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NC PROGRAMMING
IE450 Manufacturing Systems
Agenda
Introduction
Types of NC Machines
Components of a NC Machine
Control Mechanisms
Interpolation
Software Components
Readings
• Chapters 9-10 of Computer
Aided Manufacturing, Wang,
H.P., Chang, T.C. and Wysk, R.
A., 2rd
Edition ,1991.
• ht...
Exercise
Readiness Assessment Test A.K.A.
RAT
AS A INDIVIDUALAS A INDIVIDUAL, prepare a detailed
response for the Readines...
Objectives
• To be able to read and interpret an NC
part program
• To be able to create NC part programs for
milled parts
...
HISTORICAL
DEVELOPMENT
• 15th century - machining metal.
• 18th century - industrialization, production-type machine tools...
NEW NCs or
CNCs•high speed spindle (> 20,000 rpm)
•high feed rate drive ( > 600 ipm)
•high precision ( < 0.0001" accuracy)
NC
MACHINES• Computer control
• Servo axis control
• Tool changers
• Pallet changers
• On-machine programming
• Data commu...
Group Exercise
As a group, discuss how you could justify
the purchase of an NC machine.
• What are the downsides for purch...
NC
MACHINES
MCU
Machine
Tool
CLU
DPU
MCU - Machine control
unit
CLU - Control-loops unit
DPU - Data processing
unit
NC MOTION-
CONTROLNC Program
Execut ion
Sy st em
Int erpolat or &
Serv o-cont r ol
Mechanism
Cont rol Logic
Linear Mot ion...
NC MACHINE
CLASSIFICATIONS1. Motion control:
point to point (PTP)
continuous (contouring) path
2. Control loops:
open loop...
NC MACHINE
CLASSIFICATIONS4. Positioning systems:
incremental
absolute positioning
5. Hardwired NC and softwired
Computer ...
POINT TO POINT
• Moving at maximum rate from point to point.
• Accuracy of the destination is important but not the path.
...
CONTINUOUS
PATH• Controls both the displacement and the
velocity.
• Machining profiles.
• Precise control.
• Use linear an...
COMPONENTS OF AN NC
MACHINE TOOL
Magnetics control
cabinet
Controller
Servo
drive
Machine table
Position
transducer
Leadsc...
NC MACHINE
RATING• Accuracy
• Repeatability
• Spindle and axis motor horsepower
• Number of controlled axes
• Dimension of...
NC
ACCURACY• Accuracy = control instrumentation
resolution and hardware accuracy.
• Control resolution: the minimum
length...
HARDWARE
INACCURACIESComponent tolerances:
inaccuracies in the machine elements,
machine-tool assembly errors, spindle
run...
HARDWARE
INACCURACIESThermal error:
heat generated by the motor operation,
cutting process, friction on the ways and
beari...
REPEATABILIT
Y
Avg. error
Programmed position
Test result
Repeatability
LEADSCREW
S
Leadscrew
Pitch
Nut
Converting the rotational motion of the motors to a linear motion.
pitch (p): the distance...
CONTROL
LOOPS
Open loop - No position feedback.
Use stepping motor.
motor
table
pulses
CONTROL
LOOPS• A machine has 1 BLU = 0.001".To move the
table 5" on X axis at a speed (feed rate) of
6 ipm.
• pulse rate =...
CLOSED
LOOP
Reference pulses
+ DC
Motor
Tacho-
meter
Differential
amplifier
EncoderUp-down
counter AmpDAC
_
+
Shaft
Closed...
INTERPOLATIO
NControl multiple axes simultaneously to
move on a line, a circle, or a curve.
(3,2)
(10,5)
X
Y
Point-to-poin...
INTERPOLATOR
S• Most common : linear and circular
• Since interpolation is right above the servo
level, speed is critical,...
COORDINATE
SYSTEMS
• Right hand rule
• Z axis align with the spindle - +Z moves
away from the workpiece or the spindle.
• ...
