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Section 377
Section 377
of Indian
Penal Code
LGBT is an initialize that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In
use since the 1990s, the initialize, as well as some of its common variants,
functions as an umbrella term for sexuality and gender identity.
It may refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender, instead of
exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. To
recognize this inclusion, a popular variant, LGBTQ, adds the letter Q for those
who identify as queer or are questioning their sexual or gender identity.
In LGBT there is union of two people of same gender i.e. Male + Male or
Female+ Female. So there is no natural sexual activity. But there is private
consensual homosexual acts/sex between adults of same gender. which were
considered ‘unnatural’ and punishable under Section 377 IPC.
03
– Zanele Muholi, South African visual artist
“If I wait for someone else to validate my
existence, it will mean that I’m
shortchanging myself.”
04
What is Section 377 of IPC?
Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code states “whoever voluntarily has
carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or
animal shall be punished”.
This was a colonial-era law that was at odds with modern notions of
justice and equality of all humankind. Section 377 criminalized the act
of private consensual homosexual sex between adults as well.
Even some heterosexual acts considered “against the order of nature”
are offences under this Section.
The Supreme Court judgment in 2018 ruled that this Section’s use
against consenting adult homosexuality was irrational, arbitrary and
not justified.
06
Background of the Debate on Section 377
09
 The movement against Sec 377 started in 1991 when the AIDS Bhedbhav Virodhi Andolan
published a landmark report titled, ‘Less than Gay: A Citizen’s Report’. The report laid out
the problems with this Section and advocated for its repeal.
 The second, more recent attempt in this direction was by the NGO, the Naz Foundation.
 In 2001, the group filed a PIL in the Delhi High Court that sought to legitimize homosexual
union between two consenting adults.
 This case was dismissed by a 2-judge bench in 2004.
 As a result of the SC ordering the Delhi High Court to hear the case again, in 2009, the
Delhi HC decriminalized homosexuality by ruling that consenting homosexual intercourse
between adults is not illegal.
 This verdict declared Section 377 to be in violation of Articles 21, 14 and 15 of the
Constitution of India.
 This verdict was challenged in the SC by an astrologer and journalist named Suresh Kumar
Koushal.
10
 In 2013, an SC bench upheld the appeal by Koushal and reversed the earlier ruling that
decriminalized homosexuality.
 This verdict stated that it was up to the Parliament to consider whether the Section should be
deleted from the statute books or not.
 This verdict was met with a lot of criticism from the LGBTQ community in India and abroad, and
activists observed it is a “Global Day of Rage”.
 Many review petitions were quashed and in 2016, the SC referred a curative plea to a five-judge
Bench.
 There were two landmark SC judgments that acted as a shot in the arm for the case against
Section 377.
 One was in 2014 when the SC gave the transgender community the right to be called the third
gender in the NALSA judgment.
 The second one was in 2017 when the SC, in the Puttaswamy judgment, stated that the right to
privacy is a fundamental right. This order stated that privacy included the sanctity of family life, the
preservation of personal intimacies, marriage, procreation, the home and sexual orientation.
 In 2018, the issue was reopened by a Constitution Bench which said that a section of people could
not live in fear of the law which undermined their rights to privacy and dignity and to choose.
 The petitioners had alleged that the presence of Section 377 of the IPC meant that equality,
dignity, fraternity, liberty and life guaranteed by the Constitution were not extended to them.
Arguments in Favour of Repealing Sec 377
08
Fundamental Rights
Section 377 criminalized a section of society for being a sexual minority. The petitioners argued that the
right to sexuality, sexual autonomy and freedom were indispensable to human dignity.
Health Issues
Due to the criminalization of homosexuality, a section of the society could not get adequate access to
health care. It created barriers in the effective prevention, testing and treatment of AIDS/HIV.
Issue of Law Vs. Morality
Many argued that what was forbidden in most religions, and by traditional mores need not be forbidden in
the eyes of the law, which saw everybody equally.
Section 377 and Child Abuse
There was criticism from child rights activists that the repealing of this Section would be a problem for
tackling child abuse cases. But, the enactment of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences
(POCSO) Act 2012 did away with the need for this Section to deal with cases of child abuse. POCSO is
more stringent as well as child-friendly.
Implications for Heterosexuals
Section 377 included some consensual acts between heterosexuals, which were considered ‘unnatural’
and punishable.
Arguments against Repealing Sec 377
19
There are certain groups who were against the repealing of this
Section. Many religious groups and denominations were against
this contending that homosexuality was against God and religious
mores. There was also another criticism of repealing the Section,
that legalizing homosexuality would spread diseases such as
AIDS, and cause a health hazard in the country.
Impact of Decriminalising Homosexuality
07
● Before the Section was repealed, people belonging to the LGBTQ community
used to complain of harassment by law enforcement agencies, owing to the
Section. This has come to an end since legally, homosexuality is no longer a
crime in India.
● It is important to remember that the SC ruling did not strike down the entire
Section. Offences against children, non-consensual sexual activity and bestiality
continue to be punishable.
● The judgment means that sexual minorities will get full access to all the enshrined
fundamental rights. They can lead a life of dignity without fear of the law.
● Along with the legal aspects , there is a need to bring in a societal change. There
is a need for acceptance of sexual minorities into society, particularly, families
need to be more open-minded about embracing LGBTQ members.
Movies made on LGBTQ+ Community
Conclusion
This concludes that decriminalizing the homosexuality has ensured the sexual minorities
in India a few steps further in living with the dignity. The undoing of the section 377
ensures more confidence among the LGBTQ community which leads to self-confidence
and steady growth of the country. this shows that the society is changing and it changes
the attitude of the people in general.
