Hardware and Software Co-optimization to Make Sure Oracle Fusion Middleware Rocks!


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Hardware and Software Co-Optimization to make Sure Oracle Fusion Middleware Rocks.

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  • Background: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/communications/internet-minute-infographic.html
  • I heard that Twitter very recently replaced their Ruby and Scala code with Java because it performs much better.
  • Key Message: But we don’t stop our focus on energy savings at the CPU, we also proactively address opportunities for cost savings at the rack and data center level. Let us show you how to:- Minimize your company’s impact on the environment, - Reduce DC power consumption,- Increase density at the system, rack and data center level - All without compromising the performance of business solutions and applicationsPower and Cooling costs represent as much as 23% of total OPEX for a typical large Cloud Service Provider. Intel can help you better manage your power bill in 3 ways:- Latest generation of Xeon-based servers allows for greater workload consolidation & virtualization – and can bring TCO reduction of 66%. They are also built to withstand higher temperature levels common in modernized data centers.- Intel Node Manager enables control of power consumption at the server level, and can deliver up to 30% power savings without compromising performance- Intel Data Center manages at the rack, row & Data Center level; and provides a console to manage and optimize workload placement based on dynamic power usage insights.
  • That’s why the Intel Software and Services group—and Intel’s software subsidiaries—play such a huge role in fulfilling Intel’s vision to create and extend computing technology to connect and enrich the lives of people. We work with a global ecosystem of developers to help them access and exploit the tremendous capabilities of Intel processors and technologies so that they can deliver amazing experiences to end-users. We have ongoing focused efforts to help ensure those experiences are secure and optimized. Plus we are continuing to work on making anytime/anywhere computing a reality. We’ll talk more about how we are doing this later in the presentation. But first let me tell you a little more about this Intel Software and Services team that is helping to transform the world of computing.Khun -addedIntel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 product family (formerly code-named Ivy Bridge-EP), the new chips:feature up to 12 cores, a 50% increase from the previous generation;have double the system memory capacity—from 750MB to 1.5GB of DRAM memory;are up to 45% more energy efficient;feature advanced security features, stronger encryption and a new feature called Intel OS Guard, which fortifies the operating system against malware attacks; andKey points: Significant performance gains with up to 50% more cores and cache at the same or lower power levels Continued advancements in security and virtualization performanceStory:To meet the growing demands of IT such as readiness for cloud computing, the growth in users and the ability to tackle the most complex technical problems, Intel has focused on improving the processor that lies at the heart of a next generation data center. The Intel Xeon processor E5-2600 v2 product family supports up to 12 cores and 30MB of cache which is 50% greater than the Intel Xeon processor E5-2600 product family while operating at the same or lower power levels. Initial performance estimates is this increase in processing capabilities will offer up to 40% more performance on a range of applications. Whether you are looking to use analytics to turn data into insights, using simulation tools to bring better products to market faster than ever or using social media applications to deeper relationships with customers, the latest Xeon processors will offer more responsiveness and flexibility to drive your data center and business to the next level.
