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How to Re-use Old Hardware with CloudStack. Saving Money and the Environment - Wido den Hollander - Your.Online

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CloudStack allows you to use older hardware for a longer time in your cloud environment. By using older hardware for a longer time you can save money and the environment by not producing new hardware. ----------------------------------------- The CloudStack Collaboration Conference 2023 took place on 23-24th November. The conference, arranged by a group of volunteers from the Apache CloudStack Community, took place in the voco hotel, in Porte de Clichy, Paris. It hosted over 350 attendees, with 47 speakers holding technical talks, user stories, new features and integrations presentations and more.

How to Re-use Old Hardware with CloudStack. Saving Money and the Environment - Wido den Hollander - Your.Online

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Download to read offline
12
Q4 2023
Public
Your Ground to Build Online Possibilities
Re-using old hardware with CloudStack
It benefits your wallet and the environment
Page 2
Who am I?
Your.Online
Wido den Hollander
Netherlands
• 1986
• Married
• Father of two sons (2020 & 2022)
Active in the hosting industry since 2003
• Started my own hosting company in 2004
• Joined TWS (now Your.Online) in 2018
CTO of Your.Online
Open Source, CloudStack, Ceph and IPv6 enthousiast
Page 3
Who is Your.Online?
Your.Online
Your Ground to Build Online Possibilities
• In the online business, mainly webhosting (holding, private)
• Started in the Netherlands, now also active in France and
Spain
• EUR 175m revenue, 1 million customers, 600 employees
• Some of our brands: Gandi, Savvii, Yourhosting, Versio,
Axarnet, Nexylan, o2switch, ShockMedia
• Our brands use a lot of Open Source software
• Large CloudStack deployments
• Large number of Ceph clusters
Page 4
CloudStack @ Your.Online
Your.Online
Large parts of our infrastrure are powered by Apache CloudStack
• Netherlands
• Amsterdam
• Haarlem
• Spain
• Valencia
Hunderds of hypervisors hosting thousands of virtual machines
Page 5
Environment
Your.Online
We don’t like throwing away properly function hardware
That would be a waste of money and bad for the environment
We care about both
Page 6
Replace your servers every 5 years!
Your.Online
• Yes! That’s what vendors have been telling you for
years! (No, they aren’t!)
• 5y means they operate for about 4 years
• 6 months from delivery to production
• 6 months before their EOL you need to start
replacement
After 5y servers are old, right?

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How to Re-use Old Hardware with CloudStack. Saving Money and the Environment - Wido den Hollander - Your.Online

