PD depend on, dialogue or diktat? Is the choice an exclusive one?
  63. 63. readings (Roscho)• Miscommunication/Lack of communication in diplomacy• Secret diplomacy and open diplomacy. When/where to use?• What creates a nation’s reputation? Words/Deeds• The limits of soft power: Can diplomacy work without hard power?• The complex nature of international relations (military, politics, economics, culture etc).
  64. 64. readings (Nelson & Izadi)• The authors introduce many invaluable political communication theories and models.• Peace-time broadcasting instead of “crisis- management” propaganda. (USIA)• PD necessitates persuasion. But where does truth stand?• On one extreme, there is dialogue and relationship management. On the other extreme, there is sender- centered, one-way communication.• PD attempts might gain legitimacy from ethics and social responsibility.
  65. 65. readings (Scott)• Paradox 1: Message discipline vs. Diversity• Paradox 2: Credibility of the actors vs. Proximity to the Government – Solution: Using credible source, creating dialogue• In this global battle for influence the international reputation of a country is now one of its most important assets.
  66. 66. traditional diplomacy vs. PDTD PDstate people powercoercion attractionimposing convincingideologies preferences and perceptionsecrecy credibilitypower-play mutual-benefitself-serving partnership and networkswin/lose wars for land win/win for values, stability
  67. 67. dialogue vs. debateDIALOGUE DEBATE Oppositional: two sides oppose eachCollaborative: two or more sides work other and attempt to prove each othertogether toward common understanding. wrong.Finding common ground is the goal. Winning is the goal.One listens to the other side(s) in order One listens to the other side in order toto understand, find meaning, and find find flaws and to counter its arguments.agreement.Enlarges and possibly changes a Affirms a participants own point of view.participants point of view.Reveals assumptions for re-evaluation. Defends assumptions as truth.Causes introspection on ones own Causes critique of the other position.position.Opens the possibility of reaching a better Defends ones own positions as the bestsolution than any of the original solution and excludes other an open-minded attitude: an Creates a closed-minded attitude, aopenness to being wrong and an determination to be right.openness to change.
  68. 68. truth & dialogue• “In the last century, our nation advanced its principles, we debated our policies, and we welcomed dialogue. We did so on every continent and we did so with people of diverse cultures, creeds, races and religions. We spoke openly and candidly and truthfully and we were faithful to the tradition that open debate is the only antidote to closed minds. As a result, we achieved much success in the last century.” C. Rice
  69. 69. in short• PD is usually based on two-way communication. One-way communication raises question marks about: – Ethics – Social Responsibility – Efficiency• Lack of communication/miscommunication creates conflicts.• Ethos is an important constituent in PD.
  70. 70. A euphemism for propaganda?• What are the differences between Propaganda and PD?• Is PD a new polished name for propaganda?
  71. 71. Is one man’s PD another man’s propaganda? How might such a conflict impact on the practice and evolution of PD?
  72. 72. propaganda• Propaganda was first used to explain mass persuasion attempts. After several governmental practices, propaganda gained a negative connotation (including false information, deceiving etc.)• Institute for Propaganda Analysis defines propaganda as deliberately designing messages so that people will be influenced to think or act in predetermined ways,
  73. 73. types of propaganda• Name Calling – giving an idea a bad label – is used to make us reject and condemn the idea without examining the evidence.• Glittering generality, simply put, is the opposite of name calling. Instead of negative labeling, in this device, the aim is to associate something with positive, highly appreciated beliefs and concepts.
  74. 74. types of propaganda• Transfer involves taking the prestige and other positive aspects of one concept and applying it to another concept.• Plain folks is the propaganda technique when the speakers try to convince the masses that they belong to the society, they are common people, and as well their ideas are those of the people.
  75. 75. types of propaganda• Testimonial device is mainly having a famous or infamous publicly known figure’s personal commentary on a concept.• Band Wagon technique simply tries to benefit from the power of the majority in society.
