Higher Education:
A Survival Guide
Milisa Sammaciccia Ismail, MEd.
Teaching in Higher Education
6 February 2012
 Foreword ~ Page 4
 Your Role as An Instructor ~ Page 6
 Suggested Timeline: Countdown to Course Start ~ Pages 8-11
 P...
 Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners ~ Pages 24-29
 Experiential Learning ~ Pages 30-35
 Assessments ~ Pages 37...
Education is not a relationship between instructor and students that is
driven as a form of metaphorical business where th...
“He who dares to teach must
never cease to learn.”
~ Unknown
Always Remember: You are…
 A Facilitator: as a facilitator, an instructor is not responsible for merely
presenting the in...
Preparing For Instruction
 Three Months Before Class Start
 Write goals, objectives & desired outcomes.
 Objectives should be specific & measurea...
 Two Months Before Class Start
 Draft the syllabus. It should contain the following elements:
 Expectations & policies....
 One Month Before Class Start
 Develop class session plans.
 Lecture: outline the content to engage students in the les...
 Two Weeks Before Class Start
 Check resources
 Library policies to reserve books.
 Computer resources available.
 Ph...
Understanding The Three Phases of College Instruction
 Pre-Engagement Phase: during this phase, the instructor prepares f...
 Engagement Phase: during this phase, the instructor engages students
in the teaching-learning process/cycle. The element...
 Post-Engagement Phase: during this phase, the success is assessed
after the completion of the teaching-learning effort. ...
The Paradigm Shift: Migrating
from Teacher-Centered to
Student-Centered Learning
“Adult learners desire more than just kno...
 Information & content is relevant & interesting to students.
 Content is built to expand on their current knowledge bas...
The balance of power.
The function of content.
The role of the teacher.
The responsibility for learning.
The purpose ...
 Active involvement
 Social integration
 Self-reflection
 Personal validation
Strategies for The Shift?
The three prominent taxonomies used in higher education are:
 Bloom’s Taxonomy
 The six primary areas in the taxonomy al...
Bloom’s Taxonomy
This taxonomy was originally created by Benjamin Bloom
in 1956 to categorize a continuum of educational
o...
Perry’s Scheme
This taxonomy provides a framework that addresses how students’ thinking changes
over the course of their c...
SOLO
This taxonomy parallels both Bloom and Perry demonstrating that students make
choices during their learning of deep v...
SOLO (continued…)
Relational Stage: students can readily see how the component pieces of their
learning fit together to p...
Six Basic Instructional Strategies
 Self-Directed Learning. The basis of self-directed learning is that the
learning is i...
 The process by which adults question & then replace or reframe
an assumption that up to that point has been uncritically...
 Lecture. This is the most widely used teaching method in adult
education. It is an efficient way of disseminating inform...
 Limitations:
 Experts are not always good teachers.
 Audience is passive (in the process).
 Learning is difficult to ...
 Strengths:
 Pools ideas and experiences from group.
 Effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs
to ...
 Guided Learning. Popular and appropriate for most age groups.
Especially effective with adult learners in a hands-on set...
Experiential learning is not a new theory in higher education but, in
recent years has gained momentum. In today’s labor m...
 Can create a blend of personal skills, acquired experience thereby
broadening , deepening & reinforcing the concepts lea...
Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
PBL is an experience-based instructional strategy in which the problem
itself drives the lear...
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (continued…)
When implemented properly in the classroom, PBL further benefits:
 Development ...
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (continued…)
Recommended steps for PBL through “guided learning”:
1. State the problem & esta...
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (continued…)
Recommended steps for PBL through “guided learning”:
6. Analyze the important fa...
“You can never solve a
problem on the level on
which it was created.”
~ Albert Einstein
Assessments have come to the forefront in higher education with
increased vigor. In an age of accountability there is incr...
 Assessment FOR learning
 The formative assessment that measures learning
during the process and allows for adjustments....
Curriculum assessment should specifically aim to:
• Identify aspects of a curriculum that are working and those
that need ...
Curriculum assessment is effective when it:
• Is viewed as a comprehensive, integral, systematic, and continuous
activity;...
Types of Assessment
Pre-Assessment: these help to establish prior knowledge and
capabilities of a particular subject or t...
