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Introduction to microprocessor


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Introduction to microprocessor

  1. 1. Presented by SUDHIR REDDY S.VR MTECH[CAD/CAM]
  2. 2. Microprocessor Generations First generation: 1971-78 Behind the power curve (16-bit, <50k transistors) Second Generation: 1979-85 Becoming “real” computers (32-bit , >50k transistors) Third Generation: 1985-89 Challenging the “establishment” (Reduced Instruction Set Computer/RISC, >100k transistors) Fourth Generation: 1990- Architectural and performance leadership (64-bit, > 1M transistors, Intel/AMD translate into RISC internally)
  3. 3. Introduction Focus on microprocessors as general purpose, flexible and reconfigurable controllers and the ways sensors and actuator relate to these. Microprocessors are often called microcontrollers What is a microprocessor? What is the different between a microprocessor and a computer or a microcomputer and how a distinguishing set of features is arrived at are all difficult and subjective issues. What is a microprocessor to one is a full fledged computer to another
  4. 4. The microprocessor microprocessor is a stand alone, self contained single chip microcomputer. It must have as a minimum: a central processing unit (CPU) nonvolatile and program memory input and output capabilities. A structure that has these can be programmed in some convenient programming language can interact with the outside world through the input/output ports.
  7. 7. The microprocessor • Other important requirements: • must be relatively simple • reasonably small • necessarily limited in most of its features – memory, processing power and speed, addressing range and, of course in number of I/O devices it can interact with. • The designer must have access to all features of the microprocessor – bus, memory, registers, all I/O ports, • In short, Microprocessors are components with flexible features that the engineer can configure and program to perform task or a series of tasks.
  8. 8. The microprocessor • Two limits on the tasks microprocessors can perform: • The limitations of the microprocessor itself • The imagination (or capabilities) of the designer.
  9. 9. The 8 bit microprocessor We will narrow down to 8 bit microprocessors these are the most common in sensor/actuator systems they are simple and representative of all microprocessor 16 and 32 bit microprocessors exist There are a number of architectures being used. We will emphasize the Harvard architecture because of its simplicity, flexibility and popularity.
  10. 10. Addressing 8 bit microprocessors have word length of 8 bits. Integer data from 0 to 255 may be represented directly. To address memory, usually a longer word is needed. Most microprocessor have a 12 bit (4k) 14 (16k) or 16 bit (64k) memory address but longer address words are also used.
  11. 11. Speed Most microprocessor operate at clock speeds between 1 and 40 MHz. Since often the clock is internally divided, the instruction cycle is slower than that Typical values are up to about 10 MHz cycle clock or 0.1 µs per instruction
  12. 12. Input and output Input and output is defined by the availability of pins on the package. Usually limited to less than about 100 pins (6, 8, 14, 18, 20, 28, 32, 40, 44, 64 and 100 pins are common). Two pins are used to power to the device For example, an 18 pin device can have no more than 14 I/O pins. Of these, some may be used for other purposes such as oscillators or communication
  13. 13. Clock and timers Microprocessors have internal timers under the control of the user used for various functions requiring counting/timing At least one counter is available larger microprocessors can have 4 or more timers some are 8 bit timers and some 16 bit timers. a watchdog timer is available for the purpose of resetting the processor should it be “stuck” in an inoperative mode.
  14. 14. Other functionalities • Many microprocessors provide multiple interfaces, all under the user’s control. • Other functions such as analog amplifiers and even transceivers are sometimes incorporated within the chip. • The I/O used for these functions are either digital I/O (for communication for example) or analog
  15. 15. Programs and programmability microprocessor is only useful if it can be programmed. Programming languages and compilers have been designed specifically for microprocessors. The basic method of programming microprocessors is through the Assembly programming language Can be, and very often is done through use of higher level languages with C leading.