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Inquiring Hong Kong prospective
teachers' readiness for teacher
leadership
By Sally Wai-Yan WAN
Faculty of Education
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Date: 14 July 2015
Corresponding email: sallywywan@cuhk.edu.hk
Website: http://www.sallywywan.com
Paper presented at the ISATT 2015, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Outline
Introduction
Literature review
Aim of study
Why this study?
Research method
Findings
Discussion, conclusion and implications
Introduction
Teacher leadership in curriculum reforms
• Well-proved in student learning and school
development in different countries (Leithwood & Louis,
2012)
• Developing teacher leadership in teacher education
• Teacher quality and teaching effectiveness (Leonard et
al., 2012)
• "Disconnection" between teacher education programs
and teacher leadership development (Zeichner, 2010)
Teacher leadership
1990s “Formal leaders”
Decentralize curriculum decision making in schools and
communities (Mangin & Stoelinga, 2008)
A “new paradigm”(Crowther et al., 2002)
Leadership is no longer bounded to be
positions or delegation of responsibilities.
Teachers “lead within and beyond the
classroom; identify with and contribute to a
community of teacher learners and leaders;
influence others toward improved
educational practice; and accept responsibility
for achieving the outcomes of their
leadership” (Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2009: 6).
Teacher leadership:
Recent studies
“identify those alterable conditions
likely to have direct effects on
students, and to inquire about the
nature and strength of the
relationship between these conditions
and leadership” (Leithwood,
1999:681)
Teacher leadership:
Recent studiesSuccessful teacher leadership is found
to be mainly dependent on:
school culture
collegial relationships
principalship
(Durrant & Holden, 2006; Levenson,
2014)

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Isatt 2015 tl

  • 1. Inquiring Hong Kong prospective teachers' readiness for teacher leadership By Sally Wai-Yan WAN Faculty of Education The Chinese University of Hong Kong Date: 14 July 2015 Corresponding email: sallywywan@cuhk.edu.hk Website: http://www.sallywywan.com Paper presented at the ISATT 2015, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • 2. Outline Introduction Literature review Aim of study Why this study? Research method Findings Discussion, conclusion and implications
  • 3. Introduction Teacher leadership in curriculum reforms • Well-proved in student learning and school development in different countries (Leithwood & Louis, 2012) • Developing teacher leadership in teacher education • Teacher quality and teaching effectiveness (Leonard et al., 2012) • "Disconnection" between teacher education programs and teacher leadership development (Zeichner, 2010)
  • 4. Teacher leadership 1990s “Formal leaders” Decentralize curriculum decision making in schools and communities (Mangin & Stoelinga, 2008) A “new paradigm”(Crowther et al., 2002) Leadership is no longer bounded to be positions or delegation of responsibilities. Teachers “lead within and beyond the classroom; identify with and contribute to a community of teacher learners and leaders; influence others toward improved educational practice; and accept responsibility for achieving the outcomes of their leadership” (Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2009: 6).
  • 5. Teacher leadership: Recent studies “identify those alterable conditions likely to have direct effects on students, and to inquire about the nature and strength of the relationship between these conditions and leadership” (Leithwood, 1999:681)
  • 6. Teacher leadership: Recent studiesSuccessful teacher leadership is found to be mainly dependent on: school culture collegial relationships principalship (Durrant & Holden, 2006; Levenson, 2014)
  • 7. Aim of the study To explore prospective teachers’ perceptions of teacher leadership
  • 8. Why this study? 1. Past studies focused on in-service teachers 2. Teacher leadership in local studies is yet to be developed whilst few focused on the impacts of school-based curriculum projects on teacher leadership and leadership style in curriculum decision making (e.g. Law et al. 2010) 3. Suitable teacher education strategy can be provided to “potential” teacher leaders who “practice their craft in subtle ways that may not be obvious to others” (Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2009:14).
  • 9. Research method A sequential mixed method approach 2 phases of data collection (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007) Phase 1: An online survey (QUAN) Phase 2: individual interviews for further understanding the quantitative data (Quali)
  • 10. Phase 1: Quantitative studyParticipants 69 prospective teachers in the three compulsory courses in bachelor of education programme in one Hong Kong university during the academic year 2014-2015 Instrument Teacher Leadership Inventory (Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2001) 25 items assessing teachers’ readiness for teacher leadership on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=no opinion, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.
  • 11. Demographics N % Gender Male 19 27.5 Female 50 72.5 Major area of study Chinese language education 24 34.8 English language education 17 24.6 Mathematics education 14 20.3 Liberal studies education 4 5.8 Physical education 8 11.6 Others 2 2.9 Year of study Year 1 6 8.7 Year 2 15 21.7 Year 3 31 44.9 Year 4 14 20.3 Year 5 3 4.3 Table 1. Demographics of survey participants. Note: To 2 d.p.