  • Key points: Continuing to reduce VMM overhead to get virtual performance as close as possible to a native OS environmentStory:In a virtualized environment the virtual machine manager (VMM) must emulate nearly all guest OS accesses to the advanced programmable interrupt controller (APIC) registers which requires “VM exits” – time-consuming transitions to the VMM for emulation – and back. These exits are a major source of overhead in a virtual environment. Intel’s Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller virtualization (APICv) reduces the number of exits by redirecting most guest OS APIC reads/writes to a virtual-APIC page to allow most reads to occur without VM exits. While final performance tests are not complete, Intel forecasts that this will eliminate up to 35% of VM exits relate to the APIC and allow another up to 30% of the VM exits to occur faster. Description:2-socket servers based on Intel Xeon processor E5 product family through 2013Baseline 1.0 is Xeon E5-2690 (8C Sandy Bridge EP) SKU Assumptions:E5-2690: 8C, 135W, 2.9GHzE5-2600v2: 12C, 130W, 2.7GHz Additional Details:VMM must virtualize guest’s interrupts and interrupt controller (APIC)Models APIC control state on a “virtual-APIC page” in DRAVMM must emulate nearly all guest accesses to APIC control registersRequires “VM exits” – time-consuming transitions into VMM for emulation – and back VMM must decode and emulate guest instructions that access APICExcept for Intel® VT FlexPriority, which virtualizesaccess to one APIC control registerTask priority – TPRNo VM exits required in this caseVMM must virtualize all interrupts coming to guestMust determine when guest is ready to receive interrupts and deliver as neededVirtualization of interrupts and APIC is a major source of overheadIllustration on next slideAPIC-register virtualization:Redirects most guest APIC reads/writes to virtual-APIC pageMost reads will be allowed without VM exits such as, interrupt command register - ICR_LowVM exits occur after writes (no need for decode) such as, ICR_low, timer’s initial-count registerVirtual-interrupt delivery:Extend TPR virtualization to other APIC registersNo need for VM exits for most frequent accesses (e.g., EOI – required for every interrupt)CPU delivers virtual interrupts to guest (including virtual IPIs)VMM needn’t track guest readiness or deliver manuallyEliminates old “pending interrupt” VM exitsNet result*: (Intel Netperf estimation)Eliminate up to 50% of VM exits (most of those related to virtualization of interrupts/APIC)Optimize up to 10% of VM exits (emulation made easier for some APIC writes)
  • Make sure audience understands what we mean by data conflict.And say “read-read” is NOT a conflict.
  • Hardware and Software Co-optimization to Make Sure Oracle Fusion Middleware Rocks!

    1. 1. 1 Khun Ban (Intel), Kingsum Chow (Intel) September 22-26, Day 2013 Hardware and Software Co-Optimization to make Sure Oracle Fusion Middleware Rocks
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. 3 This is Why We Care About Java http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_languages_used_in_most_popular_websites
    4. 4. 4 Improvement Examples of JIT Compiler and Java Libraries AES-NI in SunJCE intrinsics • Used in Enterprise/Healthcare applications PCLMULQDQ for CRC32 • Used in HBASE/Hadoop workloads RDRAND for SecureRandom • Intel Secure Key AVX superword vectorization • Used in HPC/Enterprise applications AVX in string and array intrinsics • Widely used in all applications Java applications benefit in a transparent manner
    5. 5. Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 Product Family Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark and MobileMark, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluatingyour contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. 1..30% savings: Oracle: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/data-center-efficiency/data-center-efficiency-xeon-oracle-changing-the-game-study.html 2. Baidu: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/data-center-efficiency/data-center-efficiency-xeon-baidu-case-study.html. China Telecom: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/enterprise-security/enterprise-security-xeon-5600-china-telecom-business-advantage-study.html?wapkw=china telecom. 