  • 1. 12 Q4 2023 Public Your Ground to Build Online Possibilities Re-using old hardware with CloudStack It benefits your wallet and the environment
  • 2. Page 2 Who am I? Your.Online Wido den Hollander Netherlands • 1986 • Married • Father of two sons (2020 & 2022) Active in the hosting industry since 2003 • Started my own hosting company in 2004 • Joined TWS (now Your.Online) in 2018 CTO of Your.Online Open Source, CloudStack, Ceph and IPv6 enthousiast
  • 3. Page 3 Who is Your.Online? Your.Online Your Ground to Build Online Possibilities • In the online business, mainly webhosting (holding, private) • Started in the Netherlands, now also active in France and Spain • EUR 175m revenue, 1 million customers, 600 employees • Some of our brands: Gandi, Savvii, Yourhosting, Versio, Axarnet, Nexylan, o2switch, ShockMedia • Our brands use a lot of Open Source software • Large CloudStack deployments • Large number of Ceph clusters
  • 4. Page 4 CloudStack @ Your.Online Your.Online Large parts of our infrastrure are powered by Apache CloudStack • Netherlands • Amsterdam • Haarlem • Spain • Valencia Hunderds of hypervisors hosting thousands of virtual machines
  • 5. Page 5 Environment Your.Online We don’t like throwing away properly function hardware That would be a waste of money and bad for the environment We care about both
  • 6. Page 6 Replace your servers every 5 years! Your.Online • Yes! That’s what vendors have been telling you for years! (No, they aren’t!) • 5y means they operate for about 4 years • 6 months from delivery to production • 6 months before their EOL you need to start replacement After 5y servers are old, right?
  • 7. Page 7 Measuring environmental impact: GWP, CO2e and PCF Your.Online Global Warming Potential (GWP) A common scale to measure the climate effects of different gasses over a specified period. This is the expression of the physical quantity of the climate effects of a greenhouse gas. “Speed” Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) A common unit for quantifying a measurement of GWP. The measurement is expressed in kg Carbon dioxide equivalent of a greenhouse gas. “km/h” Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) The most established method for determining the climate impact of a products full lifecycle. Ultimately expressed in CO2e.
  • 8. Page 8 What is the 4 year PCF of a server? Your.Online Running time: 4 years Operational: 24/7 GWP 100 years in CO2e: 8,617 kg x12 32GB DIMM x1 400GB SSD x8 3.4TB SSD x2 Intel Xeon 140W CPU’s 2U, 2-socket platform Source Dell LCA of PowerEdge R740
  • 9. Page 9 Life Cycle Assessment of a Dell server Your.Online
  • 10. Page 10 How to maximize your influence on PCF Your.Online 4 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 6 Year cycle 7 Year cycle No influence Influence 64% 36% 61% 39% 54% 44% 50% 50%
  • 11. Page 11 So what is the 50% manufacturing impact made up of? Your.Online 4 Year cycle No influence Influence 50% 50% 50% 80% SSD
  • 12. Page 12 The Dirty Secret of SSDs: Embodied Carbon Your.Online “Scalable Solid-State Drives (SSDs) have ushered in a transformative era in data storage and accessibility, spanning both data centers and portable devices. However, the strides made in scaling this technology can bear significant environmental consequences. On a global scale, a notable portion of semiconductor manufacturing relies on electricity derived from coal and natural gas sources. A striking example of this is the manufacturing process for a single Gigabyte of Flash memory, which emits approximately 0.16 Kg of CO2.” Source: The Dirty Secret of SSDs: Embodied Carbon (October 2023) SWAMIT TANNU, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA PRASHANT J. NAIR, University of British Columbia, Canada
  • 13. Page 13 CO2 emissions from electricity production Your.Online
  • 14. Page 14 Buy refurbished! and keep using old(er) hardware! Your.Online From personal experience these often work better because the software has been battle-tested You save 50% on CO2e due to the lack of manufacturing Significant lower CAPEX compared to buying new servers • Reduction can be up to 50%, typically 30% Using refurbished servers is a no-go, right?
  • 15. Page 15 Uh, CloudStack? Your.Online What does this have to do with CloudStack? We’re at a CloudStack conference, tell us something about CloudStack! Hint: Tagging and service offerings!
  • 16. Page 16 Host Tagging & Service Offerings Your.Online Tag your hosts and target them with Service Offerings This way you can create different categories based on performance characteristics of servers
  • 17. Page 17 Generations of hardware Your.Online Due to the acquisitions, we do we have many generations of hardware • Intel Xeon • E5: Broadwell & Haswell • Scalable: Skylake & Cascade Lake • AMD Epyc • Gen 1: Naples • Gen 2: Rome
  • 18. Page 18 Tiers & Service Offerings Your.Online Offering Hardware Host Tags Tier 1 Latest generation hardware t1 Tier 1a AMD Epyc t1,t1a Tier 1b Intel Xeon Scalable t1,t1b Tier 2 Previous generation hardware t2 Tier 2a Intel Xeon E5 v4 t2,t2a Tier 3 Older generations hardware t3 Tier 3a Intel Xeon E5 v3 t3,t3a Tier 3b Intel Xeon E5 v2 t3,t3b
  • 19. Page 19 T1 Performance Service Offerings Your.Online T1 Performance Service Offerings Targets hosts with the tag ‘t1’ Thus, the VM can and up running on a host with an AMD Epyc or Intel Xeon Scalable CPU
  • 20. Page 20 How do we use it? Your.Online Not all applications require the latest hardware High performance websites (e-commerce) run on Tier 1 hosts We try to use hardware as long as possible Spamfilters run on Tier 2 and Tier 3 Many backoffice applications run on Tier 2 hosts
  • 21. Page 21 (Live) migrations Your.Online What about live migrations? We make sure the same types of hardware share the same cluster A rack of hardware is a cluster in our case Rack Hardware Tier # Power (kW) 138-A05 SuperMicro 1U with Dual AMD Epyc Gen 1 t1 11 5 138-A13 SuperMicro 1U with Dual Xeon E5 v4 t2 11 5 138-A15 Dell R6515 with Single AMD Epyc Gen 2 t1 18 5 138-B15 Dell R6515 with Single AMD Epyc Gen 2 t1 18 5 138-E14 SuperMicro 1U with Dual AMD Epyc Gen 2 t1 11 5 138-F13 SuperMicro 2U-Twin (4 nodes, 2U) with Dual Xeon E5 v4 t2 3 (12) 5 138-F14 Dell R630 with Dual Xeon E5 v3 t3 17 5 138-F15 Dell R630 with Dual Xeon E5 v4 t2 17 5 Amsterdam (AMS02) datacenter
  • 22. Page 22 Libvirt CPU profile Your.Online Configure the CloudStack KVM Agent guest.cpu.mode=custom guest.cpu.model=EPYC-IBPB hypervisor.type=kvm Set the right CPU model in the KVM Agent so live migrations work as expected /etc/cloudstack/agent/agent.properties guest.cpu.mode=custom guest.cpu.model=Broadwell-IBRS hypervisor.type=kvm
  • 23. Page 23 Rack of hypervisors Your.Online
  • 24. Page 24 Storage Your.Online Ceph Ceph is designed for failure Why not use refurbished hardware for a Ceph environment? Does everything require top-notch performance? Why wouldn’t you run a Ceph cluster with SATA based SSDs for your backend workload?
  • 25. Page 25 Summary Your.Online Summary Hardware production has a significant impact on the environment Please think twice before replacing hardware Use Host Tags with Service Offerings to run your applications on the right hardware Older hardware can still be used
  • 26. Page 26 One more thing Your.Online How much kWh does CloudStack consume? Do we know how much kWh a single Trillian run consumes? Can we find out or make an educated guess? A Blue Orang Utan run?
  • 27. Page 27 Thanks Your.Online Thank you! Wido den Hollander w.denhollander@your.online / wido@denhollander.io @widodh