MACHINE
COORDINATES
X
Y
Z X - Primary Feed axis
Z - Spindle axis
Y - Remaining axis
PROGRAM
STORAGE• Paper tape
Paper or Mylar coated paper.
• Diskettes
• From other computers through RS 232
or local area n...
SYMBOLIC
CODES• ASCII or ISO, use even parity
• EIA - Binary Coded Decimal (BCD), RS
244A standard, use odd parity.
TAPE INPUT
FORMATS• EIA RS-274 standard
• Fixed sequential format
0010 01 07500 06250 00000 00000 612
• Tab sequential for...
Resource
s• Primary Reference:
Chang T-C., Wysk, R. A., and Wang, H-P., “Computer
Aided Manufacturing”, Prentice Hall Inte...
Agenda
• Introduction
• Absolute and Incremental Programming
• Elements of NC Program
• NC Words (G, M, T, S, … Codes)
• E...
Introduction to NC
programming
• Manual part programming
• Computer-assisted part programming
• Formats
– Fixed-Address
– ...
Manual NC
programming
• Absolute Programming
• Incremental Programming
• Example (on Board)
Basic Elements of NC Program
• Blocks of Commands
• NC Words
• NC Function ~ NC word(s)
• Several Functions in one block
•...
NC WORDS
• A G-code program consists the following
words:
N, G, X, Y, Z, A, B, C, I, J, K, F, S, T, R,
M
• An EIA standard...
Basic Elements of NC Program
a. Preparatory functions: which unit, which interpolator, absolute or
incremental programming...
NC WORDS – G codes
g00
g01
g02
g03
g04
g08
g09
g17
g18
g19
g33
g34
Rapid traverse
Linear interpolation
Circular interpolat...
NC WORDS- BLU
• X, Y, Z, A, B, C Codes. coordinate positions of the tool.
The coordinates may be specified in decimal numb...
NC WORDS – Circular Interpolation
Circular Interpolation:
(5.000,2.000)
(7.000,2.000)
N0100 G02 X7.000 Y2.000 I5.000 J2.00...
NC WORDS- F and S
Codes
• F Code. feed speed.
inch/min (ipm), or ipr.
• F code must be given before either G01, G02, or G0...
NC WORDS- T and R Codes
• T Code. tool number.
Actual tool change does not
occur until a tool change M
code is specified.
...
NC WORDS – M Codes
M Code. miscellaneous word.
Table 9.2. M codes
m00
m01
m02
m03
m04
m05
Program stop
Optional stop
End o...
MANUAL PART
PROGRAMMINGExample 9.1
Machined from a 5" x 4" x 2" workpiece. low carbon steel.
The process plan:
1. Set the ...
PART
DRAWING
All dimension in inches. A ll tolerance ±0.001"
1.75
3.000
5.000
1.000
3.000
4.000
.75
R1.000
2 ho les ø0.75±...
SOLUTION TO
EXAMPLESolution:
The cutting parameters need be converted into rpm and ipm.
Milling:
Drilling:
RPM = 12 V
π D
...
SETUP AND CUTTER
PATH
Drill End mill
Vise jaw
H1
H2
p1
p8
p7
p6
p5p4
p3p2
(0,0,0)
(0,0,0)
p9
CUTTER
LOCATIONSThe coordinates of each point (cutter location) are calculated below:
p1': ( 1.75+0.375, -0.1-0.375, 4.00)...
PART
PROGRAMPart program Explanation
N0010 G70 G 90 T08 M06 Set the machine to inch format
and absolute dimension
programm...
PART
PROGRAMPart program Explanation
N0070 G01 X3.000 To p5.
N0080 G03 Y2.625 I3.000 J2.000 Circular interpolation
to p6.
...
CNCS
VERIFICATION
CNCS 3D
DRAWING
Offset
s• Fixture
– G10, G54, G54.1
• Diameter
• Tool
– Length compensation
– Part-Edge compensation
• Cutter Compensation...
Tool Radius
Compensation• Cutter Compensation
Shifting tool path so that the actual finished cut is
either moved to the le...
