Consider your audience’s             four broader goals:• security• recognition• professional growth• connectedness     Ch...
Work within eight constraints:• ethical• legal• political• informational• personnel• financial• time• format and tone     ...
Follow six steps to       craft a persuasive argument:• Identify the elements of a persuasive  argument.• Use the right ki...
Understand the three elements      of a persuasive argument:• The claim—the idea you are communicating.• The evidence—the ...
Use the right kinds of evidence:• “commonsense” arguments• numerical data• examples• expert testimony     Chapter 8. Commu...
Consider three ways of meeting possible     objections to your argument:• Show that the opposing argument is based on  ill...
Understand the role of culture in persuasion:  • Know what each culture regards as a    persuasive argument.  • Know how e...
Avoid ten common logical fallacies:• ad hominem argument, or argument against  the speaker• argument from ignorance• appea...
Avoid ten common logical fallacies (cont.):• either-or argument• ad populum argument, or bandwagon  argument• hasty genera...
Demonstrate four characteristics    when creating a professional persona:•   cooperativeness•   moderation•   fair-mindedn...
An example of using words and images      to create a persuasive argumentCaption: “A young boy works 12-hour days packing ...
An example of using an imageto convey technical evidence Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2008 <www.iihs.or...
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Ch08 slides

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Prof. Wozencraft
ENG227

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Ch08 slides

  1. 1. Consider your audience’s four broader goals:• security• recognition• professional growth• connectedness Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 1
  2. 2. Work within eight constraints:• ethical• legal• political• informational• personnel• financial• time• format and tone Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 2
  3. 3. Follow six steps to craft a persuasive argument:• Identify the elements of a persuasive argument.• Use the right kinds of evidence.• Consider opposing viewpoints.• Appeal to emotions responsibly.• Decide where to present the claim.• Understand the role of culture in persuasion. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  4. 4. Understand the three elements of a persuasive argument:• The claim—the idea you are communicating.• The evidence—the facts and judgments that support your claim.• The reasoning—the logic that you use to derive the claim from the evidence. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Use the right kinds of evidence:• “commonsense” arguments• numerical data• examples• expert testimony Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Consider three ways of meeting possible objections to your argument:• Show that the opposing argument is based on illogical reasoning or on inaccurate or incomplete facts.• Show that the opposing argument is valid but less powerful than your own.• Show how the two arguments can be reconciled. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Understand the role of culture in persuasion: • Know what each culture regards as a persuasive argument. • Know how each culture structures a persuasive argument. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Avoid ten common logical fallacies:• ad hominem argument, or argument against the speaker• argument from ignorance• appeal to pity• argument from authority• circular argument, or begging the question Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. Avoid ten common logical fallacies (cont.):• either-or argument• ad populum argument, or bandwagon argument• hasty generalization, or inadequate sampling• post hoc reasoning• oversimplifying Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Demonstrate four characteristics when creating a professional persona:• cooperativeness• moderation• fair-mindedness• modesty Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. An example of using words and images to create a persuasive argumentCaption: “A young boy works 12-hour days packing mud bricks in Liberia.” Source: U.S. Department of State, 2009 <www.state.gov/documents/organization/123360.pdf>. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. An example of using an imageto convey technical evidence Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2008 <www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id5867>.Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12

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