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Using	  TERN	  infrastructure	  to	  answer	  land	  management	  ques8ons	  capturing	  near	  real	  8me	  GHG	  exchang...
Partner	  Agencies	  
Background	  
Background	   February	  14,	  2013	  12:26PM	  
North	  Australian	  water	  resources	  
Land	  use	  in	  Australia	  today	  
Landscapes	  of	  north	  Australia	  	  Tropical	  savanna	  woodland	  and	  open-­‐forests	  dominate	  the	  north	   ...
Savanna	  
Landscapes	  of	  north	  Australia	  climate	  
North	  Australian	  landscapes	  	  Savanna	  burning	  –	  2011	  fire	  scars	  
North	  Australian	  Flux	  Network	   	  TERN	  OzFlux	  Facility	                                                       ...
North	  Australian	  Flux	  Network	   	  TERN	  OzFlux	  Facility	  Red	  Dirt	  Melons	  Flux	  Tower                   ...
What	  is	  the	  impact	  of	  LUC	  on	  ecosystem	  GHG	  exchange?	  
Tools	  used:	  Eddy	  covariance	  (flux	  tower)	  system	  •  Measures:	     •  energy	     •  ET	     •  CO2	  fluxes	  ...
Tools	  used:	  standing	  biomass	                     •  Need	  to	  know	  stocks	                        as	  well	  a...
Also	  non-­‐CO2	  fluxes,	  soil	  C	  &	  N	  stocks	                  and	  process?	                                   ...
How	  is	  forest	  converted	  to	  farm	  land?	  
Before	                             ANer	                                                            Source	  NEE	        ...
Clearing	  site	  –	  flux	  data	                                   60	                                   50	             ...
Clearing	  site:	  source/sink	  dynamics	                                         60	                                    ...
Clearing	  site:	  source/sink	  dynamics	                                         60	                                    ...
Clearing	  site:	  source/sink	  dynamics	                                         60	                                    ...
Clearing	  site:	  source/sink	  dynamics	                                         60	                                    ...
Clearing	  site:	  source/sink	  dynamics	                                         60	                                    ...
Uncleared	  +	  Clearing	  site	                                               savanna	                                   ...
GHG	  emissions	  from	  burning	  debris	  •  Fuel	  curing	  over	  dry	        •  Assump8ons	     season	  2012	       ...
Post-­‐clearing	  fire	                          GHG	  emissions	  t	  CO2-­‐e	                          92.3	       3.8	  ...
The	  site	  today	    Final	  stage:	            	  agricultural	  land	  
CO2	  from	  clearing:	  comparing	  cleared	                and	  uncleared	  tower	  sites	  •  Equivalent	  to	  31.4	 ...
Soil	  CH4	  and	  N2O	  fluxes	                                                           Methane	  Flux	                 ...
Soil	  CH4	  and	  N2O	  fluxes	                                                           Methane	  Flux	  +	  rainfall	  ...
Soil	  CH4	  and	  N2O	  fluxes	                                                                           Nitrous	  Oxide	...
Soil	  CH4	  and	  N2O	  fluxes	                                                                   Nitrous	  Oxide	  Flux	 ...
Savanna	  ecosystems	  are	  a	  major	  exchange	  of	  global	  GHG	  Flux	  towers	  cri8cal	  tool	  to	  understand	 ...
to	  this....	  
to	  this...	  
Thanks…	  ques8ons???	  We	  would	  like	  to	  thank	  our	  research	  partners	  Red	  Dirt	  Melon	  Farm,	  this	  i...
Mila Bristow_What is the impact of land use change on greenhouse gas exchange in tropical savannas?
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Mila Bristow_What is the impact of land use change on greenhouse gas exchange in tropical savannas?

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Mila Bristow_What is the impact of land use change on greenhouse gas exchange in tropical savannas?