  76. 76. types of propaganda• Card stacking is a propaganda technique that seeks to manipulate audience perception of an issue by emphasizing one side and repressing another, for example by creating media events that emphasize a certain view, by using one-sided testimonial, or by making sure critics are not heard.
  77. 77. how to detect propaganda• Check the source of the message, consider the sender’s credibility• Research other resources, other message senders• Take a look at non-governmental resources• Critically analyze the news
  78. 78. in short• Propaganda started out as a value-neutral term.• Public Diplomacy was used by USIA in order to label its propaganda-like projects.• Propaganda has negative connotations in people’s minds.• It is possible to differentiate PD from negative understanding of propaganda.• It can be said that PD tends to be less- government controlled and biased than propaganda attempts.
  79. 79. importance of grassroots movements in PD• What are the roles of non-state actors and individuals in PD?• Do the states/governmental agencies/international organizations dominate PD?
  80. 80. in short• Grassroots movements have a bottom-up approach.• PD is an effective tool to create communication bridges but it might not be able to solve all your problems – It is not a magical wand.• Crisis times bring great opportunities for grassroots movements.• Grassroots PD projects do and will attract negative criticism. You should be ready to face these challenges in your projects.• Corporations oversees are affected by governmental policies. They can also serve as “corporate diplomats” (i.e. UPS, Flour).• President Obama promotes open dialogue. During his presidency, PD is likely to gain importance.
  81. 81. nation branding• What is Nation Branding?• How does it relate to Corporate Branding?• Is there a strategic framework for Nation Branding?• Where does PD stand?
  82. 82. what is nation branding?• Restoring images• Breaking stereotypes• Giving promises• Strengthening position• Increasing attractiveness
  83. 83. can nations be branded?Absolutist Moderate Royalist
  84. 84. what is corporate branding?• Comes from cattle branding• Unique set of real and perceived distinctions attached to a brand by customers• Giving promises to increase sales• Branding and Lack of Branding
  85. 85. corporate branding• Branding today is not only the task of the Marketing department. It incorporate the whole company and everyone working for them, their stakeholders and even their vendors.• Employees make up a large portion of the brand of a company. They are potentially the source for crisis.
  86. 86. nation branding• Branding today is not only the task of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs or Tourism Board. It is the individual companies, people and governing body that makes up the country’s brand.• Citizens do make up a large portion of the brand of a country. They are potentially the source for crisis.
  87. 87. NB vs. CB• Stakeholders• Legitimacy• Public good vs. Private good• Brand promise• Policies vs. promises
  88. 88. strategic framework for NB• Analyze the situation and audiences• Establish planning terminology (vision – mission)• Communication part – crafting messages• Choose the right channels to communicate
  89. 89. PD vs. NB NBNB PD NB PDNB = PD PD NB
  90. 90. in short• Nation branding is applying brand management techniques to nations.• Although techniques are the same, there are many differences between NB and CB.• A strategic framework for NB can be created.• PD and NB are inter-related concepts, there are different views explaining this relationship.• Communication is an important part of NB.
  91. 91. personal branding and social media• Public officials and top officials in public companies need to understand and monitor their digital footprints.• Choice of words on public programs, forums and blogs can cause a big stir and a social media crisis.• Empathy is required when responding to sensitive issues.
  92. 92. Less is moreIf only she had left out the last sentence.
  93. 93. 1 sentence that created news
  94. 94. talk to.. not talk at• People want to engaged in a conversation, when a reply comes in, find time to respond.• Build trust and credibility. Share snippets of life which makes you more “human” and connect with the everyday man.• Ask questions to provoke feedback.• When a crisis happens, respond on same medium. Don’t start another crisis elsewhere.
  95. 95. social media and change Social media has started a revolution in howpeople connect, learn and communicate, and its effects cannot be undone.
  96. 96. Most notably, social media is helping to facilitate real world revolutions by bringing together passionate people around social platforms toorganize efforts and achieve desired outcomes. And through each, the world learns the importance of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other emerging networks in our society.As the old saying goes, “we ain’t seen nothing yet.” Change is in the air and the ties that bind are formed through the relationships between peoplewho share online connections, experiences, and real world aspirations.
