Chapter 01


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Chapter 01

  1. 1. Chapter 1Criminal Investigation: An Overview Hess 1-1
  2. 2. Introduction• An observant police officer can initiate an important criminal investigation• Criminal investigation combines art and science• Requires extraordinary preparation and training• High-tech society• Citizens expect results more quickly• Investigators need to step up their technology and teamwork skills Hess 1-2
  3. 3. A Brief History of Criminal InvestigationHISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE• Bow Street Runners• Vidocq Society• Scotland Yard• Pinkerton NationalDetective Agency• Major advances in criminal investigation Hess 1-3
  4. 4. Criminal Investigation DefinitionsKEY DEFINITIONS• Investigate  Derived from Latin, vestigare, meaning to track or trace• Criminal investigation  Discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying and presenting evidence• Deductive reasoning  Logical process; conclusion follows from specific facts Hess 1-4
  5. 5. Other Terms DefinedSPECIFIC TERMS• Criminalist• Forensic science• Crime• Felony• Misdemeanor Continued Hess 1-5
  6. 6. Other Terms Defined (Continued)SPECIFIC TERMS• Criminal statute• Ordinance• Elements of the crime• Criminal intent• Modus operandi, or MO Hess 1-6
  7. 7. Goals of Criminal InvestigationsSUCCESSFUL INVESTIGATIONS• Determine whether a crime has been committed• Legally obtain information and evidence to identify the responsible person• Arrest the suspect• Recover stolen property• Present the best possible case to the prosecutor Hess 1-7
  8. 8. Basic Functions of InvestigatorsINVESTIGATOR FUNCTIONS• Provide emergency assistance• Secure the crime scene• Photograph, videotape and sketch• Take notes and write reports• Search for, obtain and process physical evidence Continued Hess 1-8
  9. 9. Basic Functions of Investigators (Continued)INVESTIGATOR FUNCTIONS• Obtain information from witnesses and suspects• Identify suspects• Conduct raids, surveillances, stakeouts and undercover assignments• Testify in court Hess 1-9
  10. 10. Characteristics of an Effective Investigator SPECIFIC CHARACTER TRAITS • Intellectual • Psychological • Physical Hess 1-10
  11. 11. An Overview of the Investigative ProcessINVESTIGATIVE PROCESS• Usually initiated by personal observation or information from a citizen• Starts with a direction to proceed to a scene• Department policy defines who responds• Department policy defines duties of individuals Hess 1-11
  12. 12. The Preliminary Investigation: Basic ConsiderationsTHE INITIAL RESPONSE• Suspect may still be at or near the scene• Injured persons may need emergency care• Witnesses may still be at the scene• Dying person may have confession/information• Weather may change/destroy evidence• Crime scene may be altered Hess 1-12
  13. 13. The Preliminary Investigation: Basic ConsiderationsPOINT OF ARRIVAL• Scene may be either utter confusion or desertedSETTING PRIORITIES• Handle emergencies first• Secure the scene• Investigate Hess 1-13
  14. 14. The Preliminary Investigation: Basic ConsiderationsHANDLING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS• Sometimes emergencies dictate procedure• Emergency situations causes the adrenaline to flowSUSPECT AT OR NEAR THE SCENE• Policy determines interrogations• Miranda warning Hess 1-14
  15. 15. The Preliminary Investigation: Basic ConsiderationsPERSON IS SERIOUSLY INJURED• Emergency first aid• Call for medical assistance• Accompany suspects to hospitalDEAD BODY AT SCENE• Leave the body as found• Preserve the scene Hess 1-15
  16. 16. The Preliminary Investigation: Basic ConsiderationsPROTECTING THE CRIME SCENE• Major responsibility of the first officers to arrive• Locard’s principle of exchange• Scene is critical• Maintain security• Protect from destruction oralteration from the elements Hess 1-16
  17. 17. The Preliminary Investigation: Basic ConsiderationsCONDUCTING THE PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION• Questioning• Neighborhood canvass• Measuring, photographing,videotaping and sketching• Searching for evidence• Processing physical evidence• Recording all statements Hess 1-17
  18. 18. Crime Scene InvestigatorsSCIENTIFIC SPECIALIST• Specialist in organized scientific collection and processing of evidence• Processes and packages all physical evidence• Attends and documents autopsies• Writes reports and testifies in court• Crime scene technology degree Hess 1-18
  19. 19. The Follow-Up InvestigationFACTORS FOR FOLLOW-UP• Many cases require a follow-up investigation• Factors exist that are beyond the officers’ control• Weather can destroy evidence• Witnesses can be uncooperative• Follow-up phase builds on what was learned Hess 1-19
  20. 20. Computer-Aided InvestigationCRIME ANALYSIS, MAPPING AND GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS• Crime mapping and hot spotsDATA MINING• Sifting through information• Helps narrow the field of possible suspects Hess 1-20
  21. 21. Problem-Oriented PolicingDEPARTMENT-WIDE STRATEGY• Aimed at solving persistent community problems• Identify, analyze and respond• Used in criminal investigations in many ways• Combining problem-oriented strategies with traditional investigative techniques Hess 1-21
  22. 22. Investigative ProductivityPRODUCTIVITY• Interest in the police field for some time• All jobs have some standard of productivity• Traditional evaluation  Number of cases assigned  Type of case assigned• Continuous evaluation Hess 1-22
  23. 23. The Investigative Function:The Responsibility of All Police PersonnelSPECIALIZATION NEED • Criminals and their MOs • Investigative techniques • Leaving assigned shifts • Heavy patrol workloads • Increasing efficiency Hess 1-23
  24. 24. Interrelationships with Others— Community PolicingCOMMUNITY POLICING RELATIONSHIPS• Uniformed patrol, dispatchers, prosecutors• Physicians, coroners and medical examiners• Forensic crime laboratories• Citizens, victims, witnesses, media Hess 1-24
  25. 25. Major-Case Task ForcesCOMBINED TASK FORCES• Necessary for many crimes involving drugs, gangs and terrorism• Multidisciplinary approach• Multijurisdictional investigation• Metro crime teams• Special investigation units Hess 1-25
  26. 26. Law Enforcement ResourcesFEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT• Numerous resources• Aid local and state agenciesINTERPOL• International Criminal Police Organization• Computerized database is available to law enforcement agencies worldwide Hess 1-26
  27. 27. Avoiding Civil LiabilityCIVIL LIABILITY• Effective policies and procedures clearly communicated to all• Thorough and continuous training• Proper supervision and discipline• Accurate, thorough police reports Hess 1-27
  28. 28. Summary• Determine whether a crime has been committed• Legally obtain sufficient information and evidence• Locate and arrest the suspect• Recover stolen property• Present the best possible case to the prosecutor• Cooperation and coordination of efforts are also required outside the police department• Criminal investigation is, indeed, a mutual effort Hess 1-28