3. Over previous generation Intel® processors. Intel internal estimate. For more legal information on performance forecasts go to http://www.intel.com/performance *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Decrease Data Center Power Costs …without Compromise 5 Server s 50% Labor 13% Networkin g 6% Facilities 5% Other IT 3% 23% Operational Costs of a Typical Large Cloud Service Provider Power Power Management at the Server, Rack & Data Center Level Intel® Node Manager Up to 30% power reduction at similar performance.1 Up to 40% more servers and performance per rack.2 Intel® Xeon® Greater Workload Consolidation. Up to 66% TCO reduction3 Intel® Data Center Manager Up to 30% power reduction at similar performance.1 Up to 40% more servers and performance per rack.2
    6. 6. 6 Tick-Tock Development Model: Sustained Microprocessor Leadership Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture New Micro- architecture Xeon® 5300 65nm TOCK Xeon® 5400 New Process Technology 45nm TICK Intel® Microarchitecture Codename Nehalem New Micro- architecture Xeon® 5500 45nm TOCK Xeon® 5600 32nm New Process Technology TICK Intel® Microarchitecture Codename Sandy Bridge Xeon® E5- 2600 32nm New Micro- architecture TOCK 22nm New Process Technology TICK Intel® Microarchitecture Codename Haswell Haswell 22nm New Micro- architecture TOCK Future 14nm New Process Technology TICK Xeon® E5- 2600 v2 Latest Micro-architecture on Leading Process Technology
    7. 7. 7 Real Enhancements Where it Counts 50% MORE Last-level cache Cores & Threads IMPROVED Integrated IO (PCIe 3.0) Faster Memory • 1. Source: Intel internal measurements: [idle power, Intel® Xeon ® processor E5- 26xx v2 (12C, 2.5GHz, 95W), 28 March 2013]. Results have been simulated and are provided for informational purposes only. Results were derived using simulations run on an architecture simulator or model. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Intel product plans in this presentation do not constitute Intel plan of record product roadmaps. Please contact your Intel representative to obtain Intel’s current plan of record product roadmaps. For more information go to http://www.intel.com/performance • * Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 Product Family 23% LESS Idle power NEW Virtualization features Security features
    8. 8. 8 More Data Protection Capabilities Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 Product Family Reduces Malware Exploiting System Vulnerabilities Strong Algorithms Data Protection Intel® Secure Key True Randomness Good Cryptography Requires Intel® AES-NI Strong Keys Faster, Stronger Encryption User Mode Supervisor Mode (Kernel Mode / Ring-0) Operating System “Can perform any task on system” “Can perform limited tasks on system” Intel® OS Guard
    9. 9. 9 Performance penalties of virtualization often due to VM exits Many VM exits are for interrupt controller processing Eliminate up to 50%* of VM exits Interrupt/APIC Virtualization: Overview Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 Product Family Without APICv: • VMM must fetch/decode instruction • ~2,000-7,000 cycles per exit* (varies by VMM) With APICv: • Instruction executes directly • H/W and microcode emulates APIC • No VM exit VMM APICv model in software VM Guest OS VM Exits VMM APICv in CPU HW / µ- code VM Guest OS No VM Exits configure Without APICv With APICv Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller Virtualization *Intel internal estimation of improvement vs E5-2690 . Source: Intel internal projection (SPP JET Q2'12 approved r esults as of 19 July 2012. Results have been simulated and are provided for informational purposes only. Results were derived using simulations run on an architecture simulator or model. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Intel product plans in this presentation do not constitute Intel plan of record product roadmaps. Please contact your Intel representative to obtain Intel’s current plan of record product roadmaps. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