Tool Radius
CompensationStart of Compensation.
G41 (or G42) and G01 in the same block ramp takes place at block N0010.
N00...
Tool Radius
CompensationInside Corner.
Cutter path is inside a corner, stops at the inside cutting point
N0010 G41
N0020 G...
TOOL-RADIUS
COMPENSATION
Cancel Tool Compensation.
G40 in the same block ramp off block.
N0060 G40 X2.000 Y1.700 M02
G40 i...
EXAMPL
EA square 2.0 in. x 2.0 in. is to be milled using a 1/2 in. end milling cutter.
Write an NC part program to make th...
PART
PROGRAMPart Program
N0010 G41 S1000 F5 M03
N0020 G00 X6.000 Y6.000
N0030 G01 Z-1.000
N0040 Y8.000
N0050 X8.000
N0060 ...
Exercise
• Complete the exercise on setting up an
NC machine. The exercise can be found
at
http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim/ie4...
TURNIN
G2.875
1.000
2.125
2.875
.250
.625
1.125
R.125
Cutter path Tool
Z
X
Part design
Cutter path
TURNIN
G
IMAGINARY TOOL POINT
Programming tool point
Surfaces cut
No compensation needed.
Programmed
tool path
Surface cre...
COMPUTER ASSISTE PART
PROGRAMMING
Machine-oriented languages - machine
specific
General-purpose languages - use post
proce...
Summary
• NC can reduce machining skill
• NC can reduce the time required to
machine a part
• NC provides sophisticated co...
Questions
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Nc programming

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Nc programming

  1. 1. NC PROGRAMMING IE450 Manufacturing Systems
  2. 2. Agenda Introduction Types of NC Machines Components of a NC Machine Control Mechanisms Interpolation Software Components
  3. 3. Readings • Chapters 9-10 of Computer Aided Manufacturing, Wang, H.P., Chang, T.C. and Wysk, R. A., 2rd Edition ,1991. • http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim/ie4 50/mllwrkbk.pdf
  4. 4. Exercise Readiness Assessment Test A.K.A. RAT AS A INDIVIDUALAS A INDIVIDUAL, prepare a detailed response for the Readiness Assessment test found on the web http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim/ie450/ie450rat3.doc (ratNC.doc in this module directory) Open Book / Open Notes
  5. 5. Objectives • To be able to read and interpret an NC part program • To be able to create NC part programs for milled parts • To understand the difference between world, machine and part coordinates • To understand how to set machine offsets • To execute an NC part program
  6. 6. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT • 15th century - machining metal. • 18th century - industrialization, production-type machine tools. • 20th century - F.W. Taylor - tool metal - HSS Automated production equipment - Screw machines Transfer lines Assembly lines using cams and preset stops Programmable automation - NC PLC Robots
  7. 7. NEW NCs or CNCs•high speed spindle (> 20,000 rpm) •high feed rate drive ( > 600 ipm) •high precision ( < 0.0001" accuracy)
  8. 8. NC MACHINES• Computer control • Servo axis control • Tool changers • Pallet changers • On-machine programming • Data communication • Graphical interface
  9. 9. Group Exercise As a group, discuss how you could justify the purchase of an NC machine. • What are the downsides for purchasing an NC machine? • Besides direct labor reductions, what other benefits come from NC machines?
  10. 10. NC MACHINES MCU Machine Tool CLU DPU MCU - Machine control unit CLU - Control-loops unit DPU - Data processing unit
  11. 11. NC MOTION- CONTROLNC Program Execut ion Sy st em Int erpolat or & Serv o-cont r ol Mechanism Cont rol Logic Linear Mot ion Po w er Tr anslat or Relay Solenoid CommandsDim ensions
  12. 12. NC MACHINE CLASSIFICATIONS1. Motion control: point to point (PTP) continuous (contouring) path 2. Control loops: open loop closed loop 3. Power drives: hydraulic, electric,or pneumatic
  13. 13. NC MACHINE CLASSIFICATIONS4. Positioning systems: incremental absolute positioning 5. Hardwired NC and softwired Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
  14. 14. POINT TO POINT • Moving at maximum rate from point to point. • Accuracy of the destination is important but not the path. • Drilling is a good application.