9 Principles For Assessment in Higher Education
1. The assessment of student learning begins with educational values.
2. A...
9 Principles For Assessment in Higher Education
(continued…)
6. Assessment fosters wider improvement when representatives ...
Feedback is a useful tool when provided to students in an interactive
and proactive dialogue.(1) Feedback must be tailored...
Written Feedback Is:
 Expressed in learner actions.
 Consistent and responsive to student needs.
 Is perceived by stude...
Effective Feedback
1. Prioritize your ideas & understand their value.
2. Balance the content.
3. Be specific.
4. Own the f...
Feedback for Diverse Learners
Examine the following when developing responses:
1. Tasks and classroom interactions provide...
Today, our classrooms are comprised of a wide variety of students who
represent a rich tapestry of diversity from various ...
• Our role as educators is to foster learning and present ourselves as
positive role models.
• Being fair & honest with ou...
3. Be respectful of student autonomy – the independent nature of the
students and the fact that students are at different ...
Albert, K. (2008). Adaptation and implementation of teaching strategies for the adult
populace (Masters thesis, University...
Resources
Bloom's taxonomy. (2012). Unpublished raw data, Department of
Education, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, ...
Resources
Fawcett, G. (1997). Is a good teacher always a good mentor?. The Mentoring
Leadership & Resource Network, (1). R...
Resources
Sammaciccia Ismail, M. (2011). Teaching and learning. Unpublished raw data.
Department of Education, Ashford Uni...
Resources
McCarthy, P. (1992). Common teaching methods. Unpublished raw data,
Honolulu Community College, Honolulu, HI. Re...
Resources
Wolf, P., Hill, Ph.D., A., & Evers, Ph.D., F. (2006). Handbook for curriculum
assessment. Unpublished manuscript...
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Higher Education - A Survival Guide

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Your role as an educator. Suggested timeline: countdown to course start. Pedagogical phases. The paradigm shift: migrating from teacher-centered to student-centered learning. What is student-centered learning? What's affected in the shift? Strategies for the shift. A word on using taxonomies. Instructional strategies for adult learners. Experiential learning. Assessments. The importance of feedback. Teaching in the diverse classroom. Ethics and protocol.

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Higher Education - A Survival Guide

  1. 1. Higher Education: A Survival Guide Milisa Sammaciccia Ismail, MEd. Teaching in Higher Education 6 February 2012
  2. 2.  Foreword ~ Page 4  Your Role as An Instructor ~ Page 6  Suggested Timeline: Countdown to Course Start ~ Pages 8-11  Pedagogical Phases ~ Pages 12-14  The Paradigm Shift: Migrating from Teacher-Centered to Student-Centered Learning ~ Page 15  What is Student-Centered Learning ~ Page 16  What’s Affected in the Shift? ~ Page 17  Strategies for The Shift ~ Page 18  A Word On Using Taxonomies ~ Pages 19-23 Table of Contents
  3. 3.  Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners ~ Pages 24-29  Experiential Learning ~ Pages 30-35  Assessments ~ Pages 37-43  The Importance of Feedback ~ Pages 44-47  Teaching In The Diverse Classroom ~ Page 48  Ethics & Protocol ~ Pages 49-50  Resources ~ Pages 52-56 Table of Contents
  4. 4. Education is not a relationship between instructor and students that is driven as a form of metaphorical business where the students are the customers and the instructors are simply distributors of a product. Education is a collaborative effort between the two that must be approached with planning and, be focused on student-centered learning. Instructors must develop instructional strategies that deliver required content in ways that reach their students and, deepen their level of understanding through the use of differentiating instructional strategies and careful planning. The primary goal for all higher education professionals is to respectively foster their student’s development in a professional and personal capacity. With these factors in mind, instructors must be able to differentiate in theory and practice that child learners are different than adult learners, and plan instruction to meet their needs. Foreword
  5. 5. “He who dares to teach must never cease to learn.” ~ Unknown
  6. 6. Always Remember: You are…  A Facilitator: as a facilitator, an instructor is not responsible for merely presenting the information to students for memorization. Instead, the instructor assists the learner in understanding the content. This is also known in theory as constructivism. (1)  A Mentor: good teachers have a intuitive grasp of teaching and learning and further, understand that adult learners have different needs than younger learners. They are observational, identify learner needs and readjust or intervene when necessary. (2)  A Leader: instructors are effective leaders if they view themselves as having a unique voice among many voices, share their voice and encourage others to express their views and perspectives with a community of challenge and support. (3) Your Role As An Instructor
