Metabolic functions


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Metabolic functions

  1. 1. Metabolic Functions By: Erin McLoon Rachel Corning Fianna Walsh Julia Davis
  2. 2. General Overview of Metabolic Functions & ATP <ul><li>ATP- adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: provide a form of chemical energy cells can use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules are made and broken down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps cells maintain boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves along all life processes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. General Overview Cont.. <ul><li>Structure: Modified nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three phosphate groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate groups attached by high energy phosphate bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When high energy phosphate bonds are broken by hydrolysis, energy is released and can be used by the cell to do work/power an activity </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATP <ul><li>What does the cell use ATP to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport substances across its membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes the muscle cells to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the high energy phosphate bond is broken: </li></ul><ul><li>ATP  ADP + P +E </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADP = adenosine diphosphate, P= inorganic phosphate E= energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ATP supplies are replenished by oxidation of food fuels </li></ul>
  5. 5. Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Breakdown of Glucose Without Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Glycolysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in a cystol (doesn’t use Oxygen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is broken down into Pyruvic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to lack of Oxygen, the Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can provide most of ATP needed for 30-40 seconds of strenuous muscle activity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Shortcomings of Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Uses a lot of glucose for a small amount of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulating lactic acid promotes muscle soreness </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anaerobic Respiration Diagram
  8. 8. Anaerobic VS Aerobic <ul><li>Anaerobic respiration produces only 5% of the ATP that Aerobic Respiration produces </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic is 2 ½ times faster than Aerobic Respiration </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aerobic Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in mitochondria & involves a series of metabolic pathways that use oxyen </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is broken down completely into CO2 and H2O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the energy is released as the bonds are broken and is captured in the bonds of ATP molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides 32 ATP per 1 Glucose molecule </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aerobic Respiration <ul><li>Slow, and requires continuous delivery of O2 and nutrient fuels to the muscles </li></ul>
  11. 11. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Occurs in mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Produces virtually all CO2 during cell respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Yields a small amount of ATP by transferring high energy phosphate groups directly from phosphorylated substances to ADP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free oxygen is not involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process called substrate-level phosphorylation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorylate = to add phosphate to an organic compound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADP = A nucleotide, composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Where the production of ATP occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atoms removed during the first two metabolic phases are loaded with energy </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogens are delivered by the coenzymes to the protein carriers of the ETC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form part of mitochondrial cristae membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H atoms split into H ions (H+) and electrons </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electron Transport Chain cont. <ul><li>Electrons “fall down energy hill” (go from each carrier to carrier of lower energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Give off their load of energy in small amounts, in a series of steps to enable cells to attach phosphate to ADP to make ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Free oxygen is reduced </li></ul><ul><li>H ions and electrons unite with molecular oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Form H2O and large amounts of ATP </li></ul>