Sexual Disorders - Abnormal Psychology


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For sharing purposes. All on the focus on what are the common Sexual Disorders seen on the DSM-IV-TR, last 2011. Fully editable. Pictures seen in the presentation are from artists of DeviantArt and Google Search, Credits goes to them as well.

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Sexual Disorders - Abnormal Psychology

  1. 1. Sexual Disorders<br />Paraphilias, Gender Identity, and Sexual Dysfunctions<br />Prepared by:<br /> Russell Resti L. de Villa<br /> Kristina Fe L. Magtibay<br />RheamaeLalusin<br />
  2. 2. What is Abnormal Sexual Behavior?<br />Let us assume a sexual behavior is a psychological disorder if:<br /> - It causes harm to other people, or;<br /> - It causes an individual to experience persistent or recurrent distress or important areas of functioning.<br />
  3. 3. What is Abnormal Sexual Behavior?<br />When evaluating a given sexual behavior, the contest is extremely important, as are customs and mores, which change over time. Many attitudes and behaviors related to sex have changed in recent decades.<br />
  4. 4. Abnormal Sexual Behaviors<br />Paraphilia. Gender Identity Disorder and Sexual Dysfunctions<br />
  5. 5. Paraphilias<br />Para meaning “abnormal” and philiameaning “attraction”, Literally, “Abnormal Attraction”<br />
  6. 6. Paraphilia<br />“Para” meaning ‘Faulty’ or ‘Abnormal’, and “Philia” meaning “Attraction’<br />These are disorders in which an individual has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors involving (1) Non-human objects, (2) Children or other non-consenting persons and (3) suffering or humiliation of one’s self or partner<br />
  7. 7. Characteristics of persons with a Paraphilia<br />Usually lasts for 6 months.<br />Always thinking to carry out their unusual behavior.<br />Overly obsessed that if the individual cannot get to their desired object, they get stressed.<br />The individual will lose sight of other goals and concentrate of the fulfillment of their sexual desires if worse.<br />It causes intense personal distress or impairment in social, work and other areas of life functioning.<br />Except for Sexual Masochism, almost all cases of ParaphiliaInvolve MEN.<br />
  8. 8. Examples of Paraphilias<br />Telephone Scatologia- making obscene phone calls, such as describing one’s masturbatory activity, threatening to rape the victim, or trying to find out the victim’s sexual activities.<br />Necrophilia- deriving sexual gratification from viewing or having sexual contact with a corpse.<br />Zoophilia- having sex with animals or having recurrent fantasies of sex with animals.<br />
  9. 9. Examples of Paraphilias<br />Coprophilia- deriving sexual pleasure from contact with feces.<br />Klismaphilia- deriving sexual pleasure from the use of enemas.<br />Urophilia- deriving sexual pleasure from contact with urine.<br />Autagonistophilia- having sex in front of others.<br />Somnaphilia- having sex with a sleeping person.<br />Stigmatophilia- deriving sexual pleasure from skin piercing or a tattoo.<br />Autonepiophilia- wearing diapers for sexual pleasure.<br />
  10. 10. But Keep in Mind!!<br />Paraphiliasare not fleeting whims or daydreams about unusual sexual practices but are conditions that last at least 6 months. <br />
  11. 11. Pedophilia<br />Quoted from the book:<br />“The most disturbing disorder you will study in this book”<br />Pedophilia is where an adult (16 yrs. Above) has uncontrollable sexual urges to sexually immature children (13 below)<br />Persists from months to even years.<br />Forms of sexual acts against children include kidnapping, sexual abuse, fondling, and penetration or intercourse.<br />
  12. 12. Types of Pedophilia<br />Situational Molesters<br />Normal Sexual development and interest. But when stress calls for it, they sometimes want to become sexual with a child<br />Preference Molesters<br />Pedophillic behavior is already ingrained in the individual’s lifestyle, clear preference for children, esp. Boys, and will do anything (even marry) to hide his behavior, and clearly sees nothing wrong with his unusual behavior.<br />Child Rapist<br />A violent childabuser whose behavior is an expression of hostile sexual drives.<br />
  13. 13. Treatment<br />There is no one best treatment for Pedophilia.<br />Clinicians aim the problem at the endocrine system and usually use Testosterone-reducing drugs to ease sexual excitement among males.<br />Psychologists track the problem rooting from the abuser’s childhood stage, early life experience, and others.<br />