  • 12. Items Component 1 2 3 1. I think being a teacher is both meaningful and important. -.121 .204 .622 2. Individual teachers should be able to influence how other teachers think about, plan for, and conduct their work with students. .219 .519 -.059 5. I am willing to observe and provide feedback to fellow teachers. .630 .165 .262 6. I would like to spend time discussing my values and beliefs about teaching with my colleagues. .742 .164 -.072 8. I would be willing to help a colleague who was having difficulty with his or her teaching. .589 -.152 .112 9. I can see the points of view of my colleagues, parents and students. -.027 .436 .602 10. I would give my time to help select new members for my school. .368 .425 .262 11. I try to work as a facilitator of the work of students in my classroom and of colleagues in meetings at my school. .473 .560 .238 12. Teachers working collaboratively should be able to influence practice in their schools. .315 .233 .549 13. I can serve as a classroom teacher and become a leader in my school. .341 .582 .047 14. Cooperating with my colleagues is more important than competing with them. .154 .090 .689 15. I would give my time to help plan professional development activities. .197 .764 -.021 16. My work can contribute to the overall success of our school program. -.115 .672 .049 18. School and university faculty can mutually benefit from working together. .596 .357 .255 19. I would be willing to give my time to participate in making decisions about such things as instructional materials, allocation of resources, student assignments, and organization of the school day. .523 .477 .150 23. I recognize and value points of view that are different from mine. .549 .238 -.219 Table 2. Rotated component matrix.
  • 13. Number of items Cronbach’ s Alpha F1 “Professional relationship with stakeholders” 7 0.79 F2 “Role of teachers” 5 0.73 F3 “Value of teaching” 4 0.64 Table 3. Reliability analysis of three factors. Note. Scores on a 5-point Likert scale: 5=strongly agree; 4=agree; 3=no opinion; 2=disagree; 1=strongly disagree
  • 14. F1 F2 F3 F1 “Professional relationship with stakeholders” 1 F2 “Role of teachers” .525** 1 F3 “Value of teaching” .337** .387** 1 Table 4. Component correlation matrix. **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
  • 15. Phase 2: Qualitative study Participants 15 prospective teachers with different major of study and year level agreed to participate in individual interviews Instrument Semi-structured interviews Duration : 30 to 45 minutes. Data analysis Thematic analysis; color-coding method; emerging themes and issues (Stake, 1995)
  • 16. Findings Perceptions of teacher leadership Teacher leadership and demographics
  • 17. Table 5. Combined mean scores of three factors. Factors M S.D. F1 “Professional relationship with stakeholders” 3.99 0.42 F2 “Role of teachers” 3.74 0.51 F3 “Value of teaching” 4.24 0.47 Perceptions of teacher leadership
  • 18. Factor 1: Professional relationship with stakeholders Highest mean score: Item 25 “I want to work in an environment where I am recognized and valued as a professional” (M=4.35, S.D.=0.72) Prospective teachers explained the meanings of a profession in terms of qualification, theoretical foundation, as well as practical application. When you trust teachers as a profession, basically there is more freedom for teachers to adjust curriculum, or adapt teaching…When you go to the environment where confidence is given to you, really helping increase teachers’ enthusiasm and passion. (CRT, 6/1/2015)
  • 19. Factor 1: Professional relationship with stakeholders Lowest mean score: Item 19 “I would be willing to give my time to participate in making decisions about such things as instructional materials, allocation of resources, student assignments, and organization of the school day” (M=3.78, S.D.=0.68). Less likely agreed on curriculum decision making due to heavy workload …that’s very ideal if there’s cooperative work, yet…how much time is needed? Individual teachers’ workload has been big…to do so much…[require] so much time to work with others, and there’s no guarantee about its effectiveness. (CRT, 6/1/2015)
  • 20. Factor 2: Role of teachers Highest mean score: Item 11 “I try to work as a facilitator of the work of students in my classroom and of colleagues in meetings at my school” (M=3.91, S.D.=0.66) considered that collaboration is necessary for improving teaching Two brains are better than one brain. … When working together, more ideas can be created. That means, there can be more methods to teach different students as they have different needs. (THL, 27/11/2014)
  • 21. Factor 2: Role of teachersLowest mean score: Item 2 “Individual teachers should be able to influence how other teachers think about, plan for, and conduct their work with students” (M=3.62, S.D.=0.86) Perhaps due to lack of teaching experience Old teachers are very experienced. Some…are of high positions...[who] put demands on new teachers. We are just new comers…old teachers’ thinking is already deeply rooted. There can be big differences in their thoughts about education and student learning. (RAL, 20/1/2015)
