Reasons of Homosexuality<br />Is it biological / genetic or learned behavior/ psychological?<br />No concrete evidence yet. <br /> “…even we doctors are uncertain about the subject.”<br /> - Dr. Watsa<br />
Biological perspective<br /><ul><li>Scale of sexuality
Do these therapies work – NO !!</li></ul> “……This question has been asked very frequently of whether one can actually change his/her sexuality, but to the simpler form, the answer is no…”<br /> - Dr. Watsa<br />
Gay and Lesbian Movements<br /><ul><li>1950’s – Daughters of Bilitis and Mattachine society
In India – Demand for the amendment of Sec 377 of Indian Penal Code.</li></li></ul><li>Cultural Perspective<br /><ul><li> Earliest recorded evidence of a homosexual couple – Egyptian male couple in around 2400 BC
Two most prominent and ancient occurrences of homosexuality include Roman homosexuality and Greek Homosexuality.
Most European nations did not accept homosexuality openly.
In ancient America, a common accepted concept of sexuality (homosexuality) was called the Two Spirit Individual.
In East Asia (especially Thailand) has not only accepted the concept of homosexuality but also allows open display of one’s sexuality.</li></li></ul><li>Cultural Perspective<br /><ul><li> In India, there is no explanation to clarify what a sexual misconduct is and what kind of a relationship would it ideally apply to.
The Manusmriti disapproves of homosexuality and prescribes a number of punishments both for lesbianism and gay relationships.
Some of the punishments prescribed by the Manusmriti are as follows:
A lesbian relationship between an older woman and a younger one – the older one’s head is shaved off or two fingers cut and ride the donkey through the town.
Two men in a gay relationship are punished to bathe, dressed in his/their clothes.
Middle eastern Islamic cultures do not approve of homosexual relationships but they’ve had their share of homosexual relationship both in the past and in recent times.
Persia was the only Arabic nation that allowed and recognized male houses of prostitution.</li></li></ul><li>Religious Perspective<br /><ul><li>Almost all religions discourage homosexual activities.
Christianity considers homosexuality a sin. The Bible lays down death penalty for the one who engages in homosexual activities.
Islam is against homosexuality. The Quran considers homosexuality as sinful and unnatural. It believes such behaviour should not be desired by men and it does not even acknowledge lesbianism.
Hinduism was open to various ideas of sexuality in the medieval times. But the Manusmriti does not accept homosexuality.</li></li></ul><li>Literature and Art<br /><ul><li>Homosexuality is said to be an inspiration to some literature as well as artworks.
Kamasutra and Khajurao reflect the medieval period’s open acceptance of homosexuality.
Non fictional books like Yaraana, Facing the mirror, Despised Sexuality, etc.
Fictional books such as Daddy’s roommate, Jenny lives with Eric and Martin, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Social Perspective<br /><ul><li> Largely, every society views homosexuality negatively and disapproves of it.
The law and society, in general, expect individuals to restrict themselves to heterosexual relationships.
Countries like Canada and Norway have legalized both lesbianism and gay relationships. </li></li></ul><li>Social Perspective<br />Facts<br />Though homosexuals are believed to be born the way they are, there is no evidence to prove this.<br />It is free of sin if it is safe, consensual and within a committed relationship. <br />3. The risk of HIV is related to a person’s sexual practices and not their sexual orientation. <br />Myths<br />Homosexuals are born gay<br />2. Homosexuality is a sin<br />3. All gays and bisexuals are HIV infected<br />
Social Perspective<br />For both the sample groups<br />
Prince Manvendra Singh<br />Jonathan Adler and Simon Doonan<br />Ellen De’Generes and Portia De Rossi<br />Sir Elton John and David Furnish<br />Lindsay Lohan and Samantha Ronson<br />T. R. Knight and Mark Cornelsen<br />
Legal Perspective<br /> Homosexuality in the Indian Law<br /><ul><li>Section 377 was introduced to India in the year 1837, which was finally implemented in 1860.
In 1885, it was suggested to Queen Victoria that the law be extended to homosexual women but she refused to believe that such relations could exist between women.</li></li></ul><li>Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code reads,<br />“Unnatural offenses: Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.<br />Explanation: Penetration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offense described in this section”.<br />
Legal Perspective<br />Section 377<br /><ul><li>Indian law considers homosexuality as an unnatural offence.
Section 377 is applicable to all men and women who indulge in penetrative sex ‘not meant for reproduction’.