  15. 15. CONTINUOUS PATH• Controls both the displacement and the velocity. • Machining profiles. • Precise control. • Use linear and circular interpolators.
  16. 16. COMPONENTS OF AN NC MACHINE TOOL Magnetics control cabinet Controller Servo drive Machine table Position transducer Leadscrew Gear box Tachometer Motor
  17. 17. NC MACHINE RATING• Accuracy • Repeatability • Spindle and axis motor horsepower • Number of controlled axes • Dimension of workspace • Features of the machine and the controller.
  18. 18. NC ACCURACY• Accuracy = control instrumentation resolution and hardware accuracy. • Control resolution: the minimum length distinguishable by the control unit (BLU). • Hardware inaccuracies are caused by physical machine errors.
  19. 19. HARDWARE INACCURACIESComponent tolerances: inaccuracies in the machine elements, machine-tool assembly errors, spindle runout, and leadscrew backlash. Machine operation: Tool deflection (a function of the cutting force), produces dimensional error and chatter marks on the finished part.
  20. 20. HARDWARE INACCURACIESThermal error: heat generated by the motor operation, cutting process, friction on the ways and bearings, etc. Use cutting fluids, locating drive motors away from the center of a machine, and reducing friction from the ways and bearings
  21. 21. REPEATABILIT Y Avg. error Programmed position Test result Repeatability
  22. 22. LEADSCREW S Leadscrew Pitch Nut Converting the rotational motion of the motors to a linear motion. pitch (p): the distance between adjacent screw threads the number of teeth per inch (n): n = 1 / p BLU: Basic Length Unit (machine resolution) BLU = p / N
  23. 23. CONTROL LOOPS Open loop - No position feedback. Use stepping motor. motor table pulses
  24. 24. CONTROL LOOPS• A machine has 1 BLU = 0.001".To move the table 5" on X axis at a speed (feed rate) of 6 ipm. • pulse rate = speed/BLU = 6 ipm/0.001 ipp= 6,000 pulse/min • pulse count = distance/BLU = 5/0.001 = 5,000 pulses
  25. 25. CLOSED LOOP Reference pulses + DC Motor Tacho- meter Differential amplifier EncoderUp-down counter AmpDAC _ + Shaft Closed-loop control mechanism
  26. 26. INTERPOLATIO NControl multiple axes simultaneously to move on a line, a circle, or a curve. (3,2) (10,5) X Y Point-to-point control path (3,2) (10,5) X Y Linear path Vy =6 (5-2) (10-3) 2 + (5-2) 2 = 6 3 49+ 9 = 2.3635 Vx =6 (10-3) (10-3) 2 + (5-2) 2 = 6 7 49+ 9 = 5.5149
  27. 27. INTERPOLATOR S• Most common : linear and circular • Since interpolation is right above the servo level, speed is critical, and the process must not involve excessive computation. • Traditional NC interpolators: Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) • Higher order curves, such as Bezier's curve, use off-line approximation algorithms to break the curves into linear or circular segments.
  28. 28. COORDINATE SYSTEMS • Right hand rule • Z axis align with the spindle - +Z moves away from the workpiece or the spindle. • X axis - Lathe: perpendicular to the spindle. • Horizontal machine: parallel to the table. • Vertical machine: +X points to the right. x y z x y z
  29. 29. MACHINE COORDINATES X Y Z X - Primary Feed axis Z - Spindle axis Y - Remaining axis
  30. 30. PROGRAM STORAGE• Paper tape Paper or Mylar coated paper. • Diskettes • From other computers through RS 232 or local area network (LAN)
  31. 31. SYMBOLIC CODES• ASCII or ISO, use even parity • EIA - Binary Coded Decimal (BCD), RS 244A standard, use odd parity.
