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  1. 1. VACCINATION Vaccine
  2. 2. WHAT IS A VACCINATION?  Before we explain what is a vaccination and mechanism of it. We must know the general immune system specially immune response.
  3. 3. The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful.  Information  The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to  antigens  toxins
  4. 4.  Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria. Nonliving substances such as , chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles (such as a splinter) can also be antigens.  The immune system recognizes and destroys, or tries to destroy, substances that contain antigens.
  5. 5.  The immune system includes specialized white blood cells, called lymphocytes that adapt themselves to fight specific foreign invaders. ,These cells develop into two groups in the bone marrow.  From the bone marrow, one group of lymphocytes migrates to a gland called the thymus and become T lymphocytes or T cells. , Within the thymus, the T cells mature under the influence of several hormones.
  6. 6.  The T cells mature into several different types, including helper, killer and suppressor cells.  T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity.  This type of immunity becomes deficient in persons with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, because HIV attacks and destroys helper T cells.
  7. 7.  The other group of lymphocytes, B lymphocytes or B cells, mature and develop within the bone marrow itself.  In that process, they achieve the ability to recognize specific foreign invaders. From the bone marrow, B cells migrate through the body fluids to the lymph nodes, spleen and blood.  B lymphocytes provide the body with humeral immunity as they circulate in the fluids in search of specific foreign invaders to destroy.
  8. 8. VACCINATION  Administration of substance to a person with the purpose of preventing a disease  Traditionally composed of a killed or weakened microorganism  Vaccination works by creating a type of immune that enables the memory cells to later respond to a similar organism before it can cause disease
  9. 9. VACCINE  Vaccines are used to boost your immune system and prevent serious, life-threatening diseases.
  10. 10. HOW VACCINES WORK  Vaccines "teach" your body how to defend itself when germs, such as viruses or bacteria, invade it:  They expose you to a very small, very safe amount of viruses or bacteria that have been weakened or killed.  Your immune system then learns to recognize and attack the infection if you are exposed to it later in life.  As a result, you will not become ill, or you may have a milder infection. This is a natural way to deal with infectious diseases.
  11. 11.  Ability to elicit the appropriate immune response for the particular pathogen.  Long term protection.  Safety: the vaccine it self should not cause disease.  Stability: should retain immunogenicity , despite adverse storage conditions prior to administration.  Not expensive.
  12. 12. TYPES OF VIRAL VACCINATION modified live virus vaccine - killed virus vaccine
  13. 13. MODIFIED LIVE VIRUS VACCINE:  - Prepared from either virulent virus or attenuated mutant selected for their relative a virulence or less virulence.  -they are capable to multiply in the host , to amplify the amount of antigen and cause subclinical infection to elect immune response similar to that occurring after natural vaccine .
  14. 14. A-LIVE VIRULENT VIRUS :  virulent virus given by unnatural route or to non susceptible old animals.  Unnatural: Virulent ILT virus given in the cloacal mucous CPD virus into the skin of lambs .
  15. 15. non susceptible old animals Also may given to non susceptible old animals to protect new born by maternal immunity . EX: avian encephalomyelitis .  these vaccine must be given to all susceptible animal to avoid shedding of infection .
  16. 16.  prepared from naturally occurring virus of low virulence .  Homologous vaccine as : New castle disease virus .  Heterologous vaccine as : pigeon poxvirus is used agonist fowl pox virus .
  17. 17. ATTENUATED VACCINE IS USUALLY ACHIEVED BY PASSAGE OF THE VIRUS IN FOREIGN:HOST Embryonated egg . Tissue culture cells .  RNA virus selected that have a better ability to grow in the foreign host , is higher virulence. EX: - render pest virus in rabbit . - Rabies virus in avian embryo .
  18. 18. ADVANTAGE OF ATTENUATED VACCINE : 1. they activated all phases of immune system elicit humeral IgG and local IgA. 2. they raise an immune response to all protective antigen . 3. they give quick immunity in majority of vaccine 4. in case of polio and adenovirus vaccine administration is easily . 5. easily transported in the field . 6. can lead to elimination of wild tripe virus from the community . 7. low cost to produce .
  19. 19.  consist of viruses generally cultivated tissue culture or embryonated eggs and chemically inactivated by formalin or beta propio lactone .  killed virus vaccine generally required more than one dose to induce immunity and periodic booster doses to maintain immunity
  20. 20.  -in activated vaccine often induce an immunity that is less protective and of a shorter duration than that induced by modified live vaccine.
  21. 21. ADVANTAGE OF INACTIVATED VACCINE : 1. they don't revert to virulence . 2. they are safe use in pregnant and immune compromised animals. 3. they give sufficient humeral immunity if boosters given . 4. there is no mutation . 5. They can be used with immune deficient patients .
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGE OF INACTIVATED VACCINE : 1. Some vaccine don't raise immunity . 2. Boosters tend to be needed . 3. Low stimulant of local immunity IgA. 4. High cost .
  23. 23. IMMUNO POTENTIATION OF INACTIVATED VACCINE  immunogenicity of inactivated vaccine , subunit or peptide vaccine can be enhanced by mixing then with :  -adjuvant .  -incorporation into liposome .  -immune stimulating complex .
  24. 24. 1. For a few weeks after birth, babies have some protection from germs that cause diseases. This protection is passed from their mother through the placenta before birth. After a short period, this natural protection goes away. WHY WE NEED VACCINES:
  25. 25. 2. Vaccines help protect against many diseases that used to be much more common. Examples include: tetanus, diphtheria, mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), meningitis, and polio. Many of these infections can cause serious or life- threatening illnesses and may lead to lifelong health problems. Because of vaccines, many of these illnesses are now rare.