  7. 7. Preparing For Instruction
  8. 8.  Three Months Before Class Start  Write goals, objectives & desired outcomes.  Objectives should be specific & measureable.  Objectives should retain the focus on the student.  An effective learning objective will explain expectations for student behavior, performance & understanding. (3)  Select the textbook(s) and supplies needed.  Should fit the objectives outlined by the instructor.  Winnow the possibilities down to 2-5 books.  Read a few chapters to understand the level of difficulty.  Select 3-4 key concepts to examine. Are they will explained? Are they interesting?  Be wary of curb appeal that distract from actual content. Suggested Timeline: Countdown to Course Start
  9. 9.  Two Months Before Class Start  Draft the syllabus. It should contain the following elements:  Expectations & policies.  Scheduled assignments & due dates.  Assessments (pre-assessment, formative, summative).  Special rules.  Syllabus construction should be SMART:  Specific.  Measureable.  Agreed (clearly understood).  Related, with a clear structure & links between assignments.  Time frame. (2) Suggested Timeline: Countdown to Course Start Continued…
  10. 10.  One Month Before Class Start  Develop class session plans.  Lecture: outline the content to engage students in the lessons.  Planning: advance planning allows for realignment in the event of deviation off planned schedule.  Testing: plan for tests. (1)  Select your teaching method.  The most successful teachers vary their methods to suit objectives. For example, they may alter or utilize:  Lecture  Discussion  Cooperative Learning  Role Playing Techniques Suggested Timeline: Countdown to Course Start Continued…
  11. 11.  Two Weeks Before Class Start  Check resources  Library policies to reserve books.  Computer resources available.  Photocopying of exams and/or course material.  Available technology.  One Week Before Class Start  Send students a welcoming email in introduction (if available). Suggested Timeline: Countdown to Course Start Continued…
  12. 12. Understanding The Three Phases of College Instruction  Pre-Engagement Phase: during this phase, the instructor prepares for the teaching-learning interaction with students. The elements involved are:  Needs assessment  Diagnostic activities  Development of the instructional objectives  Instructional module development (1) What do we developed here?  Objectives  Expectations & Goals  Resources  Assessments  Textbook selection  Syllabus Pedagogical Phases
  13. 13.  Engagement Phase: during this phase, the instructor engages students in the teaching-learning process/cycle. The elements involved are:  Situational assessment  Module implementation  Formative evaluation  Crises intervention (1) What happens here?  Instruct, lecture, discuss & interact with your students.  Provide support for additional reinforcement, resources & guidance's  Conduct assessments (pre-assessment, formative, summative)  Instructional adjustment may be made to realign to objectives. Pedagogical Phases Continued…
  14. 14.  Post-Engagement Phase: during this phase, the success is assessed after the completion of the teaching-learning effort. The key elements are:  Summative evaluation  Student remediation  Methodological revisions (1) What happens here?  Summative assessments are analyzed for strength & weaknesses of the instruction and student learning. Analysis of pre-engagement and engagement phases are conducted to measure the level of success in the teaching-learning effort.  Adjustments are made for subsequent classes based on analysis results. Pedagogical Phases Continued…
  15. 15. The Paradigm Shift: Migrating from Teacher-Centered to Student-Centered Learning “Adult learners desire more than just knowledge, and resist pedagogical teaching strategies such as drills, rote, memorization, and examinations. The andragogical model focuses more on the educator as facilitator who makes resources and procedures available to the adult learner.” (1)
  16. 16.  Information & content is relevant & interesting to students.  Content is built to expand on their current knowledge base.  Focuses on the student rather than the transmission of information.  Students can experiment with their learning.  Learning is more meaningful.  Students are more engaged.  Learning is deeper and long-term. What is Student-Centered Learning?
  17. 17. The balance of power. The function of content. The role of the teacher. The responsibility for learning. The purpose and processes of evaluation. What’s Affected In The Shift?
  18. 18.  Active involvement  Social integration  Self-reflection  Personal validation Strategies for The Shift?
