Immune response & uip


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Immune response & uip

  1. 1. Immune Response and Currently Used Immunizing Agents under UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME PRESENTED BY:- DR.NAVIN KUMAR
  2. 2. What is immunity? Immunity involves the antigen- antibody responses. From the Latin word “immunis”— exempt. Immunity involves the antigen- antibody responses. The immune system produces antibodies or cells that can deactivate pathogens.
  3. 3. The immune system recognizes, attacks, destroys, and remembers each pathogen that enters the body. It does this by making specialized cells and antibodies that render the pathogens harmless. For each type of pathogen, the immune system produces cells that are specific for that particular pathogen
  4. 4. Functions of the Immune System Immune System has 3 main functions: – Protect the body from pathogens – Remove dead or damaged tissue and cells – Recognize and remove abnormal cells that have abnormal cell growth and development (i.e. cancer cells)
  5. 5. The Immune System - includes all parts of the body that help in the recognition and destruction of foreign materials. - White blood cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes, bone marrow, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and spleen are all part of the immune system.
  6. 6. Active immunity Resistance developed in response to stimulus by an antigen (infecting agent or vaccine) and is characterized by the production of antibodies by the host.
  7. 7. Active Immunity occurs when one makes his/her own antibodies. - This type of immunity is long term. Getting the disease : If one get an infectious disease (like Chicken Pox), often times, that stimulates the production of MEMORY cells which are then stored to prevent the infection in the future.
  8. 8. A. HUMORAL IMMUNITY : This type of immunity is due to circulating Abs (Gamma-globulin's also called immunoglobulins) On stimulation, B-lymphocytes divide and its daughter cells are transformed into plasma- cells. The latter secrete the Abs into the circulation. An antibody is a protein produced in response to an antigen.
  9. 9. 5 Types of Antibodies Immunoglobulin G (IgG)—in plasma and tissue fluids; effective against virus, bacteria, & toxins; activate complement; babies get from mother through cord lasts 6 months to 1 yr Immunoglobulin A (IgA)—in exocrine gland secretions (sweat glands); breast milk, tears, nasal fluid, bile, urine, etc.
  10. 10. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)—develops in response to bacteria Immunoglobulin D (IgD)—found on surfaces of B-cells; important to B- cell activation Immunoglobulin E (IgE)—in exocrine secretions along with IgA; ASSOCIATED WITH ALLERGIC REACTIONS
  11. 11. B. CELLULAR IMMUNITY Another way of establishing host resistance is through T-lymphocytes. These cells synthesize and release pharmacologically active substances ("lymphokines") which can kill cell carrying foreign Ags. T-lymphocytes also act against the invader by stimulation of macrophages. This activity of the immune system is known as cell mediated immunity. The peak of activity occurs around the tenth day.
  12. 12. CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY In cell mediated immunity, the t-cells attach to foreign antigen cells and interact directly by cell to cell contact
  13. 13. PASSIVE IMMUNITY Immunity conferred by an antibody produced in another host. It may be acquired naturally or artificially (through an antibody- containing preparation).
  14. 14. PASSIVE IMMUNITY While our immune system was developing, We were protected by immune defenses called antibodies. These antibodies traveled across the placenta from the maternal blood to the fetal blood.
  15. 15. Passive Immunity occurs when the antibodies come from some other source. This type of immunity is of short term. Breastmilk : Milk from a mother's breast contains antibodies. The baby is acquiring passive immunity. These antibodies will only last several weeks.
  17. 17. IMMUNIZING AGENTS Vaccine: Vaccine is an immuno-biological substance designed to produce specific protection against a given disease. Toxoid: Exotoxins produced by some bacteria are detoxified and used in the preparation of vaccine. Immuno globulin: sterile solution containing antibodies from human blood. Antitoxin: solution of antibodies derived from the serum of non-human sources.
  18. 18. Vaccination and Immunization Vaccination and vaccine derived from vaccinia, the virus once used as smallpox vaccine. Thus, vaccination originally meant inoculation with vaccinia virus to render a person immune to smallpox.
  19. 19. IMMUNIZATIONS Immunization: process of inducing or providing immunity by administering an agent Active: production of an antibody in response to the administration of a vaccine Passive: temporary immunity by the administration of preformed antibodies or antitoxins Agents used include: Ig’s and antitoxins
  20. 20. Vaccination: A vaccination is an injection of a weakened form of the actual antigen that causes the disease. -The injection is too weak to make one sick, but his B lymphocytes will recognize the antigen and react as if it were the "real thing". - Thus, he produce MEMORY cells for long term immunity.
  21. 21. Live attenuated (avirulent) vaccines Virulent pathogenic organisms are treated to become attenuated and avirulent but antigenic. They have lost their capacity to induce full-blown disease but retain their immunogenicity. Live attenuated vaccines should not be administered to persons with suppressed immune response due to: – Leukemia and lymphoma AND other malignancies. – Receiving corticosteroids and anti-metabolic agents – Radiation – pregnancy
  22. 22. Inactivated (killed) vaccines Organisms are killed or inactivated by heat or chemicals but remain antigenic. They are usually safe but less effective than live attenuated vaccines. The only absolute contraindication to their administration is a severe local or general reaction to a previous dose.
