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Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis


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A narrated power-point presentation that describes the processes of Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

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Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Maggie Schroeder, Megan Wright, and Wendy Combs Narrated by Maggie Schroeder
  2. 2. Cell Respiration… By Maggie Schroeder … with help from Megan Wright, Wendy Combs, and Mr. Olsen  Krebs-Cycle-ation, Transportation, Phosphorylation, Don’t be hatin’ in the ATP NATION!
  3. 3. Bare Necessities <ul><li>Every living cell needs to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing large molecules (DNA, RNA, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active Transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moving particles within the cell (chromosomes, vesicles, muscle cell fibers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy in the form of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>“ The controlled release of energy from organic compounds to form ATP” ~ Bio Course Companion </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATP… LOL ROFLMAO <ul><li>Adenosine Triphosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Convert to ADP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split off a phosphate molecule, releases energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be produced by cell </li></ul><ul><li>Drive most cellular work </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to ATP, cellular respiration produces Carbon Dioxide and water </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Wars: The Saga Begins <ul><li>Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two pyruvates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Net yield of 2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH and 2 Hydrogen Ions (H+) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis occurs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic vs. Aerobic Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactate/Alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Glycosis
  7. 7. The Ciiiiircle of Krebs! <ul><li>The Krebs Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous Chemical Conversions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetyl CoA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes CO2 Molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces FADH2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resulting molecule is sent to Electron Transport chain </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Krebs Cycle
  9. 9. Do Yo’ Chain Hang Low? <ul><li>Electron Transport chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons from NADH and FADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Carriers transport within the Inner-Mitochondrial Membrance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then combine with 2H+ molecules and .5 O2 molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins force H+ molecules against a gradient into the inter-membrane space </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Chemiosmosis (can’t really make anything catchy outta that) <ul><li>The H+ molecules go back into the matrix (with concentration gradient) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP Synthase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flow of H+ molecules causes ATP Synthase to convert ADP to ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain + Chemiosmosis = OXIDATIVE PHOSPORYLATION!!  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  12. 12. Photosynthesis <ul><li>By Megan Wright </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is Photosynthesis? <ul><li>A production of organic compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses light energy and inorganic substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first organisms to perform photosynthesis were prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis led to a rise in oxygen concentration in the atmosphere </li></ul>
  14. 14. Light and Photosynthesis <ul><li>Conversion of light energy into chemical energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors) </li></ul><ul><li>Light-dependent and light-independent reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Light energy used to produce ATP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also to split water molecules (photolysis) to form oxygen and hydrogen </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Light and Photosynthesis <ul><li>Light absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Involves pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigments: Look colored to the human eyes and therefore are visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main pigment in photosynthesis is chlorophyll. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rate of photosynthesis affected by light intensity </li></ul>
  16. 16. Light and Photosynthesis <ul><li>The rate of photosynthesis increases with light intensity while low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher intensities, little effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll absorbs light energy and: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP is produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is used in a different stage of photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Releases oxygen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Photosynthesis and Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>Carbon dioxide provides carbon for making organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon fixation : carbon transformed into solid or liquid compounds </li></ul><ul><li>ATP also needed </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore light intensity affects the carbon fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darkness can stop it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low light can slow it down </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Action/Absorption Spectrum and Photosynthesis <ul><li>Chloroplasts w/ different types of chlorophyll. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each have light-absorbing qualities with minor differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All absorb red and blue light. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory pigments: absorb wavelengths and then convert the light energy to chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Green light has a lower rate of photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rates of Photosynthesis <ul><li>Measuring Photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly vs. Indirectly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>i.e. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low and increases, then photosynthesis’ rate decreases </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. The faster the rate of photosynthesis, the more oxygen there is </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Increase in biomass = increase in photosynthesis </li></ul>
  20. 20. Photosynthesis and ATP <ul><li>Photophosphorylation – production of ATP using light energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried out in thylakoids. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thylakoid membranes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosystem I - Electron Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosystem II - ATP Synthase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemiososis </li></ul><ul><li>ATP and hydrogen used to make organic molecules . </li></ul>