  19. 19. The three prominent taxonomies used in higher education are:  Bloom’s Taxonomy  The six primary areas in the taxonomy allow students to demonstrate their learning through the use of: comprehension, knowledge, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.  Perry’s Scheme  The instructional strategies that exemplify this taxonomy involve group discussion and reflective observation at the very core. Students can work independently, then in pairs and then in larger groups to examine data and explore ideas to strengthen their critical thinking skills.  Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO)  The instructional strategies that exemplify this taxonomy involve group discussion and reflective observation at the very core. Students can work independently, then in pairs and then in larger groups to examine data and explore ideas to strengthen their critical thinking skills. A Word on Using Taxonomies
  20. 20. Bloom’s Taxonomy This taxonomy was originally created by Benjamin Bloom in 1956 to categorize a continuum of educational objectives. These objectives are designed in terms of student-centered actions that represent the kind of knowledge and intellectual engagement we want our students to demonstrate. The updated version by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) represents the incorporation of new knowledge and thought into the original framework, which remains as relevant today as when it was created. Taxonomies Continued…
  21. 21. Perry’s Scheme This taxonomy provides a framework that addresses how students’ thinking changes over the course of their college experience. It is more metacognitive and encourages educators to examine overarching characteristics of thinking.  Dualism Phase: beginning students demonstrate a strong preference for simplicity.  Multiplism Phase: as their discipline becomes more complex, students accept multiple perspectives to bear on a particular problem. During this phase, students will show greater comfort with simplistic viewpoints.  Relativism Phase: students experience greater comfort with multiple explanations.  Commitment Phase: students experience greater comfort with multiple explanations and forge reasoned positions despite ambiguity inherent in complex situations and problems. Taxonomies Continued…
  22. 22. SOLO This taxonomy parallels both Bloom and Perry demonstrating that students make choices during their learning of deep vs. shallow learning.  Prestructural Stage: students who collect their facts in isolation of their peers – shallow learning. The response has no logical relationship to the display, being based on inability to comprehend, tautology or idiosyncratic relevance. (2)  Unistructural Stage: students can grasp central ideas but don’t tend to make independent connections between concepts. The response contains one relevant item from the display, but misses others that might modify or contradict the response. There is a rapid closure that oversimplified the issue. (2)  Multistructural Stage: students make more connections but still may not grasp larger purposes involved in their learning. The response contains several relevant items, but only those that are consistent with the chosen conclusion are stated. Closure is selective and premature. (2) Taxonomies Continued…
  23. 23. SOLO (continued…) Relational Stage: students can readily see how the component pieces of their learning fit together to produce a meaningful whole. Most or all of the relevant data are used, and conflicts resolved by the use of relating concept that applies to the given context of display, which leads to a firm conclusion. (2)  Extended Abstract Stage: students can generalize beyond the immediate details of learning to extract optimal meaning from their learning. In this stage, students more routinely pursue deep learning strategies. The context is seen only as one instance for a general case. Questioning of basic assumptions, counter examples and new data are often given that did not form part of the original display. Consequently a firm closure is often seen to be inappropriate. (1)(2) Taxonomies Continued…
  24. 24. Six Basic Instructional Strategies  Self-Directed Learning. The basis of self-directed learning is that the learning is initiated and directed by the learner. Learners set their own learning goals, they decide on which learning methods they use, and they may evaluate their own progress through self-reflection. (1)  Critical Reflection. This strategy deepens content knowledge for the student as they are free to challenge previously generally accepted concepts. The students are free to explore alternatives and various forms of ideas in conjunction with the content. (5) This is a composite of three interrelated processes: Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners
  25. 25.  The process by which adults question & then replace or reframe an assumption that up to that point has been uncritically accepted as representing commonsense wisdom. (1)  The process through which adults take alternative perspective on previously taken-for-granted ideas, actions, forms of reasoning, and ideologies. The use of role place, cases, and simulation are in use in teaching.  The process by which adults come to recognize the hegemonic [or imperialistic] aspects of dominate cultural values. (2) Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners Continued…