  • 22. Factor 2: Role of teachers Observed school practice during teaching practice … [Teachers’] work … is like “sweep the snow from your own door step” [各家自掃 門前雪], that’s because everybody is busy...so much to handle and won’t have time to discuss.…there won’t be so much cooperation and idea exchange between new and experienced teachers. They may not get along so well with each other because new teachers always go with new teachers, old teachers go with old teachers, or certain subject teachers just go with those teaching the same subject. The environment is not really integrated. There’s a distance between new and old teachers. (RAL, 20/1/2015)
  • 23. Factor 2: Role of teachers Lowest mean score: Item 15 “I would give my time to help plan professional development activities” (M=3.62, S.D.=0.79) Common concerns: limited time lack of confidence uncertainty about professional development Teachers always work over time. How can we do much within limited time? This is really contradictory. Some want to do, yet there is so much to sacrifice. Teachers have to get dating or family time…there is so much to do at school. (OEY, 19/1/2015) No matter what activities, they would prefer being participants, not planners. [because of being] incapable of planning [and unwilling to] put efforts in planning as you never know if others like your planned activities. (THL, 27/11/2014) Being a freshly graduated teacher, you plan professional development activities to other teachers with four to six years of teaching experience. Are you so brave to do that? That’s really hard…If you really do so, many others would say something at your back. (ROT, 20/1/2015)
  • 24. Factor 3: Value of teaching Highest mean score: Item 14 “Cooperating with my colleagues is more important than competing with them” (M=4.46, S.D.=0.74) Emphasis on the purpose of being a teacher: TO TEACH STUDENTS (well) If there’s competition among colleagues, you want a higher position…if you become a teacher, is it your wish to get a higher position or teach students well? (THL, 27/11/2014) …there’s no need to outstand yourself in a team. More important thing is to help your colleague do things better…don’t need to compare because the ultimate goal is to let students learn. (VIC, 5/1/2015)
  • 25. Factor 3: Value of teaching Lowest mean score: Item 9 “I can see the points of view of my colleagues, parents and students” (M=3.96, S.D.=0.55) there is some blockage between teachers and students. It’s hard to understand everyone’s viewpoints. Sometimes teachers regard students are immature...students at puberty stage are more rebellious and don’t like cooperating with teachers. Teachers find it difficult to communicate with them. (THL, 27/11/2014) generation gap …little time for them to sit and discuss together. There’s not enough time for teachers to talk with students. So it’s hard to understand and communicate well with each other. (LOT, 14/1/2015) lack of time
  • 26. Teacher leadership and demographics Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. F1 Between Groups 1.704 4 .426 2.654 .041 Within Groups 10.273 64 .161 Total 11.977 68 F2 Between Groups 2.599 4 .650 2.768 .035 Within Groups 15.025 64 .235 Total 17.624 68 F3 Between Groups .896 4 .224 1.013 .407 Within Groups 14.158 64 .221 Total 15.054 68 Table 6. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of teacher leadership by year level. Factor 1 “Professional relationship with stakeholders”: Year 4 student teachers had a relatively higher mean score (M=4.19, S.D.=0.35) Factor 2 “Role of teachers”: Year 1 had a higher mean score (M=4.17, S.D.=0.43)
  • 27. Discussion, conclusion and implicationsTeacher education Prospective teachers’ readiness for teacher leadership in the “Role of teachers” dimension is weaker planning professional development activities influencing others in instructional matters • related to lack of actual situated experience • uphold high values of being a teacher (lack an understanding of “complexities” of the teaching
  • 28. Discussion, conclusion and implications Suggestions: Offering authentic working experiences Providing support during teacher education program (esp. teaching practicum) Taking crucial factors into consideration when developing teacher leadership Time + Workload  level of school support, teacher autonomy, collaboration amongst staff (Ingvarson et al., 2005).
  • 29. Discussion, conclusion and implicationsWeaker teaching efficacy and understanding of professional development: Showed doubts about their own teaching capabilities Lacked confidence in sharing teaching ideas with experienced teachers Suggestions: Empowerment opportunities through current teacher education Development of appropriate teacher
  • 30. Discussion, conclusion and implications Future research Participants: other groups of prospective teachers & a greater sample (to explore relationships between perceptions of TL & demographics) Follow-up studies (due to changes in perceptions during the teacher education program)
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