  14. 14. Exhibitionism<br />The person has intense sexual urges and arousing fantasies involving the exposure of genitals to a group of stranger/s.<br />He/she does not expect a sexual reaction from the stranger but finds the shock or fear in the onlooker to be arousing<br />Have the fantasy that the onlooker will be sexually aroused.<br />
  15. 15. Treatment<br />Usually a multi-faceted approach. Involving reliance on learning principles, like counter conditioning or aversive conditioning.<br />Treatment aims to unlearn the connection between sexual behavior and exhibitionist behavior. <br />
  16. 16. Fetishism<br />Fetishism is where a person feels a strong recurrent sexual attraction to a nonliving object.<br />People with this are always preoccupied with the object of desire, and they become dependent to it as an object for sexual gratification.<br />Objects include shoes, gloves, underwear, stockings, swimsuits, etc. <br />
  17. 17. Partialism<br />Another variant of Fetishism.<br />People with Partialism are soley interested in the sexual gratification from a specific body part, examples are feet, neck, underarms, back, etc.<br />
  18. 18. Characteristics of Fetishism<br />They do unusual actions to the desired object, like sucking, smelling, fondling, rubbing, burning and cutting.<br />Have no desires to intercourse with the partner with the desired object, rather, they would masturbate to the desired object.<br />It involves compulsive rituals that are beyond the control of the individual, which can cause distress and interpersonal problems.<br />
  19. 19. Treatment<br />Aversion Therapy<br /><ul><li>Where the individual is exposed to a different sexual stimulus other than the desired object.</li></ul>Orgasmic Reconditioning<br />behavioral method geared toward a relearning process. In this procedure, an individual is instructed to arouse himself with a fantasy of the unacceptable object, then masturbate while looking at an appropriate sexual stimulus, such as a picture of an adult partner. If his arousal decreases, he may return to the fantasy of the unacceptable object, but he is to attain orgasm only while focusing on the acceptable stimulus.<br />
  20. 20. Frotteurism<br />Derived from the word ‘Frotter’ meaning ‘To rub’<br />Refers to the masturbation that involves rubbing against another person.<br />Frotteur has recurrent sexual desires on rubbing into people. Targets of Frotteurs are not consenting people, rather they target strangers.<br />
  21. 21. Characteristics of a Frotteur<br />Obsessed with the rubbing of selves to unsuspecting strangers, finding it sexually pleasurable.<br />Often acts quickly, or undetected.<br />Fantasizes that they are in an intimate relationship with the stranger.<br />Treatment includes extinction and covert conditioning.<br />
  22. 22. Sexual Masochism and Sexual Sadism<br />Sexual Masochism<br />Comes from the name of an Austrian Writer Leopold Baron von Sacher-Masoch. Who is known for his novels about men being sexually humiliated by women. A Masochist is someone who seeks pleasure from being subjected to pain.<br />Sexual Sadism<br />The term Sadism comes from the name of French author Marquis de Sade, who wrote extensively about obtaining sexual enjoyment from inflicting cruelty.<br />Both terms were coined by Krafft-Ebing, a german physician.<br />
  23. 23. Sexual Masochism<br />Disorder marked by an attraction to achieving sexual gratification by having painful stimulation applied to one’s own body, either alone or with a partner.<br />Men and women with this disorder achieve sexual satisfaction by such means like binding, ropes, whips, or injuries.<br />
  24. 24. Sexual Sadism<br />The converse of Sexual Masochism. It involves deriving sexual gratification from activities that harm, or from urges to harm, another person. Seeing or imagining another’s pain excites the sadist. In contrast to Sexual Masochism, which does not require a partner, sexual sadism clearly requires a partner to enact sadistic fantasies.<br />Sadomasochist is the term where in a person does both Sadist and Masochist roles, or inflicting and receiving pain.<br />
  25. 25. Characteristics of an S and M<br />Sadists<br />Have the urge and desire, and recurrent sexual fantasies of inflicting pain, seeing physical pain and humiliation of another person<br />Masochists<br />Have the urge and desire and recurrent sexual fantasies of receiving pain, submissive to punishments, and other acts of humiliation.<br />