  26. 26.  Lecture. This is the most widely used teaching method in adult education. It is an efficient way of disseminating information and concepts. The purpose is to lay foundations as the learners work through the subject. It is most effective when used in combination with other teaching strategies. (5) Strengths:  Presents factual material in a direct, logical manner.  Contains experiences which inspires.  Stimulates thinking to open discussion(s).  Useful for large groups. (3) Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners Continued…
  27. 27.  Limitations:  Experts are not always good teachers.  Audience is passive (in the process).  Learning is difficult to gauge.  Communication is one way. (1)  Discussions. The reason for the gravitation toward discussion learning is that it’s interactive and encourages active, participatory learning. This format encourages learners to utilize alternative ways of thinking & behaving. Adult learners can explore their own experiences so they can deepen critical thinking skills. (2) Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners Continued…
  28. 28.  Strengths:  Pools ideas and experiences from group.  Effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed.  Allows everyone to participate in an active process.  Limitations:  Not practical with more than 20 people.  Few people can dominate.  Others many not participate.  Can be time consuming.  Can get off track easily. (1) Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners Continued…
  29. 29.  Guided Learning. Popular and appropriate for most age groups. Especially effective with adult learners in a hands-on setting. The teacher initially instructs the adult learners in what is expected and needed to fulfill the expectations. The teacher and learners BOTH perform the initial task so that they learners see and understand exactly what is to be done. The teacher and learner assess the results of the learner. (1)  Experiential Learning. This learning is a defining feature of adult learning and should be grounded in the adults’ experiences. It is believed that these experiences are a valuable resource and is cited as crucial by adult educators of every ideological belief. Content knowledge is deepened because students can make personal connections to the material. Instructional Strategies For Adult Learners Continued…
  30. 30. Experiential learning is not a new theory in higher education but, in recent years has gained momentum. In today’s labor market, competition for jobs has become almost fierce and the demand for experienced graduates has increased. Professors are becoming keenly aware and more concerned with optimizing their students learning to make students more desirable when they enter the workforce. We can confidently deduce that by having practical exposure and experience, coupled with the degree in ones field of study, a candidate would be much more desirable. (1) Experiential learning:  It is not discipline specific.  If used in cooperative learning, it can provide a bond between higher education & the community while giving the student applied experience. Experiential Learning
  31. 31.  Can create a blend of personal skills, acquired experience thereby broadening , deepening & reinforcing the concepts learned in higher education. (1) If the following elements are present, then the learning can be considered to be “experiential”:  Reflection, critical analysis and synthesis;  Opportunities for students to take initiative, make decisions, and be accountable for the results;  Opportunities for students to engage intellectually, creatively, emotionally, socially, or physically; A designed learning experience that includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes, and successes. (2) Experiential Learning Continued…
  32. 32. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) PBL is an experience-based instructional strategy in which the problem itself drives the learning. Students work together in assigned groups to solve a problem that doesn’t necessarily have a single or correct answer. Student’s form a group hypothesis based on the presented facts and through research, analysis of facts, and discussion, both problem-solving and critical-thinking skills are deepened while fostering a constructivist learning environment. The goals of PBL include helping the students develop: Flexible Knowledge Effective collaboration Effective problem-solving skills  Intrinsic motivation Self-directed Learning Experiential Learning Continued…
  33. 33. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (continued…) When implemented properly in the classroom, PBL further benefits:  Development of critical-thinking skills & heightens creativity.  A notable improvement in the student‘s ability to problem solve.  Levels of motivation are increased.  Helps the students apply knowledge they acquire to real and new situations. (2) Experiential Learning Continued…
  34. 34. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (continued…) Recommended steps for PBL through “guided learning”: 1. State the problem & establish a goal that will be pursued. 2. Gather information relevant to defining the problem & understanding the elements associated with it. 3. Generate possible solutions. 4. List possible constraints on what can be accomplished as well as factors that may facilitate getting a solution accepted. 5. Choose an initial or possible solution using criteria that an acceptable solution must meet. (2) Experiential Learning Continued…