  97. 97. hear the massesFrom the Arab Spring to Occupy Fall.• In 2011, the world was introduced a powerful uprising in the Middle East that would later become known as the “Arab Spring.” Facebook, Twitter and YouTube served as the nervous system of shared repression and fed the rise against tyranny.
  98. 98. hear the masses• In less than 60 days, the “99%” took to Wall Street and eventually inspired movements in over 95 cities across 82 countries and in over 600 communities in the United States. Initiated by the Canadian Activist group Adbusters, the Occupy movement was inspired party by the Arab Spring and was organized to express a clear and resounding message that everyday people, the 99%, had had enough and it was time to say something. It was this single word, enough, that expressed so much and so little at the same time.
  99. 99. hear the masses• Customers feel unsupported.• Citizens question their representative’s motives.• Consumers are fed up with corporate greed and golden bailouts.• People want to be heard and they’re willing to fight for change, equality, and democracy.
  100. 100. The era of command and control is over.The world needs you now more than ever.
  101. 101. As we’re all learning, social networks can do more than simply play a role in justconnecting friends, family and co-workers for meaningless banter or pleasant distractions.
  102. 102. Technology plays a part in transformation and it is up to you to learn how social,mobile, real-time, and all other emerging trends are affecting your industries, communities, or markets.
  103. 103. enlightened engagementWhat’s missing from the equation is vision andleadership.• Tell us what you see.• Share with us your vision for a better future.• Inspire us to follow you.• Keep us next to you along the way.People need guidance, inspiration, trust to extendthe reach of our mission, and we need help todevelop a working infrastructure, process, andmilestones to help us work together.
  104. 104. opportunity• There is an opportunity now to co-create• There is an opportunity now to collaborate• There is an opportunity now to be relevant• There is an opportunity now to be part of the changeDo you wish to lead the transformation of yourstakeholder engagement program through socialmedia or do you wish to lead the transformation ofyour entire organization?
  105. 105. your role• Shared experiences contribute to a collective reality that differs from how you see and sell your brand or story today.• Your role is to make things matter, to make people align with your mission, and to share values and experiences that marry ideas, desires, and quests to bring people together as one.• With or without you, change will happen.
  106. 106. 10 tenets of transformationIdentify the channels your stakeholders use tocommunicate, learn and share.1. Study the true sentiment and experiences ofthose who represent threats and opportunities.2. Document themes, trends, gather the necessarydata, and open yourself to input and empathy.3. Evaluate the best practices in how other similarorganizations are successfully embracing change. a. Also study those who are failing to recognize opportunities.
  107. 107. 10 tenets of transformation4. Conduct an internal and external audit to assessneeds, readiness for changeand surface the nuances necessary to create anaction plan.5. Write your change manifesto to define thechange you wish to see and demonstratethe upside of transformation to make the case toskeptics or the uninformed. a. Ensure that your manifesto becomes a working strategy and plan. make it actionable.
  108. 108. 10 tenets of transformation6. Seek an influential, executive-level sponsor whowill champion your mission among decision makers.7. Organize a taskforce of authoritative or connectedstakeholders to create a centralized organization totake responsibility for leading the transformation. a. This taskforce includes representatives from all functions, affected divisions, and notable stakeholders b. Assign responsibilities and milestones to your change management team. make everyone accountable for delivering against the plan
  109. 109. 10 tenets of transformation8. Define messages and the communication plan. a. Shape the messages for each stakeholder group b. Set expectations c. Reduce fears and concerns d. Inspire your stakeholders to make change scale and optimize transformation
  110. 110. 10 tenets of transformation9. Activate all social channels that reachstakeholders to impart and earn relevance. a. Communicate the vision, mission, and purpose b. Convey empathy c. Build awareness and demonstrate progress d. Convert detractors e. Recruit new stakeholders to extend reach
  111. 111. 10 tenets of transformation10. Your mission is to lead transformation andplant the seeds that lay a foundation for a moreadaptive organization or cause. 10 tenets of transformation by Brian Solis