• Why do teachers fail
to promote quality
PLAN Determination of
DO Determination of
the main causes
CHECK Checking data
1.Token economies as a Classroom
Management Tool: (Maggin, et. al. 2011)
• Token economies are contingency management
• Participants had disruptive behaviour or academic
• The study results provide a credible support for the
effectiveness of the token economies than a single
measure of treatment.
2. Teachers’ Perceptions and Management of Disruptive
Classroom Behavior During the Middle Years (years five
to nine) (Arbuckle&Little,2004)
• The most concerning behavioural problems; minor
infractions and repeated disruptions.
• TOOT (Talking out of Turn)
*discrepancy between primary and secondary school
• use of positive management strategies rather than the
use of disapproval.
• the importance of consistent positive strategies and the
importance of student involvement in the discipline
• Involving students in classroom decision-making
3. The Teaching Gap: Best ideas from the World’s
Teachers for Improving Education in the classroom
(Stigler, & Hiebert, 2000)
4. Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning
of the School Year
(Anderson, Emmer&Evertson, 1980)
• A system that is form at the beginning of the year
• Responding to pupil concerns
• Using basic communication skills (both instructional and
affective) that facilitate classroom management
throughout the year
5. Coping styles as mediators of teachers'
classroom management techniques.
(Lewis, R., Roache, J., & Romi, S. 2011)
• With more “inclusive techniques” such as Recognition,
Hinting and Discussion, it has been observed that the
responsibility levels of the students has got promoted and
become higher, which shows us the importance of the positive
• In contrast, teacher aggression, comprising strategies such
as group punishment, humiliation and yelling in anger,
appears to be associated more with student misbehavior and
higher levels of negative student attitudes towards learning in
classrooms in Israel, China and Australia.
• Finding the most effective techniques to cause behavior
change and preventing the development of classroom
discipline problems is a moderately stressful part of
many teachers’ professional lives.
(Fields, 1986; Hart et al., 1995; Johnson et al., 1993;
Lewis, 2001; Oswald et al. 1997)
• The ability to manage students effectively is a critical
component of teachers’ sense of professional identity.
(McCormick and Shi, 1999)
• Interpersonal communication problems among the
students and the teacher
• Lack of pedagogical knowledge
• Lack of experience
• Inappropriate methodology
• Lack of motivation of the students
• Unenthusiastic teachers
• Low salaries
Interview with 9 Teachers
TED ISTANBUL COLLEGE
1) How many
you got in
2) How would you
inform your students
about a new teacher
“We have a
them in the
trainee. Letting the
3) How do you check students’
homework? Do you have any
routines or rewarding systems?
+/ - points on a
Giving stars or
4) How would
you deal with
points of the
remind them of
their books in
5) What kind of
strategies do you have in
returning the papers?
the mistakes of
and let them
own mistakes Private sessions
questions to make
their own mistakes
small groups, or
6) What are your
classroom in a
Waiting in the
middle of the class
the students to be
An interesting video
to attract their
attention on the
talking in Turkish
in an English
• Coaching system is
*helpful for optimizing implementation
*increases the quality of implementation
* a preventive intervention.
• Intervals may vary from one or two days of
training to a month of coaching etc.
(Becker, Bradshaw, Domitrovich, & Ialongo, 2013)
Get them in & Get them out
Managing the physical environment of the
Develop rules with your students
Explain the reasons of rules
Phrase the rules positively.
Giving the responsibility to students.
• Imece Circles by Hayal Köksal
• Becker, K., Bradshaw, C., Domitrovich, C., & Ialongo, N.
(2013). Coaching Teachers to Improve
Implementation of the Good Behavior Game.
Springer Science Business Media, 482-493.
• D.M. Maggin, e. a. (2011). A systematic evaluation of
token economies as a classroom management tool
for students with challenging behavior. Journal of
School Psychology(49), 529-554.
• Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., & Anderson, L. M. (1980).
Effective classroom management at the beginning of
the school year. The Elementary School Journal,
• Laslett, R., & Smith, C. (2002). Effective classroom
management: a teacher’s guide. Routledge.
• Lewis, R., Roache, J., & Romi, S. (2011). Coping styles
as mediators of teachers' classroom
management techniques. Research in
Education, 53-68. Retrieved May, 2011.
• Ridnouer, K. (2006). Managing Your Classroom with
Heart: A Guide for Nurturing Adolescent Learner
• Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2000). The teaching gap:
Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving
education in the classroom. New York: Free Press
• Wai-shing,L.(2008). Effective Classroom Management.
Classroom management: creating a positive learning