  23. 23. Polysaccharide and polypeptide (cellular fraction) vaccines They are prepared from extracted cellular fractions for e.g. Meningococcal vaccine from the polysaccharide antigen of the cell wall Pneumococcal vaccine from the polysaccharide contained in the capsule of the organism Hepatitis B polypeptide vaccine. Their efficacy and safety appear to be high.
  24. 24. Surface antigen (recombinant) vaccines • Are those in which genes for desired antigens are inserted into a vector, usually a virus, that has a very low virulence. • The vector expressing the antigen may be used as the vaccine, or the antigen may be purified and injected as a subunit vaccine. • The only recombinant vaccine currently in use in humans is the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine, which is a recombinant subunit vaccine • Hepatitis B surface antigen is produced from a gene transfected into yeast cells and purified for injection as a subunit vaccine.
  25. 25. IMMUNE RESPONSE The specific reactivity induced in a host by an stimulus is known as the immune response. It has a wider scope and includes reactions against any ANTIGEN, living or non-living. It may lead to consequences that are beneficial, indifferent or injurious to the HOST.
  26. 26. PRIMARY RESPONSE: When an Ag is administered for the first time to a host (never exposed), there is a latent period of induction of 3-10 days before Ab appears in the blood. Ab- IgM apears 1st , its titre rises steadily in next 2-3 days, reaches a peak level then declines as fast as it developed. Meanwhile, if the ANTIGENIC stimulus was sufficient, IgG Ab appears in few days. Reaches a peak in 7-10 days then gradually falls over a period of weeks or month.
  27. 27. SECONDARY(BOOSTER) RESPONSE Shorter latent period Production of Ab is more rapid Produces both IgG and IgM Ab more abundant Ab response maintained at higher levels for a longer period Ab elicited tends to have a greater capacity to bind to the antigen Collaboration of B-cell and T-cell is essential to initiate a secondary response.
  28. 28. WHO launched a global immunization programme “EXPANDED PROGRAMME OF IMMUNIZATION” in May,1974 to protect all children against six vaccine-preventable diseases: DIPHTHERIA, WOOPING COUGH, TETANUS, POLIO, TUBERCULOSIS and MEASLES. EPI launched in INDIA in January, 1978.
  29. 29. Currently Used Immunizing agents In National Immunization Schedules as UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME in india. Launched on 19th november.1985 Aimed to achieve Universal immunization coverage of the eligible population by 1990.
  31. 31. FACTSHEET OF OPV IN INDIA Cases in 2011: 1 (last case 13 January 2011) Cases in 2010: 43 Cases in 2009: 756 Cases in 1991: 5,895 Cases in 1985: 22,570 Last wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case: 13 January 2011, Howrah, West Bengal Last wild poliovirus type 2(WPV2) case: October1999, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh Last wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) case: 22 October 2010, Pakur, Jharkhand
  32. 32. HIB VACCINE Bacterial Meningitis kills several in Developing world Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib): 30% -50% of bacterial meningitis Pneumococcus 25- 35% of bacterial meningitis Meningococcus 25 - 35% of bacterial meningitis (except during epidemics)
  33. 33. HIB VACCINE Reduces incidence of Hib MENINGITIS, PNEUMONIA and Nasopharyngeal colonization by Hib bacteria in infants. Capsular polysaccharide conjugated with protein carrier . Contraindicated in less than 6 weeks of age. Vaccine schedule: 6th ,10th and 14th wk. Children over 5 years old usually do not need Hib vaccine.
  34. 34. HIB VACCINE INDIA: Tamil Nadu will be the 1st state to vaccinate all Newborns in the state. PENTAVALENT vaccine: combines with DPT, Hepatitis B and Hib bacteria vaccine.
  35. 35. Hepatitis B vaccine Is a very safe vaccine Very effective Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive the vaccine and HBIG within 12hr of birth.
  36. 36. DTP VACCINE Inactivated whole organism vaccine DTP or Acellular vaccine DTaP Acellular type has less side effects Side effects : Mild Problems (Common): Fever, Redness, swelling, Soreness (1 in 4) Fussiness ,Tiredness or poor appetite and Vomiting (1 in 50)
  37. 37. BCG VACCINE There is evidence that BCG provides appreciable protection against tuberculosis meningitis (50-80%) and milliary disease. Intra-dermal injection. Local lesion, papule, 2 weeks after vaccination. Small abscess might develop, 4-6 weeks. At 6 weeks (crust, detaches, ulcerates) then a scar (typically round and slightly depressed) remains.
  38. 38. MMR VACCINE • Live attenuated vaccine • Subcutaneous injection • Side effects : Mild Problems : 1. Mild rash (1 in 20) 2. Swelling of glands in the cheeks or neck (rare) If these problems occur, it is usually within 7-12 days after the shot. They occur less often after the second dose
  39. 39. REFERENCES: PARK’S TEXTBOOK OF PREVENTIVE AND SOCIAL MEDICINE. TEXTBOOK OF MICROBIOLOGY by Ananthanarayan and Panikar. MOHFW (GOVT.OF INDIA). WHO vaccine-preventable diseases: monitoring system 2012 global summary. WHO | Poliomyelitis