  1. 1. Using  TERN  infrastructure  to  answer  land  management  ques8ons  capturing  near  real  8me  GHG  exchange  using  flux  towers   Mila  Bristow  (CDU),  Lindsay  Hutley  (CDU),  Jason  Beringer   (Monash),  Stephen  Livesley  (U  Melb),  Stefan  Arndt  (U   Melb),  MaMhew  Northwood  (CDU)  
  2. 2. Partner  Agencies  
  3. 3. Background  
  4. 4. Background   February  14,  2013  12:26PM  
  5. 5. North  Australian  water  resources  
  6. 6. Land  use  in  Australia  today  
  7. 7. Landscapes  of  north  Australia    Tropical  savanna  woodland  and  open-­‐forests  dominate  the  north    
  8. 8. Savanna  
  9. 9. Landscapes  of  north  Australia  climate  
  10. 10. North  Australian  landscapes    Savanna  burning  –  2011  fire  scars  
  11. 11. North  Australian  Flux  Network    TERN  OzFlux  Facility   Fogg  Dam   Howard  Springs   Adelaide  River   Daly  River:  Uncleared   Rainfall  gradient   Dry  River   Sturt  Plains  SpaFal  paGerns  of  mass  and   UTS  managed  arid  energy  exchange   zone  tower  
  12. 12. North  Australian  Flux  Network    TERN  OzFlux  Facility  Red  Dirt  Melons  Flux  Tower    ARC-­‐Linkage  project   Daly  River:  Uncleared   Rainfall  gradient   Red  Dirt  Melons  Farm  
  13. 13. What  is  the  impact  of  LUC  on  ecosystem  GHG  exchange?  
  14. 14. Tools  used:  Eddy  covariance  (flux  tower)  system  •  Measures:   •  energy   •  ET   •  CO2  fluxes  •  calculate  NEE  •  scale  up  to  annual   sink/source  
  15. 15. Tools  used:  standing  biomass   •  Need  to  know  stocks   as  well  as  fluxes   •  How  much  biomass   in  the  savanna?  
  16. 16. Also  non-­‐CO2  fluxes,  soil  C  &  N  stocks   and  process?   •  Temporal  and  spa8al   sampling  of  fluxes   CO2  and  non-­‐CO2  and   drivers   •  Replicated  cleared   and  uncleared  plots   •  NO3,  NH4  pool  size   and  net  nitrifica8on   •  Soil  physico-­‐chemical   characteris8cs  
  17. 17. How  is  forest  converted  to  farm  land?  
  18. 18. Before   ANer   Source  NEE     Sink   Day  of  year  
  19. 19. Clearing  site  –  flux  data   60   50   40  NEE  (gCO2  m-­‐2  d-­‐1)   30   20   10   Source   0     -­‐10   Sink   -­‐20   Aug  11   Dec  11   Mar  12   Jun  12   Sep  12  
  20. 20. Clearing  site:  source/sink  dynamics   60   25   50   Wet  season   20   40  NEE  (gCO2  m-­‐2  d-­‐1)   Rainfall  (mm)   30   15   20   10   10   Source   0     5   -­‐10   Sink   -­‐20   0   Aug  11   Dec  11   Mar  12   Jun  12   Sep  12  
  21. 21. Clearing  site:  source/sink  dynamics   60   25   Savanna  clearing   50   20   40  NEE  (gCO2  m-­‐2  d-­‐1)   Rainfall  (mm)   30   15   20   10   10   Source   0     5   -­‐10   Sink   -­‐20   0   Aug  11   Dec  11   Mar  12   Jun  12   Sep  12  
  22. 22. Clearing  site:  source/sink  dynamics   60   25   Dry  season   50   20   40  NEE  (gCO2  m-­‐2  d-­‐1)   Rainfall  (mm)   30   15   20   10   10   Source   0     5   -­‐10   Sink   -­‐20   0   Aug  11   Dec  11   Mar  12   Jun  12   Sep  12  