    10. 10. 10 Intel® SSDs: Data Center Product ComparisonIntel® SSD 910 Series S3700 Series S3500 Series 710 Series 320 Series Interface PCIe* gen2 x8 SATA 6Gb/s ATA8 SATA 6Gb/s ATA8 SATA 3Gb/s ATA8 SATA 3Gb/s ATA8 Form factor ½ height ½ length 1.8, 2.5 inch 1.8, 2.5 inch 2.5 inch 1.8, 2.5 inch Capacities (GB) 800, 400 GB (1.8) 400, 200 GB (2.5) 800, 400, 200, 100 GB (1.8) 800, 400, 240, 80 GB (2.5) 800, 600, 480, 300, 240, 160, 120, 80 GB 300, 200, 100 GB (1.8) 300, 160, 80 GB (2.5) 600, 300, 160, 120, 80, 40 GB Random Performance (IOPs, 4KB files) R: up to 180K W: up to 75K R: up to 75K W: up to 36K R: up to 75K2 W: up to 11.5K2 R: up to 38.5K W: up to 2.7K R: up to 39.5K2 W: up to 6002 Sustained Sequential Performance (MB/s) R: up to 2.0GB/s W: up to 1.0GB/s R: up to 500MB/s W: up to 460MB/s R: up to 500MB/s3 W: up to 4505MB/s3 R:up to 270MB/s W:up to 210MB/s R:up to 270MB/s3 W:up to 200MB/s3 Power 25W Max, 8W stdby 6W typ, 650mW4 idle 5W typ, 650mW4 idle 3.7 typ. 700mW idle 4W active, 95mW idle Latency R, W: <65µs R: 50µs, W: 65µs R: 50µs, W: 66µs R: 75µs, W: 85µs R: 75µs, W: 95µs Endurance5 Up to 14PB 10 DWPD over 5 years Up to 450TB Up to 1.8PB Up to 60TB Reliability 1 sector/1016 bits read, max (UBER5) 2.0M Hrs MTBF 2.0M Hrs MTBF 2.0M Hrs MTBF 1.2M Hrs MTBF Security No AES-256 bit encryption AES-128 bit encryption Data path protection Yes LBA tag checking Pwr safe Write cache Yes Temperature sensor Yes No Current in-rush limiter Yes 2. IOPs for 160GB other capacities may vary 3. Transfer rate for 300GB; other capacities may vary. Measurements are performed on 100- percent span of the drive (enterprise workload) 4. Without DIPM. 5. Endurance claims are “up to” using 4KB transfer sizes. 6. Uncorrectable Bit Error Rate 7. DWPD – Drive Writes Per Day
    11. 11. TRANSFORMING COMMUNICATIONS11 Intel QuickAssist Technology Up to 50Gbps Crypto Acceleration Intel® QuickAssist Technology providing hardware acceleration for encryption and compression in Chipset Up to 24Gbps Compression Acceleration Target Market Segments: • Networking Infrastructure • WAN Optimization • Cloud Computing • Integrated VPN/Firewall appliances • UTM Gateway, Routers • 3G & 4G/LTE infrastructure equipment E5-2600 v2 E5-2600 v2 QPI Intel Quick Assist Adapter DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 Intel Ethernet Controller Up to 2x10GbE DDR3 2 SATA 2.0 6 USB 2.0 50 GPIO PCIe PCIeDMI Up to 40K RSA 2k-bit ops/sec Acceleration
    12. 12. 12 Intel Xeon Delivered Outstanding Oracle WebLogic Server Performance • Intel and Oracle’s collaboration achieved 2X* performance in two years – Software optimizations – Hardware advances • WebLogic Server is Oracle’s flagship Application Server • Performance shown is for the most recent three generations of Xeon E5 processors • http://www.spec.org/jEnterprise2010/results/res2011q3/jEnterprise2010-20110727-00023.html • http://www.spec.org/jEnterprise2010/results/res2012q1/jEnterprise2010-20120208-00028.html • http://www.spec.org/jEnterprise2010/results/res2013q3/jEnterprise2010-20130904-00046.html Configuration info * Based on SPECjEnterprise2010 published result. “The SPECjEnterprise2010 benchmark is a full system benchmark which allows performance measurement and characterization of Java EE 5.0 servers and supporting infrastructure such as JVM, Database, CPU, disk and servers.” -- http://www.spec.org/jEnterprise2010/ 5,427 8,310 11,260 - 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 Intel Xeon X5690 (Aug 11) Oracle WLS 10.3.5 Intel Xeon E5-2690 (Mar 12) Oracle WLS 10.3.6 Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2 (Sept 13) Oracle WLS 12.1.2 SPECjEnterprise2010 Performance (EjOPS)
    13. 13. 13 Intel’s New Technology For Transaction Processing
    14. 14. 14 Hard to Write Fast and Correct Multi-Threaded Code Difficulty of Software Development Identify concurrency (algorithmic, manual…) Manage concurrency (locks, …) Correctness Performance
    15. 15. 15 Bob and Alice saw A == $100. Locks prevent such data races Need for Synchronization Alice wants $50 from A • A == $100, A set to $50 Bob wants $60 from A • A == $100, A set to $40 A should be -10 use lock A $100 A $100 Lock Alice wants $50 from A Alice locks table A == $100, A set to $50 Bob wants $60 from A Bob waits till lock release A == $50, Insufficient funds Developer Table
    16. 16. 16 Such Tuning is Time Consuming and Error Prone Lock Granularity Optimization A $100 B $200 A $100 B $200 Lock Developer Alice withdraws $20 from A • Alice locks table Bob wants $30 from B • Waits for Alice to free table Alice withdraws $20 from A • Alice locks A Bob wants $30 from B • Bob locks B Coarse grain locking (lock per table) Fine grain locking (lock per element) Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock
    17. 17. 17 Complexity of Fine Grain Locking Expensive and Difficult to Debug Millions of Lines of Code Alice transfers $20 from A to B • Alice locks A and locks B Performs transfer • Alice unlocks A and unlocks B A $100 B $200 A $100 B $200 Alice transfers $20 from A to B Locks A Cannot lock B Bob transfers $50 from B to A Locks B Cannot lock A Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock
    18. 18. 18 What We Really Want… Lock Elision: Fine Grain Behavior at Coarse Grain Effort Developer uses coarse grain lock Hardware elides the lock to expose concurrency in program • Alice and Bob don’t wait • Hardware automatically detects real data conflicts Developer Effort A $100 B $200 C $200 Hardware Program Behavior A $100 B $200 C $200 Coarse grain locking effort Fine grain locking behavior Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock
    19. 19. 19 Let The CPU Handle the Locks Hardware does the work of figuring out concurrency • Fine grain performance at coarse grain effort Intel® TSX ‡ : Instruction set extensions for IA • Transactionally execute lock-protected critical sections • Execute without acquiring lock  expose hidden concurrency • Hardware manages transactional updates – All or None • Specification at http://software.intel.com/file/41604 Intel® is making Parallel Programming Easier and Faster ‡ Intel® Transactional Synchronization Extensions (Intel® TSX), available on next generation Intel® microarchitecture (Haswell)
    20. 20. 20 Fine Grain Behavior at Coarse Grain Effort Applying Intel® TSX
    21. 21. 21 Summary • Intel has been working closely with our partners to make sure our customers will get the best out-of-the-box Fusion Middleware experience: • Highest performance to improve user experience • Lowest cost of ownership by reducing power • Safest communication with better security
    22. 22. 22 References • Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 Product Family - http://ark.intel.com/products/series/75291 • Intel Transactional Synchronization Extensions - http://software.intel.com/file/41604 • Intel QuickAssist Technology - http://www.intel.com/content/www/xr/en/it- management/it-management-quickassist-technology-video.html
    23. 23. Thank You
    24. 24. 25 Legal Disclaimer INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL'S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. A "Mission Critical Application" is any application in which failure of the Intel Product could result, directly or indirectly, in personal injury or death. SHOULD YOU PURCHASE OR USE INTEL'S PRODUCTS FOR ANY SUCH MISSION CRITICAL APPLICATION, YOU SHALL INDEMNIFY AND HOLD INTEL AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES, SUBCONTRACTORS AND AFFILIATES, AND THE DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, AND EMPLOYEES OF EACH, HARMLESS AGAINST ALL CLAIMS COSTS, DAMAGES, AND EXPENSES AND REASONABLE ATTORNEYS' FEES ARISING OUT OF, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, ANY CLAIM OF PRODUCT LIABILITY, PERSONAL INJURY, OR DEATH ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF SUCH MISSION CRITICAL APPLICATION, WHETHER OR NOT INTEL OR ITS SUBCONTRACTOR WAS NEGLIGENT IN THE DESIGN, MANUFACTURE, OR WARNING OF THE INTEL PRODUCT OR ANY OF ITS PARTS. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked "reserved" or "undefined". Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. The information here is subject to change without notice. Do not finalize a design with this information. The products described in this document may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order. Copies of documents which have an order number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature, may be obtained by calling 1-800-548-4725, or go to: http://www.intel.com/design/literature.htm Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, and other code names featured are used internally within Intel to identify products that are in development and not yet publicly announced for release. Customers, licensees and other third parties are not authorized by Intel to use code names in advertising, promotion or marketing of any product or services and any such use of Intel's internal code names is at the sole risk of the user. Intel, Xeon, Centrino, Look Inside, and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Copyright ©2013 Intel Corporation.
