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Dr Manuel Maass (National Autonomous University of Mexico) presenting at the AusLTER Forum 2018.

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Dr Manuel Maass (National Autonomous University of Mexico) presenting at the AusLTER Forum 2018.

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Dr Manuel Maass (National Autonomous University of Mexico) presenting at the AusLTER Forum 2018.

  1. 1. www.ilternet.edu Transdisciplinary and Long Term Socioecosystem Research LONG-TERM ECOSYSTEM RESEARCH AusLTER Forum at Ecological Society of Australia (ESA) 2018 Tuesday, 27 November 2018, Melbourne, Australia Manuel Maass (maass@cieco.unam.mx) Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES) Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM-Morelia)
  2. 2. Long Term Ecosystem Research Long Term Ecological Research Long Term Social - Ecological Research MULTI-Discipline INTER-Discipline From LTER to LTSER Long Term Socioecosystem Research TRANS-Discipline Maass & Equihua (2015)
  3. 3. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment participants were surprised of the severity of the problem due to the highly fragmented science and the difficulty for integration. It is remarkable that even the most interdisciplinary researchers do not usually cross the frontiers of their own science fields. It is frustrating to see the negligible progress regarding knowledge integration even after the tremendous increase in the environmental concern in the last 4 decades. The MA was unable to overcome these limitations!! (Norgaard, R. B. 2008. Conservation Biology 22:4) The MA and Science fragmentation
  4. 4. PECS (Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society)
  5. 5. Developing and delivering scientific information in response to emerging needs H. Vaughan et al. 2007 Frontiers of Ecology and Environmental Science Understanding Decision Making Implementing Science & Technology Communication & Delivery Improving outcomes  Structure and functioning of ecosystems  Integrated long-term monitoring / research  Data analysis and information development  Models  Regulations  Incentives  Collaboration/partnerships  Education  Social, economic and environmental balance  Communication products  Effective delivery  integrated,  relevant,  comprehensible,  useful,  timely Curiosity Driven Science Problem Oriented Science Result Based Science
  6. 6. Science and Sustainability (Spangenberg, J.H. 2011) “In transdisciplinarity, the sources of intelligence are extended to include non- scientific knowledge, the research question is defined together, and the quality of the work is checked by both groups, as those affected are the experts for relevance, while scientists are the experts for rigor (Mittelstrass 1992; Jerneck et al. 2011)”.
  7. 7. Mex-LTER Core Areas of Research What are the patterns and controls of ecosystem primary productivity? What are the patterns and control of water, carbon and nutrients dynamics in ecosystems? What is the role of biodiversity in the structure and functioning of ecosystem? What are the patterns and frequency of ecosystem disturbances? What are the effects of climate change on the structure and functioning of ecosystems? What are the interactions at the interface level between managed and natural ecosystems? What are the criteria for ecosystem management (use, conservation & restoration?
  8. 8. Mex-LTER Social-ecological agenda How demographic changes affects the decision and management practices of local and regional socio- ecosystem? How are the economic valorization / relationships of socio-ecosystem services? What are the structure and functioning of local social institutions (governance) related with the management of socio- ecosystems? What is the roll of information and education (formal & non formal) in the socio-ecosystem management decisions? How is the environmental culture (perceptions and expectations) of local settlers in relation of the transformation of their socio-ecosystems? What are the consequences of transforming the local socio- ecosystems in the context of vulnerability?
  9. 9. Ecosystem ServicesSocio-economic Realm Human Well being Human Behavior Bio-physic Realm Ecosystem Structure Ecosystem Function Disturbance Regime Pulse Press Regional Factors Collins et al. 2011 GLOBAL Factors Non Teleological (Darwinian) Teleological (Lamarckian)
  10. 10. “Changes in biodiversity and trade-offs among ecosystem services, stakeholders and components of well-being: the contribution of ILTER to PECS. 1. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México. 2. University of Colorado at Boulder, USA. 3. Instituto de Ecología A.C., México. 4. INRA SAD, France. 5. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK. 6. Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland. 7. Institute of Landscape Ecology SAS, Slovakia. 8. European Reg. Centre for Ecohydrology, PAS, Poland. 9. Hokkaido University, Japan. 10.Israel Institute of Technology, Israel. 11.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, UK. 12.School of Sustainability, ASU, Tempe, AZ, USA. 13.U. of North Texas & Universidad de Magallanes, Chile. 14.Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. 15.South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON), SA. 16.University of Bucharest, Romania. Manuel Maass1, Patricia Balvanera1, Patrick Bourgeron2, Miguel Equihua3, Jacques Baudry4, Jan Dick5, Martin Forsius6, Lubos Halada7, Kinga Krauze8, Masahiro Nakaoka9, Daniel E. Orenstein10, Terry Parr11, Charles L. Redman12, Ricardo Rozzi13, Margarida Santos-Reis14, Tony Swemmer15, Angheluta Vădineanu16
