Chapter 06


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Chapter 06

  1. 1. Chapter 6Obtaining Information and Intelligence Hess 6-1
  2. 2. Introduction• Knowledge obtained through questioning and physical evidence is equally important• Questioning can provide leads for finding physical evidence• Confession must be supported by physical evidence or other corroboration Hess 6-2
  3. 3. Sources of InformationOVERVIEW• Three primary sources of information are available  Reports, records and databases  People who are not suspects in a crime but who know something about the crime  Suspects in the crime Hess 6-3
  4. 4. Sources of InformationREPORTS, RECORDS AND DATABASES• Local resources• Auto track systems• Caller ID• Pen registers• Dialed number recorders (DNRs)• State and federal resources Hess 6-4
  5. 5. Sources of InformationTHE INTERNET• Extremely valuable source of informationVICTIMS, COMPLAINTS AND WITNESSES• Neighborhood canvass• Knock and talk• A caution Hess 6-5
  6. 6. Sources of InformationINFORMANTS• Confidential informants• Establishing reliabilitySUSPECTS• Directly or indirectly connected with a crime• Field interviews Hess 6-6
  7. 7. Interviewing and InterrogatingOVERVIEW• Information is obtained continuously throughout an investigation• Interview  Not suspects but know something of value• Interrogation  Suspected of direct or indirect involvement Hess 6-7
  8. 8. Interviewing and InterrogatingCHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE INTERVIEWER/INTERROGATOR• Adaptable and culturally adroit• Knowledgeable about elements of crimeENHANCING COMMUNICATION• Emotional barriers• Other barriers Hess 6-8
  9. 9. Interviewing and InterrogatingEFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES• Two basic requirements  Listen  Observe• Types of questions: direct, indirect, closed-ended, open-ended and leading• Recording and videotaping interviews and interrogations Hess 6-9
  10. 10. The InterviewOVERVIEW• Establish priority of obtaining statements• Main sources of information  Complainant, the victim and witnesses• In most cases, interview complainants first• Record both positive and negative information Hess 6-10
  11. 11. The InterviewADVANCE PLANNING• Review reports about the case• Anticipate how people will respondSELECTING THE TIME AND PLACE• Ensure scene is safe and determine complainant• Witnesses recall details best immediately Hess 6-11
  12. 12. The InterviewBEGINNING THE INTERVIEW• Friendly but professional• Show your credentialsESTABLISHING RAPPORT• Understanding• Careful listening• Enhance rapport Hess 6-12
  13. 13. The InterviewNETWORKING AN INTERVIEW• Establishes relationships• Understand networks in your jurisdictionRELUCTANT INTERVIEWEES• Logical approach• Emotional approach Hess 6-13
  14. 14. The InterviewTHE COGNITIVE INTERVIEW• Tries to get the interviewee to recall scene mentally• Secluded, quiet place free of distractions• Reconstruct the circumstancesTESTIMONIAL HEARSAY• Includes prior testimony• Statements made as a result of police interrogation Hess 6-14
  15. 15. The InterviewSTATEMENTS• Legal narrative• Description of events related to a crime• Formal, detailed accountCLOSING THE INTERVIEW• Thank the person for cooperating Hess 6-15
  16. 16. The InterrogationTHE MIRANDA WARNING• When Miranda does not apply• Waiving the rights• The effects of Miranda• Miranda challenged“QUESTION FIRST” OR “BEACHHEADING”• Found unconstitutional Hess 6-16
  17. 17. The InterrogationINTERPLAY OF 4TH AND 5TH AMENDMENTS• Public safety exception• Right to counsel under the Fifth and Sixth AmendmentsFOREIGN NATIONALS• Vienna Convention Treaty, signed in 1963• Diplomatic immunity Hess 6-17
  18. 18. The InterrogationSELECTING THE TIME AND PLACE• Ideal conditions exist at the police station• Many opinions on furnishingsSTARTING THE INTERROGATION• Show that you are in command• Watch nonverbal communication Hess 6-18
  19. 19. The InterrogationESTABLISHING RAPPORT• Show that cooperation is desirableAPPROACHES TO INTERROGATION• Inquiring directly or indirectly and forcing responses• Deflating or inflating the ego and projecting the blame• Rationalizing and combining approaches• Minimizing or maximizing the crime Hess 6-19
  20. 20. The InterrogationUSING PERSUASION• Make suspect comfortable• Investigative questionnairesETHICS AND THE USE OF DECEPTION• Limited officially sanctioned deception• Interrogatory deception• Professional behavior remains important Hess 6-20
  21. 21. The InterrogationTHIRD-DEGREE TACTICS• Physical force• Mental or psychological abuseADMISSIONS AND CONFESSIONS• Voluntary nature of the confession is essential• Bruton rule• Adoptive admission Hess 6-21
  22. 22. Questioning Children and JuvenilesCONSIDERATIONS• Special considerations exist• First step is to build rapport• Must obtain parental permission• Topics of inquiry may hinder interview• Do not underrate young people’s intelligence or cleverness Hess 6-22
  23. 23. Evaluating and Corroborating InformationBREAKING A “PAT” STORY • Repeats it word for word innumerable times • Difficult to repeat lies consistently • Story becomes distorted with mistakes and exaggerations • Ask questions that require slightly different answers Hess 6-23
  24. 24. Scientific Aids to Obtaining and Evaluating InformationPOLYGRAPH AND VOICE STRESS TESTS• Records several measurements on a visible graph  Respiration  Depth of breathing  Skin’s electrical resistance  Blood pressure  Pulse Hess 6-24
  25. 25. Use of Psychics and ProfilersSOURCES FOR LEADS• Psychics popularized by television• Use of psychics in investigations is controversial• Profilers are more commonly accepted• Profiling combines art and science Hess 6-25
  26. 26. Sharing InformationINTERAGENCY COMPATABILITY• Obstacles to overcome• Some sharing efforts  One DOJ initiative  Law Enforcement National Data Exchange (N-DEx)  CrimeCog Hess 6-26
  27. 27. Information versus IntelligenceDATA VALUE• Information is simply data• Data must have value• Information plus analysis• Applying analytical skills Hess 6-27
  28. 28. Summary• The ultimate goal of interviewing and interrogating is to determine the truth• Two basic requirements to obtain information are to listen and to observe• Interview anyone other than a suspect who has information about the case• Special considerations are also observed when questioning children and youths• You can sometimes use scientific aids Hess 6-28