  26. 26.  Immunization is defined as the procedure by which the body is prepared to fight against a specific disease . it is used to induce the immune resistance of the body to specific disease. Immunization is of two types : 1.passive immunization. 2. active immunization.
  27. 27. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION  Passive immunization or immunity is produced without challenging the immune system of the body .  It is done by administration of serum or gamma globulins from a person who is already immunized (affected by the disease) to a non-immune person .  Passive immunization is acquired either naturally or artificially .
  28. 28.  Is acquired form the mother before and after birth.  Before birth, Immunity is transferred from mother to the fetus in the form of maternal antibodies (mainly IgG) through placenta .  After birth, the antibody(IgA) are transferred through breast milk
  29. 29. PASSIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNIZATION  It developed by injecting previously prepared antibodies using serum from humans or animals.  This type of immunity is useful for providing immediate protection against acute infection like tetanus, measles ..
  30. 30. 2.ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION  Active immunization or immunity is acquired by activating immune system of the body . Body develops resistance against disease by producing antibodies following the exposure to antigens.  Active immunity is acquired either naturally or artificially.
  31. 31.  Active natural immunization Naturally acquired active immunity involves activation of immune system in the body to produce anti bodies . It is achieved in both clinical and subclinical infections.  Active artificial immunization is a type of immunization that achieved by the administration of vaccines or toxoids.
  32. 32. HERD IMMUNITY HOW TO QUANTIFY IT AND HOW TO USE IT TO HALT DISEASE.  In comparison to unvaccinated individuals, vaccinated individuals have fewer clinical symptoms, reduced susceptibility and reduced infectivity. The first two effects of vaccination can mean that each vaccinated individual is protected against clinical symptoms
  33. 33.  From experiments and field trials, the extent of individual protection can be determined by a statistical analysis of the resulting data.  In addition, there is an effect of the vaccination on the populations in which one or more individuals are vaccinated.  This effect on the population is due to the effects of vaccination on susceptibility and infectivity of the vaccinated individuals.
  34. 34.  Such an application of herd immunity is especially important in protecting farm animals.  To plan and evaluate vaccination at the population level, the herd immunity needs to be quantified.  It will be illustrated that it is possible, not only theoretically but also practically, to quantify herd immunity among farm animals with data from small- scale experiments as well as with data from field trials.
  35. 35. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VACCINATION AND ANTIVIRAL.  vaccination: like influenza vaccines prevent or mitigate infections ; induce protective immune response in the body against the viruses represented in the vaccine and also induction of a specific immunological memory against the viruses; can be given long before exposure to the virus and can provide protection over along period of time.
  36. 36.  antiviral: are drug that can treat people who have already been infected by a virus......the antiviral drug is effective when administered within a certain time frame before or after exposure and is effective during the time that the drug us being administered.......;do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.
  37. 37. ANTIVIRAL DRUGS HAS TWO LARGE CATEGORIES  1-nucleoside inhibitors; available antiviral drugs affect viral nucleic acid polymerases. Viruses targetType of analogNucleosides inhibitors Varicella zoster virus Guanosine analog Acyclovir cytomegalovirusGuanosine analogGanciclovir Herpes virusesAdenine with arabinose vidarabine
  38. 38.  Non-nucleoside inhibitors Antiviral therapy as interferon: - .inhibit the viral protein synthesis.  exogenous interferon is not practiced widely why………..?  human Alfa interferon is available as DNA recombinant and has been used orally treat cats infected with feline leukemia virus.  other drug inhibit viral mRNA translation are fomivesin is an antisense DNA that blocks replication of cytomegalovirus.  Methisazone is specific for poxvirus mRNA
  39. 39.  Most of antiviral drug now available are designed to help deal with HIV ,herpes viruses , the hepatitis B and C virus and influenza A and B  the major difficulty in developing vaccines and antiviral vaccine is due to viral variation.
  40. 40. CHICKEN POX VACCINE.  Causative M.O: (VZV)varicella_zoster virus.  Signs: a blister-like rush, itching ,tiredness ,loss of appetites and fever.  A health care provider if the person: 1. has a chronic skin or lung disorder. 2. has a weaken immune system. 3. is pregnant 4. has a fever above 102. 5. has bacterial infection.
  41. 41. TWO DOSES OF THE VACCINE  Two doses of the vaccine are about 90% effective at preventing chickenpox.  When you get vaccinated, you protect yourself and others in your community.
  42. 42.  Children who have never had chickenpox should get 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine at these ages: 1st Dose: 12-15 months of age 2nd Dose: 4-6 years of age (may be given earlier, if at least 3 months after the 1st dose).  People 13 years of age and older (who have never had chickenpox or received chickenpox vaccine) should get two doses at least 28 days apart.
  43. 43. WHAT ARE THE RISKS FROM CHICKENPOX VACCINE?  A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions, Pneumonia (very rare),Seizure and mild problem such as(swelling-fever-mild rash).  Getting chickenpox vaccine is much safer than getting chickenpox disease. Most people who get chickenpox vaccine do not have any problems with it.
  44. 44.  Reactions are usually more likely after the first dose than after the second.  Some people who are vaccinated against chickenpox may still get the disease. However, it is usually milder with fewer blisters and little or no fever.