    25. 25. 26 Legal Disclaimer Intel® AES-NI requires a computer system with an AES-NI enabled processor, as well as non-Intel software to execute the instructions in the correct sequence. AES-NI is available on select Intel® processors. For availability, consult your reseller or system manufacturer. For more information, see Intel® Advanced Encryption Standard Instructions (AES-NI). Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology (Intel® HT Technology) is available on select Intel® Core™ processors. Requires an Intel® HT Technology-enabled system. Consult your PC manufacturer. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software used. For more information including details on which processors support Intel HT Technology, visit http://www.intel.com/info/hyperthreading. Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark* and MobileMark*, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. For more information go to http://www.intel.com/performance. Estimated Results Benchmark Disclaimer: Results have been estimated based on internal Intel analysis and are provided for informational purposes only. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Intel® Secure Key Technology: No system can provide absolute security. Requires an Intel® Secure Key-enabled platform, available on select Intel® processors, and software optimized to support Intel Secure Key. Consult your system manufacturer for more information.
    26. 26. 27 Compiler Notice Intel's compilers may or may not optimize to the same degree for non-Intel microprocessors for optimizations that are not unique to Intel microprocessors. These optimizations include SSE2, SSE3, and SSE3 instruction sets and other optimizations. Intel does not guarantee the availability, functionality, or effectiveness of any optimization on microprocessors not manufactured by Intel. Microprocessor-dependent optimizations in this product are intended for use with Intel microprocessors. Certain optimizations not specific to Intel microarchitecture are reserved for Intel microprocessors. Please refer to the applicable product User and Reference Guides for more information regarding the specific instruction sets covered by this notice. Notice revision #20110804
    27. 27. 28 Risk Factors The above statements and any others in this document that refer to plans and expectations for the third quarter, the year and the future are forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “will,” “should” and their variations identify forward-looking statements. Statements that refer to or are based on projections, uncertain events or assumptions also identify forward-looking statements. Many factors could affect Intel’s actual results, and variances from Intel’s current expectations regarding such factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. Intel presently considers the following to be the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the company’s expectations. Demand could be different from Intel's expectations due to factors including changes in business and economic conditions; customer acceptance of Intel’s and competitors’ products; supply constraints and other disruptions affecting customers; changes in customer order patterns including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory at customers. Uncertainty in global economic and financial conditions poses a risk that consumers and businesses may defer purchases in response to negative financial events, which could negatively affect product demand and other related matters. Intel operates in intensely competitive industries that are characterized by a high percentage of costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term and product demand that is highly variable and difficult to forecast. Revenue and the gross margin percentage are affected by the timing of Intel product introductions and the demand for and market acceptance of Intel's products; actions taken by Intel's competitors, including product offerings and introductions, marketing programs and pricing pressures and Intel’s response to such actions; and Intel’s ability to respond quickly to technological developments and to incorporate new features into its products. The gross margin percentage could vary significantly from expectations based on capacity utilization; variations in inventory valuation, including variations related to the timing of qualifying products for sale; changes in revenue levels; segment product mix; the timing and execution of the manufacturing ramp and associated costs; start- up costs; excess or obsolete inventory; changes in unit costs; defects or disruptions in the supply of materials or resources; product manufacturing quality/yields; and impairments of long-lived assets, including manufacturing, assembly/test and intangible assets. Intel's results could be affected by adverse economic, social, political and physical/infrastructure conditions in countries where Intel, its customers or its suppliers operate, including military conflict and other security risks, natural disasters, infrastructure disruptions, health concerns and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Expenses, particularly certain marketing and compensation expenses, as well as restructuring and asset impairment charges, vary depending on the level of demand for Intel's products and the level of revenue and profits. Intel’s results could be affected by the timing of closing of acquisitions and divestitures. Intel's results could be affected by adverse effects associated with product defects and errata (deviations from published specifications), and by litigation or regulatory matters involving intellectual property, stockholder, consumer, antitrust, disclosure and other issues, such as the litigation and regulatory matters described in Intel's SEC reports. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or an injunction prohibiting Intel from manufacturing or selling one or more products, precluding particular business practices, impacting Intel’s ability to design its products, or requiring other remedies such as compulsory licensing of intellectual property. A detailed discussion of these and other factors that could affect Intel’s results is included in Intel’s SEC filings, including the company’s most recent reports on Form 10-Q, Form 10-K and earnings release. Rev. 7/17/13