  32. 32. TAPE INPUT FORMATS• EIA RS-274 standard • Fixed sequential format 0010 01 07500 06250 00000 00000 612 • Tab sequential format T0010 T01 T07500 T06250 T T T612 • Word-address format N0010 G01 X07500 Y06250 S612
  33. 33. Resource s• Primary Reference: Chang T-C., Wysk, R. A., and Wang, H-P., “Computer Aided Manufacturing”, Prentice Hall International Series in Industrial and Systems Engineering, Upper Saddle Valley, NJ 07458. ISBN 0-13-754524-X
  34. 34. Agenda • Introduction • Absolute and Incremental Programming • Elements of NC Program • NC Words (G, M, T, S, … Codes) • Examples • Cutter Compensation and Offsets • Examples • Conclusions
  35. 35. Introduction to NC programming • Manual part programming • Computer-assisted part programming • Formats – Fixed-Address – Tab-Sequential – Word-Address
  36. 36. Manual NC programming • Absolute Programming • Incremental Programming • Example (on Board)
  37. 37. Basic Elements of NC Program • Blocks of Commands • NC Words • NC Function ~ NC word(s) • Several Functions in one block • When viewing, a block is same as a line of text • Pre-defined Terminator • Optional Blocks
  38. 38. NC WORDS • A G-code program consists the following words: N, G, X, Y, Z, A, B, C, I, J, K, F, S, T, R, M • An EIA standard, RS-273 defines a set of standard codes.
  39. 39. Basic Elements of NC Program a. Preparatory functions: which unit, which interpolator, absolute or incremental programming, which circular interpolation plane, cutter compensation, etc. b. Coordinates: three translational, and three rotational axes. c. Machining parameters: feed, and speed. d. Tool control: tool diameter, next tool number, tool change. e. Cycle functions: drill cycle, ream cycle, bore cycle, mill cycle, clearance plane. f. Coolant control: coolant on/off, flood, mist. g. Miscellaneous control: spindle on/off, tape rewind, spindle rotation direction, pallet change, clamps control, etc. h. Interpolators: linear, circular interpolation
  40. 40. NC WORDS – G codes g00 g01 g02 g03 g04 g08 g09 g17 g18 g19 g33 g34 Rapid traverse Linear interpolation Circular interpolation, CW Circular interpolation, CCW Dwell Acceleration Deceleration X-Y Plane Z-X Plane Y-Z Plane Thread cutting, constant lead Thread cutting, increasing g40 g41 g42 g70 g71 g74 g75 g80 g81 -9 g90 g91 Cutter compensation - cancel Cutter compensation - left Cutter compensation -right Inch format Metric format Full circle programming Off Full circle programming On Fixed cycle cancel Fixed cycles Absolute dimension programming Incremental deimension programming Table 9.1 G codes N code. sequence number example : N0010 G code. preparatory word. * * * * *
  41. 41. NC WORDS- BLU • X, Y, Z, A, B, C Codes. coordinate positions of the tool. The coordinates may be specified in decimal number (Decimal Programming), or integer number (BLU Programming). • BLU programming: leading zero, trailing zero. – In the leading zero format: • X00112 Y002275 Z001 – In the trailing zero format, the program looks like: X11200 Y22750 Z10000
  42. 42. NC WORDS – Circular Interpolation Circular Interpolation: (5.000,2.000) (7.000,2.000) N0100 G02 X7.000 Y2.000 I5.000 J2.000 Cut from (5.000,4.000) to (7.000,2.000) CW (5.000,4.000) Full circle ON destination center sequence no. ?
