Free & Open Sources informationon the WebBySyed Habib Akhter JaffriSenior LibrarianPASTIC National CenterIslamabad
What is source?source1. The point or place from which something originates2. (Earth Sciences / Physical Geography)a. A spring that forms the starting point of a stream;headspringb. the area where the headwaters of a river rise the sourceof the Nile3. A person, group, etc., that creates, issues, or originatessomething the source of a complainta. Any person, book, organization, etc., from whichinformation, evidence, etc., is obtainedb. (as modifier) source material
Type of SourcesAs you conduct research, you will consult different sources ofinformation. A professor may request primary, secondary, ortertiary sources.Primary sourcesThe definition of a primary source may vary depending upon the discipline orcontext. Journal articles published in peer-reviewed publications; Letters; Newspaper articles written at the time; Original Documents; Patents; Photographs Proceedings of Meetings, conferences and symposia; Records of organizations, government agencies; Speeches; Survey Research (e.g., market surveys, public opinion polls); Video recordings (e.g. television programs).
Secondary sourcesThey are accounts written after the fact withthe benefit of hindsight. They areinterpretations and evaluations of primarysources Catalogues/ Bibliographies (also considered tertiary); Biographical works; Commentaries, criticisms; Dictionaries, Encyclopedias (also considered tertiary); Histories; Journal articles (depending on the disciple can be primary); Magazine and newspaper articles (this distinction varies bydiscipline); Monographs, other than fiction and autobiography; Textbooks (also considered tertiary); Web site (also considered primary).
Tertiary sourcesTertiary sources consist of information which is adistillation and collection of primary andsecondary sources. Almanacs; Bibliographies (also considered secondary); Chronologies; Dictionaries and Encyclopedias (also considered secondary); Directories; Fact books; Guidebooks; Indexes, abstracts, bibliographies used to locate primary andsecondary sources; Manuals; Textbooks (also be secondary).
What is Open Information Sources ?Open information sources provide accessto knowledge without the need to pay forthe knowledge itself, although there may bemarginal fees for access (membership intrade associations, attendance atconferences, subscriptions to journals).
Secondary sourcesBibliographies (also considered tertiary) PASTICCatalogues Union Catalogue of PASTIC ; OPAC of PAK Univ World CatDictionaries (also considered tertiary) List of Online DictionariesEncyclopedias Info please WikipediaAbstracting & indexing PASTIC
Primary sourcesPeer-reviewed Journal articlesNISCAIR Research JournalsNew School Education N.YDirectory of Open Access Journals (DNewspaper articlesNewspapers
PatentsWorld Patent OfficesCanadian PatentsProceedings of conferences and symposiaLFG Online ProceedingsWebsitesList of Search Engine
Learned SocietiesFor MathKhan AcademyFor PhysicsAmerican Association of Physics Teachers
Some useful LinksOnline open Access BooksEncyclopedia.com Kitab-Ghar for Urdu Books Biology Corner Learners TVDepth-first.comFree-ebookShaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University
Thanks for yourpatience&Best wishes for thisSeminar