05
DANISH CHANDRA
SECTION N

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Section 377 Legal English psda.pptx

  • 1. Section 377 Section 377 of Indian Penal Code
  • 2. LGBT is an initialize that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the initialize, as well as some of its common variants, functions as an umbrella term for sexuality and gender identity. It may refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender, instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant, LGBTQ, adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer or are questioning their sexual or gender identity. In LGBT there is union of two people of same gender i.e. Male + Male or Female+ Female. So there is no natural sexual activity. But there is private consensual homosexual acts/sex between adults of same gender. which were considered ‘unnatural’ and punishable under Section 377 IPC. 03
  • 3. – Zanele Muholi, South African visual artist “If I wait for someone else to validate my existence, it will mean that I’m shortchanging myself.” 04
  • 4. What is Section 377 of IPC? Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code states “whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal shall be punished”. This was a colonial-era law that was at odds with modern notions of justice and equality of all humankind. Section 377 criminalized the act of private consensual homosexual sex between adults as well. Even some heterosexual acts considered “against the order of nature” are offences under this Section. The Supreme Court judgment in 2018 ruled that this Section’s use against consenting adult homosexuality was irrational, arbitrary and not justified. 06
  • 5.
  • 6. Background of the Debate on Section 377 09  The movement against Sec 377 started in 1991 when the AIDS Bhedbhav Virodhi Andolan published a landmark report titled, ‘Less than Gay: A Citizen’s Report’. The report laid out the problems with this Section and advocated for its repeal.  The second, more recent attempt in this direction was by the NGO, the Naz Foundation.  In 2001, the group filed a PIL in the Delhi High Court that sought to legitimize homosexual union between two consenting adults.  This case was dismissed by a 2-judge bench in 2004.  As a result of the SC ordering the Delhi High Court to hear the case again, in 2009, the Delhi HC decriminalized homosexuality by ruling that consenting homosexual intercourse between adults is not illegal.  This verdict declared Section 377 to be in violation of Articles 21, 14 and 15 of the Constitution of India.  This verdict was challenged in the SC by an astrologer and journalist named Suresh Kumar Koushal.
  • 7. 10  In 2013, an SC bench upheld the appeal by Koushal and reversed the earlier ruling that decriminalized homosexuality.  This verdict stated that it was up to the Parliament to consider whether the Section should be deleted from the statute books or not.  This verdict was met with a lot of criticism from the LGBTQ community in India and abroad, and activists observed it is a “Global Day of Rage”.  Many review petitions were quashed and in 2016, the SC referred a curative plea to a five-judge Bench.  There were two landmark SC judgments that acted as a shot in the arm for the case against Section 377.  One was in 2014 when the SC gave the transgender community the right to be called the third gender in the NALSA judgment.  The second one was in 2017 when the SC, in the Puttaswamy judgment, stated that the right to privacy is a fundamental right. This order stated that privacy included the sanctity of family life, the preservation of personal intimacies, marriage, procreation, the home and sexual orientation.  In 2018, the issue was reopened by a Constitution Bench which said that a section of people could not live in fear of the law which undermined their rights to privacy and dignity and to choose.  The petitioners had alleged that the presence of Section 377 of the IPC meant that equality, dignity, fraternity, liberty and life guaranteed by the Constitution were not extended to them.
  • 8. Arguments in Favour of Repealing Sec 377 08 Fundamental Rights Section 377 criminalized a section of society for being a sexual minority. The petitioners argued that the right to sexuality, sexual autonomy and freedom were indispensable to human dignity. Health Issues Due to the criminalization of homosexuality, a section of the society could not get adequate access to health care. It created barriers in the effective prevention, testing and treatment of AIDS/HIV. Issue of Law Vs. Morality Many argued that what was forbidden in most religions, and by traditional mores need not be forbidden in the eyes of the law, which saw everybody equally. Section 377 and Child Abuse There was criticism from child rights activists that the repealing of this Section would be a problem for tackling child abuse cases. But, the enactment of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012 did away with the need for this Section to deal with cases of child abuse. POCSO is more stringent as well as child-friendly. Implications for Heterosexuals Section 377 included some consensual acts between heterosexuals, which were considered ‘unnatural’ and punishable.
  • 9. Arguments against Repealing Sec 377 19 There are certain groups who were against the repealing of this Section. Many religious groups and denominations were against this contending that homosexuality was against God and religious mores. There was also another criticism of repealing the Section, that legalizing homosexuality would spread diseases such as AIDS, and cause a health hazard in the country.
  • 10. Impact of Decriminalising Homosexuality 07 ● Before the Section was repealed, people belonging to the LGBTQ community used to complain of harassment by law enforcement agencies, owing to the Section. This has come to an end since legally, homosexuality is no longer a crime in India. ● It is important to remember that the SC ruling did not strike down the entire Section. Offences against children, non-consensual sexual activity and bestiality continue to be punishable. ● The judgment means that sexual minorities will get full access to all the enshrined fundamental rights. They can lead a life of dignity without fear of the law. ● Along with the legal aspects , there is a need to bring in a societal change. There is a need for acceptance of sexual minorities into society, particularly, families need to be more open-minded about embracing LGBTQ members.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Movies made on LGBTQ+ Community
  • 14. Conclusion This concludes that decriminalizing the homosexuality has ensured the sexual minorities in India a few steps further in living with the dignity. The undoing of the section 377 ensures more confidence among the LGBTQ community which leads to self-confidence and steady growth of the country. this shows that the society is changing and it changes the attitude of the people in general.