Homosexuals (gay men) are brought to book and punished under this law as it is difficult to prove non-productive sex between heterosexuals (Section 294 – “obscene behaviour in public” is also used against gay men).
“As there is no penile penetration in female homosexuals, the law does not apply to them. There is a male chauvinist notion of sex; virtually it turns out to be an advantage for female homosexuals”. -----Mr. Anand Grover</li></li></ul><li>Legal Perspective<br />
Legal Perspective<br />Cases and Arguments<br />Khanu vs. Emperor<br />An adult having oral sex with a child and looked into the question of whether the sin comes under the confines of Sec 377. <br />
Legal Perspective<br />LohanaVasanthlalDevchandvs.the State<br />The act of oral sex involves enveloping of penis bye the mouth, thus creating an alternative socially unacceptable activity, which is against the order of nature.<br />BirenLal vs. the State of Bihar<br />The Court held that penetration must be proved, but here the victim has no evident to prove the move towards the penetration of his anus. <br />
Legal Perspective<br />Reforms and Struggle to amend Section 377<br /><ul><li>In 1994, the AIDS BhedbhavVirodhiAndolan (ABVA), a human rights activist group, approached the Delhi High Court to amend the law.
In 2001, it was revived as the Naz Foundation (an NGO working with HIV/AIDS related issues) approached the Court again. It argued to exclude acts of consensual private sex.
In 2003, government denied in the affidavit that Sec 377 was violating the rights. But Naz Foundation won its appeal in the Supreme Court.</li></li></ul><li>Legal Perspective<br />Reforms and Struggle to amend Section 377<br /><ul><li>In 2008, the case came up for hearing but the law continues as the Ministry of Home maintained a contradictory position for the dismissal of revival of the Code.
“It is necessary to decriminalize sex between two men to check the spread of HIV/AIDS. Section 377 of the IPC (Indian Penal Code), which criminalizes men who have sex with men, must go. I want to do away with it to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, India is home to 2.3 million homosexuals and 10 percent of them are spreading HIV/AIDS.” </li></ul> ---- AnbumaniRamadoss, Health Minister<br /><ul><li>“…though Home Ministry did oppose the revival of the Code but now after that Mr. Patil has resigned and his position has been given to Mr. Chidambaram, we are very confident of winning the case.” - -- Mr. Anand Grover</li></li></ul><li>Legal Perspective<br />NGOs and Institutes in support and for help to homosexuals<br /><ul><li>ANJUMAN - The Jawaharlal Nehru University collective. A collective of students of JNU who wish to question gender and sexual norms
PRISM – People for Rights of Indian Sexuality Minority (Delhi)
SAHAYA Help line – Providing telephone counseling for LGTB (Bangalore)
SAATHI (KOLKATA) - Provides gender and sexuality based programs.
The Humsafar Trust</li></li></ul><li>Homosexuality and the Media<br /><ul><li>Homosexuality is a hotly debated topic in various forms of media such as the news, television shows, movies and magazines.
With all the conflicting views floating around about homosexuals, different portrayals and stereotypes can be seen in the media.
The media has an immense impact on moulding public opinion.
The portrayal of gays has varied from being stereotypical feminine (or masculine) mannerism and pink shirt to a normal guy or girl.
Such stereotypes and portrayals send the various messages and establishes both myths as well as facts about them.</li></li></ul><li>Homosexuality in Television Shows<br /><ul><li> Bobby Darling in Big Boss, KyunkiSaasbhikabhibahuthi and other shows.
My Best Friend’s Wedding </li></li></ul><li>Homosexuality in Theatre<br /><ul><li> One Muggy night in Bombay
Marathi Plays such as EkMadhavBaug and Holi revolved around the issue of homosexuality.</li></li></ul><li>Homosexuality in Magazines and Online<br /><ul><li>Many magazines such as Femina, Me and others have carried articles on homosexuality.
Bombay Dost (magazine) caters to homosexuals run by homosexuals.
365gay.com, 247gay.com, gay.com, pinknews.com are all websites catering mainly to homosexuals and fighting for gay rights for a long period.</li></li></ul><li>Homosexuality in News<br /><ul><li>NDTV Big Fight
More than 300 articles in the past one year have been based on the topic.</li></li></ul><li>Other Issues<br /><ul><li>Attitudes towards Gays and Lesbians in their Workplace
Family Issues</li></ul>(Acceptance, Rejection and Parenting) <br /><ul><li>Social Psychological Issues