  11. 11. [Maass et al. (2016) Ecology & Society] Ecosystemintegrity 100 0 80 60 40 20 0 25 50 75 Gradient of Ecosystem Transformation 100 Management of Ecosystem Integrity Resilience
  12. 12. [Maass et al. (2016) Ecology & Society] Gradient of Ecosystem Transformation 0 25 100 100 80 60 40 20 0 EcosystemServices 50 75 Well being distribution
  13. 13. Given the possibilities of ILTER (experiences up to now): Where should ILTER as a global organization put emphasis in the next decade ? (multiple choices possible) Be a network of data to enable high-level global cooperation, analyses and syntheses (inter-operability, sharing) Represent a globally distributed research infrastructure: support for excellent research sites (and their PIs) To network national networks (providing a framework, better organization, streamlining) Provide a framework for global scientific bottom-up initiatives (e.g. N-initiative) Networking the scientific community (at the level of individual researchers) Act as strategic partner of other global networks (to provide framework for mirrored regional and national partnerships) Develop/suggest standards for parameter sets (standard monitoring) and foster harmonization Carry out education and training activities Dissemination of results (own mechanism/format for dissemination besides scientific publishing & the ongoing dissemination by regional groups, national networks and sites) Conceptualizing ecosystem research (e.g. the ongoing expansion by socio-ecology) Act as platform for ethical aspects (promotion of local transversality) 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
  14. 14. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
  15. 15. ¿What is an Ecosystem? (an ontological problem) Scale of analysis Biome Ecosystem Community Population Individual Tropical Deciduous Forest Mangrove Coral Reef Community Type Territory Hydrologic basin City Cultivation plot
  16. 16. Symbolic language!
  17. 17. Economic Region Community / State Individual / family Earth Regional Biota Community / Biome Organism Cell Biosphere Solar System Geographic region Landscape /Seascape/ Basin Soil profile / slope / pond Clay surface / micelle Inorganic molecule Geosphere Human - Bio - Physic realm System Ecosystem Socio-Ecosystem S ES SES SES SES (Maass, 2017. Front. Environ. Sci. 5:48)
  18. 18. What it Is! What it is Known! What it is Done! Honest Right Unknown Error Wrong (Maass in prep., 2018) Certain Ontic Reality Ethic Reality Ontological Reality System’s reality Ecosystem’s reality SOCIOecosystem’s reality Physical Reality Teleomatic processes Cause-effect relationship Newton Bio-Physical Reality Teleonomic processes Program-function relationship Darwin Human-Bio-Physical Reality Teleologic processes Motivation-action relationship Husserl Sustainability
  19. 19. Certain What it IS What it is Known What it is Done
  20. 20. Social Leaders Honesty What it IS What it is Known What it is Done
  21. 21. Correct What it IS What it is Known What it is Done
  22. 22. Multidisciplinary Research Interdisciplinary Research Transdisciplinary Research What it IS What it is Known What it is Done
  23. 23. Ontic Reality Ontological Reality Certain Etic Reality honest correct Truth What it IS What it is Known What it is Done
  24. 24. ILTER ICSU IGBP GOSIC GBIF GEOSS MA START CEISIN Permanent sites Network of sites Network of groups Long term research Long term monitoring Scientific collaboration Data gathering standards Sharing data policies Data integration Protocols Long term data storage/access Detection of global trends Detection of national trends Capacity building Inform decisions makers ICSU = Int. Council for Science GEOSS = Group on Earth Obs. System of Systems IGBP = Int. Geosphere Biosphere Program MA = Millennium Ecosystem Assessment GOSIC = Global Obs. Systems Inf. Center START = System for Analysis, Research and Training GBIF = Global Biodiversity Inf. Facility CIESIN = Center for Int. Earth Science Inf. Network Characteristics of the International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) Network Socio-Ecosystem Research Site based research
  25. 25. (Maass & Equihua 2015) There is an important difference between a transversal approach (working with different sectors of society) and a transdisciplinary approach (working with different sources of knowledge). The former is a development tool; the latter is an epistemological stance. We need both. However, scientists do not necessarily need to become producers, policy makers, business people or developers but, in order to conduct research in a truly transdisciplinary fashion, they have to participate in real development situations, as another stakeholder embedded in the collective. Participating in transversal work is the only way to learn about this “other knowledge” requirement in real transdisciplinary research. Transversal Vs Transdisciplinary Approachs
  26. 26. ¡Muchas Gracias

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