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Exploring teaching efficacy

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Exploring teaching efficacy

  1. 1. Exploring Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers’ teaching efficacy Sally Wai-Yan WAN & Ross Chi-Wui NG Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Email: sallywywan@cuhk.edu.hk Paper presented at the 2019 AERA Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, April 9, 2019
  2. 2. Outline Background of the study Literature review Method Findings & discussion Conclusion Implications
  3. 3. Background ● Confucian heritage cultures → “3T” practices: teacher-centred, textbook-centred and test-centred (Adamson & Morris, 1998) ● Teacher resistance / struggles towards curriculum change ● Teacher burnout / retention
  4. 4. Background ● Teaching efficacy studies in HK ... ○ focus on primary/ secondary/ prospective teachers in certain areas ○ “lower” teaching efficacy
  5. 5. Literature review Teaching efficacy: What? ● Teacher efficacy: “teachers’ confidence in their ability to promote students’ learning” (Hoy, 2000) ● Personal teaching efficacy (PTE) ○ Teacher’s own feeling of confidence about personal teaching abilities to bring about achievement in students (Tracz & Gibson, 1986) ● General teaching efficacy (GTE) ○ A general belief about the power of teaching to reach difficult children (Hoy, 2000) ○ ‘the teachers’ belief that students can succeed or learn’ (Tracz & Gibson, 1986) ● Gibson & Dembo (1984): Teacher Self-efficacy (TSE) measure ○ measure both personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy ○ teaching efficacy as an integral component of teacher self-efficacy
  6. 6. Literature review Teaching efficacy: Why? ● Support educational reforms through building comprehensive knowledge on teachers’ self-efficacy for coping with the “reform syndrome” (Wheatley, 2002; Cheng, 2009) ○ Foster professional development (e.g. Fritz, Miller-Heyl, Kreutzer, & MacPhee, 1995) ○ Check ‘readiness to teach’ (e.g. Housego, 1992) ○ Commitment to teach (e.g. Coladarci, 1992) ○ … etc.
  7. 7. Objectives 1. To examine teachers’ teaching efficacy 2. To explore if there is any relationship between teaching efficacy and school characteristics (i.e. school history, school size, teaching staff size) 3. To explore if there is any relationship between teaching efficacy and teacher demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, year of teaching experience, academic qualification, job ranking)
  8. 8. Research questions 1. What are primary and secondary teachers’ teaching efficacy in Hong Kong? Are there any differences in their teaching efficacy? 2. Is there any relationship between teachers’ teaching efficacy and teacher characteristics (i.e. gender, academic qualifications, year of teaching experience and job ranking)? 3. Is there any relationship between teachers’ teaching efficacy and school characteristics (i.e. years of school establishment, staff size and school size)?
  9. 9. Methods ● Quantitative study using Gibson & Dembo (1984): Teacher Self-efficacy (TSE) measure ○ measure both personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy ○ teaching efficacy as an integral component of teacher self-efficacy ● Schools: 12 primary + 19 secondary ○ 340 primary teachers ○ 520 secondary teachers ● Data analysis ○ Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ○ Reliability analysis ○ Mean, S.D. ○ Correlation analysis ○ One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test
  10. 10. Teaching efficacy Two components:‘Personal Teaching Efficacy’ and ‘General Teaching Efficacy’ → items almost the same as those of the factor analysis by Gibson and Dembo (1984) BUT B15 “The influences of a student’s home experiences can be overcome by good teaching.” → “Personal Teaching Efficacy” vs “General Teaching Efficacy” (Gibson & Dembo, 1984) Findings ● Teachers in Hong Kong tend to consider overcoming influences of students’ home experiences as their own ability instead of challenges brought by external factors. ● Holding that family and schooling are sources of moral and intellectual education respectively, teachers in Hong Kong may conceive overcoming students’ home experiences in the course of intellectual learning as their own responsibilities (Cheng, 2004)
  11. 11. Teaching efficacy and school & teacher characteristics ● Personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy correlated negatively but weakly (r=-0.14) ● Overall teaching efficacy and personal teaching efficacy were negatively and weakly associated with all three types of teacher training (Gifted Edu, SEN, catering to learner diversity) ● Personal teaching efficacy and staff size correlated negatively but moderately (r=- 0.55) ● General teaching efficacy correlated positively yet weakly with years of teaching experience (r=0.08) as well as job ranking (r=0.13) ● *Year of exp correlated negatively and moderately with school size (r=-4.32) and staff size (r=-4.26) Findings Staff size 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70
  12. 12. Teaching efficacy: Comparison between primary and secondary teachers ● Significant differences: Primary and secondary teachers ○ Overall self-efficacy ○ Personal teaching efficacy Findings and discussion → consistent with other studies (e.g. Chao et al., 2017)
  13. 13. Teaching efficacy: Comparison between primary and secondary teachers This difference may be related to … ○ Primary settings: ■ Primary teachers facing higher work demand and requirements to interact with a large number of students ■ Teach more than three subjects across different grades (Yin, Huang, & Lee, 2017) ○ Higher societal expectations: ■ Primary teachers are expected to provide quality education for younger children when compared to secondary teachers (Chao et al., 2018) ■ General teaching efficacy: Less likely to be influenced by societal expectations (Davis & Moore, 1981) Findings and discussion
  14. 14. Teaching efficacy: Comparison between primary and secondary teachers ● Teaching efficacy of teachers in distinct schools vary substantially probably owing to disparate culture and working environment in individual schools (Hughes, 2012) Findings
  15. 15. Teaching efficacy: School characteristics matter? ANOVA tests ● Years of school establishment → Significant Differences! ○ F(7, 20)=2.701, p=0.04 ● Younger schools (i.e. with 11-20 years of establishment) (M=3.50) < older schools (i.e. with more than 90 years of establishment) (M=3.65) Findings
  16. 16. Teaching efficacy: School characteristics matter? ● Number of staff → Significant Differences! ○ Number of staff → negatively correlated with scores in PTE [F(4, 23)=2.791 (whereas p=0.05) ] Findings This may be related to ... ● Lack of professional learning communities in Hong Kong ● Disempowerment of new teachers with insufficient pedagogical content knowledge (Lee, 2000) ● Teachers’ inertia (schools as complex, chaotic organizations) (Gultig, Ndhlovu, & Betram, 1999; Hawkins & James, 2018) No. of staff Year of establshment
  17. 17. Teaching efficacy: Teacher characteristics matter? ● Teachers’ job ranking & teacher training related to catering learner diversity → Significant Differences! ○ Higher ranking ○ Teachers received training related to catering to learner diversity ● Years of teaching experience weakly but significantly associated with GTE Findings Higher PTE Consistent with other local studies by Cheung (2006)
  18. 18. Conclusion ● Identification level of teaching efficacy ● Comparison between primary and secondary teachers ● Confirmation and variation of teaching efficacy according to context-specific situations
  19. 19. Implications Implications for teacher education and school development ● Identification of level of teaching efficacy ● Development of teachers’ confidence to reach difficult students ● Establishment of infrastructures for building personal teaching effiacy ● Articulation of school/ teacher development plan taking school history into account
  20. 20. Implications Implications for research ● How school characteristics (e.g. school size, no. of staff) affects teaching efficacy ● Relationships between teachers’ teaching efficacy and their actual classroom practice ● Inter-relationships between teachers’ teaching efficacy, epistemological beliefs and teacher agency in the era of educational reform (Chan, 2008)
  21. 21. Email: sallywywan@cuhk.edu.hk