  23. 23. Clearing  site:  source/sink  dynamics   60   25   Fire   50   20   40  NEE  (gCO2  m-­‐2  d-­‐1)   Rainfall  (mm)   30   15   20   10   10   Source   0    5   -­‐10   Sink   -­‐20   0   Aug  11   Dec  11   Mar  12   Jun  12   Sep  12  
  24. 24. Clearing  site:  source/sink  dynamics   60   25   50   20   40  NEE  (gCO2  m-­‐2  d-­‐1)   Rainfall  (mm)   30   15   20   10   10   Source   0    5   -­‐10   Sink   -­‐20   0   Aug  11   Dec  11   Mar  12   Jun  12   Sep  12  
  25. 25. Uncleared  +  Clearing  site   savanna   clearing   >4  tC  ha-­‐1  NEE  (mg  CO2  m-­‐2  s-­‐1)   Cleared  site   Source     Sink   Uncleared  site   Fire   Week  of  the  year  
  26. 26. GHG  emissions  from  burning  debris  •  Fuel  curing  over  dry   •  Assump8ons   season  2012   •  all  AGB  consumed  •  Burning  late  dry  season   •  90%  of  BGB  consumed   to  maximise   •  Fine  roots  ignored,  no   consump8on  for  site   soil  C  loss,  no  CWD   prepara8on  to  melons   included,  no  decay  of   coarse  roots    •  Emissions  es8mated   for  fire  event  using   NCAS  default  emissions   factors  
  27. 27. Post-­‐clearing  fire   GHG  emissions  t  CO2-­‐e   92.3   3.8   1.2  Post  clearing  debris   CO2   CH4   N2O  
  28. 28. The  site  today   Final  stage:    agricultural  land  
  29. 29. CO2  from  clearing:  comparing  cleared   and  uncleared  tower  sites  •  Equivalent  to  31.4  t  C  ha-­‐1  (or  115.4  t  CO2-­‐e  ha-­‐1)  •  equivalent  to  12  years  of  carbon  sequestra8on  
  30. 30. Soil  CH4  and  N2O  fluxes   Methane  Flux   14   Cleared  savanna   12   Savanna  woodland   10  ug  CH4-­‐C  m-­‐2  h-­‐1   8   6   4   2   0   -­‐2   -­‐4   -­‐6   Oct  11   Dec  11   Feb  12   Mar  12   May  12   Jul  12  
  31. 31. Soil  CH4  and  N2O  fluxes   Methane  Flux  +  rainfall   14   Cleared  savanna   25   12   Savanna  woodland   10   rainfall   20  ug  CH4-­‐C  m-­‐2  h-­‐1   8   6   15   4   2   10   0   -­‐2   5   -­‐4   -­‐6   0   Oct  11   Dec  11   Feb  12   Mar  12   May  12   Jul  12  
  32. 32. Soil  CH4  and  N2O  fluxes   Nitrous  Oxide  Flux   25   Cleared  savanna  N2O  flux  (ug  N2O-­‐N  m-­‐2  h-­‐1)   20   Savanna  woodland   15   10   5   0   -­‐5   Oct  11   Dec  11   Feb  12   Mar  12   May  12   Jul  12  
  33. 33. Soil  CH4  and  N2O  fluxes   Nitrous  Oxide  Flux  +  rainfall   Cleared  savanna   25   25  N2O  flux  (ug  N2O-­‐N  m-­‐2  h-­‐1)   Savanna  woodland   rainfall   20   20   15   15   10   10   5   0   5   -­‐5   0   Oct  11   Dec  11   Feb  12   Mar  12   May  12   Jul  12  
  34. 34. Savanna  ecosystems  are  a  major  exchange  of  global  GHG  Flux  towers  cri8cal  tool  to  understand  ecosystem  change....  
  35. 35. to  this....  
  36. 36. to  this...  
  37. 37. Thanks…  ques8ons???  We  would  like  to  thank  our  research  partners  Red  Dirt  Melon  Farm,  this  is  an  ARC-­‐Linkage  funded  project   Mila  Bristow  (CDU),  Lindsay  Hutley  (CDU),  Jason  Beringer   (Monash),  Stephen  Livesley  (U  Melb),  Stefan  Arndt  (U   Melb),  MaMhew  Northwood  (CDU)  

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