  43. 43. NC WORDS- F and S Codes • F Code. feed speed. inch/min (ipm), or ipr. • F code must be given before either G01, G02, or G03 can be used. • Example: N0100 G02 X7.000 Y2.000 I5.000 J2.000 F6.00 • S Code. cutting speed code. Programmed in rpm. • S code does not turn on the spindle, spindle is turned on by a M code. • N0010 S1000
  44. 44. NC WORDS- T and R Codes • T Code. tool number. Actual tool change does not occur until a tool change M code is specified. • R Code. cycle parameter. The cycle may be programmed in one block, such as (cycle programming is vendor specific.): N0010 G81 X1.000 Y2.000 Z0.000 R 1.300 R plane Z point Initial height 1 2 3 4 5 (1,2,2) 0.3" 1" 0.7"
  45. 45. NC WORDS – M Codes M Code. miscellaneous word. Table 9.2. M codes m00 m01 m02 m03 m04 m05 Program stop Optional stop End of program Spindle CW Spindle CCW Spindle off Tool change Flood coolant on Mist coolant on Coolant off End of tape m06 m07 m08 m09 m30
  46. 46. MANUAL PART PROGRAMMINGExample 9.1 Machined from a 5" x 4" x 2" workpiece. low carbon steel. The process plan: 1. Set the lower left bottom corner of the part as the machine zero point (floating zero programming). 2. Clamp the workpiece in a vise. 3. Mill the slot with a 3/4" four flute flat end mill made of carbide. From the machinability data handbook, the recommended feed is 0.005 inch/tooth/rev, and the recommended cutting speed is 620 fpm. 4. Drill two holes with a 0.75" dia twist drill. Use 0.18 ipr feed and 100 fpm speed.
  47. 47. PART DRAWING All dimension in inches. A ll tolerance ±0.001" 1.75 3.000 5.000 1.000 3.000 4.000 .75 R1.000 2 ho les ø0.75±0.001 2.000 .500 A B ø0.001 M A B 2.000 CM C
  48. 48. SOLUTION TO EXAMPLESolution: The cutting parameters need be converted into rpm and ipm. Milling: Drilling: RPM = 12 V π D = 12 x 620 fpm π 0.75 inch = 3,157 rpm RPM = 12 V πD = 12 x 100 fpm π0.75 inch = 509 rpm Vf = f RPM = 0.018 ipr x 509 rpm = 9.16 ipm
  49. 49. SETUP AND CUTTER PATH Drill End mill Vise jaw H1 H2 p1 p8 p7 p6 p5p4 p3p2 (0,0,0) (0,0,0) p9
  50. 50. CUTTER LOCATIONSThe coordinates of each point (cutter location) are calculated below: p1': ( 1.75+0.375, -0.1-0.375, 4.00) = (2.125, -0.475, 4.000) p1: (2.125,-0.475, 2.000-0.500) = (2.125,-0.475,1.500) p2: (2.125,4.000+0.100,1.500) = (2.125,4.100,1.500) p3: (3.000-0.375,4.100,1.500) = (2.625,4.100,1.500) p4: (2.625,1.375,1.500) p5: (3.000,2.000-1.000+0.375,1.500) = (3.000,1.375,1.500) p6: (3.000,2.625,1.500) p7: (3.000,2.000,1.500) p8: (2.625,2.000,1.500) p9: (2.625,-0.100,1.500) p9': (2.625,-0.100,4.000)
  51. 51. PART PROGRAMPart program Explanation N0010 G70 G 90 T08 M06 Set the machine to inch format and absolute dimension programming. N0020 G00 X2.125 Y-0.475 Z4.000 S3157 Rapid to p1'. N0030 G01 Z1.500 F63 M03 Down feed to p1, spindle CW. N0040 G01 Y4.100 Feed to p2. N0050 G01 X2.625 To p3. N0060 G01 Y1.375 To p4.
  52. 52. PART PROGRAMPart program Explanation N0070 G01 X3.000 To p5. N0080 G03 Y2.625 I3.000 J2.000 Circular interpolation to p6. N0090 G01 Y2.000 To p7. N0100 G01 X2.625 To p8. N0110 G01 Y-0.100 To p9 N0120 G00 Z4.000 T02 M05 To p9', spindle off, tool #2. N0130 F9.16 S509 M06 Tool change, set new feed and speed. N0140 G81 X0.750 Y1.000 Z-0.1 R2.100 M03 Drill hole 1. N0150 G81 X0.750 Y3.000 Z-0.1 R2.100 Drill hole 2. N0160 G00 X-1.000 Y-1.000 M30 Move to home position, stop the machine.