  35. 35. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (continued…) Recommended steps for PBL through “guided learning”: 6. Analyze the important factors that must be considered in the development of a detailed solution. 7. Create a detailed solution. 8. Evaluate the final solution against the relevant criteria used earlier, to ensure that it meets at least those requirements and others that now appear to be necessary. 9. Recommend a course of action and, if appropriate, suggest ways to monitor and evaluate the solution when it is adopted. (2) Experiential Learning Continued…
  36. 36. “You can never solve a problem on the level on which it was created.” ~ Albert Einstein
  37. 37. Assessments have come to the forefront in higher education with increased vigor. In an age of accountability there is increased pressure for reliable and valid assessments. At the core, assessments should be used to improve student learning and, to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. There are three purposes in assessment:  Assessment OF learning  The way assessments were viewed traditionally.  Summative assessment is held up to a level of institutional accountability. (1)(2) Assessments
  38. 38.  Assessment FOR learning  The formative assessment that measures learning during the process and allows for adjustments. (1)  Assessment AS learning (two-fold)  Students work on their assignments & make revisions as part of the process. (2)  It is used as a subset of assessment for learning. (3) Assessments Continued…
  39. 39. Curriculum assessment should specifically aim to: • Identify aspects of a curriculum that are working and those that need to change. • Assess the effectiveness of changes that have already been made. • Demonstrate the effectiveness of the current program. • Meet regular program review requirements. • Satisfy professional accreditations. (1) Assessments Continued…
  40. 40. Curriculum assessment is effective when it: • Is viewed as a comprehensive, integral, systematic, and continuous activity; • Is viewed as a means for self-improvement; • Measures are meaningful; • Multiple measure sources are used; • Results are valued, and are genuinely used to improve programs & processes; •Involves the participation and input of faculty, staff & students; • Focuses on the program, not on individual performance of educators. (1) Assessments Continued…
  41. 41. Types of Assessment Pre-Assessment: these help to establish prior knowledge and capabilities of a particular subject or topic.  Formative Assessment: these are implemented during the instructional process. This assessment can help identify areas that are in need of adjustment to realign with objectives and goals.  Summative Assessment: these are used at the end of a lesson, unit or course to determine the level of success that has been reached with regards to the targeted learning objectives and goals. The results can be used to guide future learning. (1) Assessments Continued…
  42. 42. 9 Principles For Assessment in Higher Education 1. The assessment of student learning begins with educational values. 2. Assessment is most effective when it reflects an understanding of learning as multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time. 3. Assessment works best when the program it seeks to improve have clear, explicitly states purposes. 4. Assessment requires attention to outcomes but also, and equally to, the experiences that lead to those outcomes. 5. Assessment works best when it is ongoing, not episodic. (1) Assessments Continued…
  43. 43. 9 Principles For Assessment in Higher Education (continued…) 6. Assessment fosters wider improvement when representatives from across the educational community are involved. 7. Assessment makes a difference when it begins with issues of use and illuminates questions that people really care about. 8. Assessment is most likely to lead to improvement when it is a part of a larger set of conditions that promote change. 9. Through assessment, educators meet responsibilities to students and to the public. (1) Assessments Continued…
  44. 44. Feedback is a useful tool when provided to students in an interactive and proactive dialogue.(1) Feedback must be tailored to meet the student needs; be supplemented by feedback from other sources thereby varying the types of feedback; be geared towards strengthening the students’ ability to assess their own work with a long-term purpose; and, feedback conditions should encourage and motivate students to seek feedback and put it to use. (2) Written Feedback Should Be:  Understandable  Selective  Specific  Transferable  Contextualized  Balanced  Nonjudgmental  Forward looking  Timely (2) The Importance of Feedback
  45. 45. Written Feedback Is:  Expressed in learner actions.  Consistent and responsive to student needs.  Is perceived by students as nonjudgmental. (2) Types of Feedback Group needs led-feedback  Self-assessment  Peer feedback (1) The Importance of Feedback Continued…
  46. 46. Effective Feedback 1. Prioritize your ideas & understand their value. 2. Balance the content. 3. Be specific. 4. Own the feedback. 5. Be timely. 6. Offer continuing support. (1) The Importance of Feedback Continued…
  47. 47. Feedback for Diverse Learners Examine the following when developing responses: 1. Tasks and classroom interactions provide scaffold to facilitate student learning. 2. Teaching develops all students’ information skills and ensures students’ ready access to resources when needed to assist in the learning process. 3. Students receive effective, specific, appropriately frequent, positive and responsive feedback. (1) The Importance of Feedback Continued…