  26. 26. Transvestic Fetishism<br />A syndrome found only in males.<br />A disorder in which a man has an uncontrollable urge to wear a woman’s clothing, as primary means of achieving sexual gratification.<br />This sexual gratification has a compulsive quality, and consumes a lot of emotional energy.<br />Sometimes accompanied by masturbation.<br />
  27. 27. Characteristics of Transvestic Fetishism<br />Has recurrent urges and desires to wear woman’s clothing or cross dressing to achieve sexual gratification.<br />The fantasies and sexual urges cause significant distress and/or impairment.<br />
  28. 28. Voyeurism<br />The word comes from the term voir, meaning “To See”<br />A sexual disorder where an individual compulsively seeks sexual gratification from observing nudity or sexual activity of others who are unaware that they are being watched.<br />This disorder is more common in men.<br />The term “Peeping Tom” usually refers to voyeur.<br />
  29. 29. Characteristics and Treatment<br />Voyeurs often get sexually frustrated and feels incapable of establishing a regular sexual relationship with the person he observes. He prefers to masturbate either during or after the voyeuristic activity.<br />Like exhibitionism, Voyeurs usually go through counter conditioning therapy.<br />
  30. 30. Gender Identity Disorders<br />‘Gender Identity’ refers to the individual’s self-perception as a male and female.<br />
  31. 31. Gender Identity<br />The term gender identity refers to the individuals perception as a male or female.<br />Gender role refers to the person’s behaviors and attitude that are indicative of his gender.<br />
  32. 32. A condition which involves a discrepancy between an individual’s assigned sex and the person’s gender identity.<br />Gender Identity Disorder<br />
  33. 33. Characteristics of G.I.D<br />Experience a strong and persistent cross-gender identification, which causes a feeling of discomfort.<br />Experience intense feeling of distress.<br />
  34. 34. Transsexualism<br />Refers to this phenomenon in which a person has an inner feeling of belonging to other sex.<br />People involve in this situation wishes to live as members of the other sex.<br />
  35. 35. Biological, Psychological and Sociocultural Factors<br />Biological<br />hormones that affect the development of fetus, females child is more likely to display stereotypically male gender role behavior during childhood.<br />chromosomal abnormalities, including an extra Y chromosomes in male to female and an extra X in female to male.<br />birth order and gender siblings<br />
  36. 36. Biological, Psychological and Sociocultural Factors<br />Psychological<br />the parents preference for the child of the other gender.<br />disappointment with the birth yet of another son of rather than a girl, may negatively influence the relationship with the boy(Bradley & Zucker, 1997).<br />
  37. 37. Biological, Psychological and Sociocultural Factors<br />Sociocultural<br />it is important to consider various ways in which American society idealizes men & women according to certain stereotypical variables.<br />
  38. 38. Theories and Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder<br />in terms of psychotherapy<br />
  39. 39. Sexual Dysfunctions<br />Refers to an abnormality in an individual’s sexual responsiveness and reactions<br />
  40. 40. Sexual Dysfunction<br />refers to an abnormality in an individual’s sexual responsiveness and reactions.<br />National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS)<br />Master’s and Johnson<br />
  41. 41. Four phases of the Sexual Response cycle<br />Arousal<br />Plateau<br />Orgasm<br />Resolution<br />
  42. 42. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder<br />The Individual has an abnormally low level of interest in sexual activity.<br />
  43. 43. Sexual Aversion Disorder<br />characterized by an active dislike and avoidance of genital contact with a sexual partner, which causes personal distress or interpersonal problems.<br />
  44. 44. Male Erectile Disorder<br />recurrent partial or complete failure to attain or maintain erection<br />
  45. 45. Female Orgasmic Disorder<br />inability to achieve orgasm, or a distressing delay in the achievement of orgasm.<br />
  46. 46. Premature Ejaculation<br />The male individual reaches orgasm in a sexual encounter long before he wishes to, perhaps even prior to penetration, and therefore feels little or no sexual satisfaction.<br />
  47. 47. Sexual Pain Disorders<br />involves the experience of pain associated with intercourse. Diagnosed as dyspareunia or vaginismus.<br />
  48. 48. Thank you so much for Listening~<br />You’ve learned a great deal of stuff about Sexual Disorders! ;)<br />