  53. 53. CNCS VERIFICATION
  54. 54. CNCS 3D DRAWING
  55. 55. Offset s• Fixture – G10, G54, G54.1 • Diameter • Tool – Length compensation – Part-Edge compensation • Cutter Compensation – Next Slides • Others Discussed in Lab Exercises (Simulators)
  56. 56. Tool Radius Compensation• Cutter Compensation Shifting tool path so that the actual finished cut is either moved to the left or right of the programmed path. • Normally, shifted exactly by tool radius • Tool Entry and Exit Issues
  57. 57. Tool Radius CompensationStart of Compensation. G41 (or G42) and G01 in the same block ramp takes place at block N0010. N0010 G01 G42 X0.500 Y1.700 N0020 G01 X1.500 G41 (or G42) and G01 in separate blocks the compensation is effective from the start. N0010 G41 N0020 G01 X0.500 Y1.700 N0030 G01 X1.500 (a) G41 (b) G42 G41 G42 G41 G42 (0.5, 1.7) (1.5, 1.7)
  58. 58. Tool Radius CompensationInside Corner. Cutter path is inside a corner, stops at the inside cutting point N0010 G41 N0020 G01 X1.500 Y2.000 N0030 G01 X0.000 Y1.600 Use of M96 and M97. Cutting tool that is larger than the height of the step, M97 must be used N0010 G41 N0020 G01 X1.000 Y1.000 N0030 G01 Y0.800 M97 N0040 G01 X2.000 G42 G41 M96 G41 M97 (1.5, 2.0) (0, 1.6)
  59. 59. TOOL-RADIUS COMPENSATION Cancel Tool Compensation. G40 in the same block ramp off block. N0060 G40 X2.000 Y1.700 M02 G40 in a block following the last motion, the compensation is effective to the end point (2.000,1.700). N0060 X2.000 Y1.700 N0070 G40 M02 G41 G42 G40 G41 G42 G40 (2.000, 1.700) (2.000, 1.700)
  60. 60. EXAMPL EA square 2.0 in. x 2.0 in. is to be milled using a 1/2 in. end milling cutter. Write an NC part program to make the square. Solution Let us set up the lower left corner of the square at (6.0,6.0). Using tool-radius compensation, the square can be produced. 2.000 2.000 (6,6)
  61. 61. PART PROGRAMPart Program N0010 G41 S1000 F5 M03 N0020 G00 X6.000 Y6.000 N0030 G01 Z-1.000 N0040 Y8.000 N0050 X8.000 N0060 Y6.000 N0070 X6.000 N0080 Z1.000 N0090 G40 M30 Explanation Begincompensation, set feed and speed, spindle on Move to lower left corner Plunge downthe tool Cut to upper left corner Cut to upper right corner Cut to lower right corner Cut to lower left corner Lift the tool End compensation, stop the machine
  62. 62. Exercise • Complete the exercise on setting up an NC machine. The exercise can be found at http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim/ie450/ie450as2.do c
  63. 63. TURNIN G2.875 1.000 2.125 2.875 .250 .625 1.125 R.125 Cutter path Tool Z X Part design Cutter path
  64. 64. TURNIN G IMAGINARY TOOL POINT Programming tool point Surfaces cut No compensation needed. Programmed tool path Surface created
  65. 65. COMPUTER ASSISTE PART PROGRAMMING Machine-oriented languages - machine specific General-purpose languages - use post processors to generate machine specific code Translate input symbols Arithmetic calculation Cutter offset calculations Post processing Part program Language Processor N-G code CL data RS-494 CL BCL RS-273 Post Processor
  66. 66. Summary • NC can reduce machining skill • NC can reduce the time required to machine a part • NC provides sophisticated contour capability • NC is a flexible method for manufacture of sophisticated machined components
  67. 67. Questions

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