Editor's Notes

  • Adamson, B., & Morris, P. (1998). Primary schooling in Hong Kong. In L. Hargreaves & J. Moyles (Eds.), The primary curriculum: Learning from international perspectives (pp. 181-204). London: Routledge.
  • Adamson, B., & Morris, P. (1998). Primary schooling in Hong Kong. In L. Hargreaves & J. Moyles (Eds.), The primary curriculum: Learning from international perspectives (pp. 181-204). London: Routledge.

  • Tracz, S.M., & Gibson, S. (1986). Effects of efficacy on academic achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Educational Research Association. California.

    Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. The Journal of experimental education, 60(4), 323-337.
    Poulou, M. (2007). Personal teaching efficacy and its sources: Student teachers’ perceptions. Educational Psychology, 27(2), 191-218.
    Housego, B. E. J. (1992). Monitoring Student Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness to Teach, Personal Teaching Efficacy, and Teaching Efficacy in a New Secondary Teacher Education Program. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 38(1), 49-64.
    Fritz, J. J., Miller-Heyl, J., Kreutzer, J. C., & MacPhee, D. (1995). Fostering personal teaching efficacy through staff development and classroom activities. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(4), 200-208.
  • Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. The Journal of experimental education, 60(4), 323-337.
    Poulou, M. (2007). Personal teaching efficacy and its sources: Student teachers’ perceptions. Educational Psychology, 27(2), 191-218.
    Housego, B. E. J. (1992). Monitoring Student Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness to Teach, Personal Teaching Efficacy, and Teaching Efficacy in a New Secondary Teacher Education Program. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 38(1), 49-64.
    Fritz, J. J., Miller-Heyl, J., Kreutzer, J. C., & MacPhee, D. (1995). Fostering personal teaching efficacy through staff development and classroom activities. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(4), 200-208.
  • Personal teaching efficacy (PTE)
    Teacher’s own feeling of confidence about personal teaching abilities to bring about achievement in students (Tracz & Gibson, 1986)
    General teaching efficacy (GTE)
    A general belief about the power of teaching to reach difficult children (Hoy, 2000)
    ‘the teachers’ belief that students can succeed or learn’ (Tracz & Gibson, 1986)
  • Sugiana, S., & Formen, A. (2015). Personal Teacher Efficacy and General Teacher Efficacy in Character Education in Reference to Age, Highest Education and Teaching Experience. Indonesian Journal of Early Childhood Education Studies, 4(1), 51-56.
  • Sugiana, S., & Formen, A. (2015). Personal Teacher Efficacy and General Teacher Efficacy in Character Education in Reference to Age, Highest Education and Teaching Experience. Indonesian Journal of Early Childhood Education Studies, 4(1), 51-56.
    Hawkins, M., & James, C. (2018). Developing a perspective on schools as complex, evolving, loosely linking systems. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(5), 729-748.

    Gultig, J., Ndhlovu, T., & Betram, C. (1999). Creating People-centred Schools. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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