  48. 48. Today, our classrooms are comprised of a wide variety of students who represent a rich tapestry of diversity from various ethnic backgrounds, races, languages, disabilities, abilities and, they posses a myriad of learning styles that is just as diverse. In the not so far past, instructional strategies were structured for the one-size-fits-all classroom. These days, one-size fits some but doesn’t reach every learner. When students are being directly or indirectly affected by a lack of variation in instructional strategy, they instructor may be inadvertently sending the message sink or swim. To offset, instructors should involve their students in the development of the objectives and content. By diversifying the instructional strategies, the instructor moved the learning environment form one that is teacher-driven to one that is learner-centered. (1) Teaching in The Diverse Classroom
  49. 49. • Our role as educators is to foster learning and present ourselves as positive role models. • Being fair & honest with our students is an ethic that should be applied in every aspect of our teaching. • Remaining open to student points-of-view & opinion that may be different than your own. Practices that may help divert unethical standards: 1. Try best to be prepared for class instruction. 2. Remain current both in content area & in instructional methods that foster learning. Ethics & Protocol
  50. 50. 3. Be respectful of student autonomy – the independent nature of the students and the fact that students are at different stages of their lives than are the instruction. 4. Be available to our students when we say we will be (i.e. keeping appointment times). 5. Be willing to listen to students’ concerns by giving as much thought and preparation to our interactions with all our students, no matter which level of academia they are at. (1) Ethics & Protocol Continued…
  51. 51. Albert, K. (2008). Adaptation and implementation of teaching strategies for the adult populace (Masters thesis, University of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI., USA). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source =web&cd=4&sqi=2&ved=0CC8QFjAD&url=http://minds.wisco nsin.edu/bitstream/handle/1793/31743/Albert,%20Keith.pdf?seq uence=1&rct=j&q=andragogical instructional strategies&ei=WMC cTtjCCMLe0QHU-L2oCQ&usg=AFQjCNHlRySzNcI SearLzHI7Ya8riWdDgg&cad=rja Astin, A., Banta, T., Cross, K., El-Khawas, W., Ewell, P., Hutchings, P., Marchese, T., & McClenney, K., Mentkowski, M., Miller, M., Moran, E., Wright, B. (2005). 9 principles of good practice for assessing student learning. Informally published manuscript, Center for Teaching, Learning and Assessment. Indiana University Kokomo, Kokomo, IN. Retrieved from http://legacy.iuk.edu/~koctla/ assessment/9principles.shtml Resources
  52. 52. Resources Bloom's taxonomy. (2012). Unpublished raw data, Department of Education, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, PA. Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/blooms Taxonomy.html Bloxham, S., & Boyd, P. (2007). Developing effective assessment in higher education. New York, NY: McGraw Hill/Open University Press. Braskamp, L. (2009). Professors as leaders: Being open and teachable. Journal of College and Character, 10(6), Retrieved from http://journals. naspa.org/jcc/vol10/iss6/2/ Constructivism (learning theory). (2012, January 30). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory) Cooper, S. (2009). Theories of learning in educational psychology. Retrieved from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/knowls.html Coyne, M., Kameenui, E, & Carnine, D (1998). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. Earl, L.M. (2003) Assessment as Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  53. 53. Resources Fawcett, G. (1997). Is a good teacher always a good mentor?. The Mentoring Leadership & Resource Network, (1). Retrieved from http://www.mentors.net/03journal/j1_gt_chr_gmentor.html Fontes, L., Neto, F., & Pontes, A.. (2011). A Multiagent System to Support Problem-Based Learning. Creative Education, 2(5), 452-457. Retrieved January 27, 2012, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2554379631). Sammaciccia Ismail, M. (2011). Assessments in curriculum design. Unpublished raw data. Dept. of Education, Ashford University, Clinton, IA. Sammaciccia Ismail, M. (2011). Effective pedagogy. Unpublished raw data. Dept. of Education, Ashford University, Clinton, IA. Sammaciccia Ismail, M. (2012). Feedback. Unpublished raw data. Dept. of Education, Ashford University, Clinton, IA. Sammaciccia Ismail, M. (2012). Problem-based learning. Unpublished raw data. Dept. of Education, Ashford University, Clinton, IA.
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  55. 55. Resources McCarthy, P. (1992). Common teaching methods. Unpublished raw data, Honolulu Community College, Honolulu, HI. Retrieved from http://www2.honolulu.hawaii.edu/facdev/guidebk/teachtip/comt each.htm Smith , P (2008). Top tips for teaching adult learners. Ezine Articles.com, Retrieved 06/25/08, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Top-Tips- For-Teaching-Adult-Learners&id=1123682 Svinicki, M., & McKeachie, W.J. (2011). McKeachie's teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth. What is experiential learning? (2008). Webpage: University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado. Retrieved from http://www.ucdenver.edu /life/services/ExperientialLearning/about/Pages/Whatis ExperientialLearning.aspx
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