Chapter 07


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Chapter 07

  1. 1. Chapter 7Identifying and Arresting Suspects Hess 7-1
  2. 2. Introduction• In most cases, there is no suspect initially• Many crimes are not witnessed• Factors crucial to resolving criminal investigations are called solvability factors• You must prove the elements of the crime• Establish evidence connecting the suspect with the criminal act Hess 7-2
  3. 3. Identifying Suspects at the SceneIDENTIFICATION BY DRIVER’S LICENSE• REAL ID Act of 2005• Driver’s License GuideMOBILE IDENTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY• Identifying suspects directly correlates to solving crime• Reality Mobile’s Reality Vision Hess 7-3
  4. 4. Identifying Suspects at the SceneBIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION• A way to positively identify an individual• Facial recognitionFIELD OR SHOW-UP IDENTIFICATION• Critical element is time• Before questioning read the Miranda warning• Integrated biometric identification system (IBIS) Hess 7-4
  5. 5. Developing SuspectsVICTIMS AND WITNESSES• Many sources are needed to develop a suspect• Descriptions of the suspect(s) and any vehiclesMUG SHOTS• Very time-consuming• Integrated Law Enforcement Face-Identification System (ILEFIS) Hess 7-5
  6. 6. Developing SuspectsCOMPOSITE DRAWINGS AND SKETCHES• Commonly used to draw faces or bodies• Software optionsMODUS OPERANDI• Investigative leads• Check MO files Hess 7-6
  7. 7. Developing SuspectsPSYCHOLOGICAL OR CRIMINAL PROFILING ANDGEOGRAPHIC PROFILING• Mental, emotional and psychological characteristics• Suspects who commit multiple crimesRACIAL PROFILING• Stereotyping• Biased-based policing Hess 7-7
  8. 8. Developing SuspectsTRACKING• Footprints can provide valuable clues• Tracking skill can be developedOTHER IDENTIFICATION AIDS• Yearbooks• Dental and orthopedic records Hess 7-8
  9. 9. Developing SuspectsINFORMATION IN POLICE FILES AND OTHER AGENCIES• People who have committed crime• Suspects• Field interview cards• Interagency information sharing• Informants Hess 7-9
  10. 10. Locating SuspectsSOURCES• Information sources• Victim may see the suspect and call the police• Telephoning other investigative agencies• Questioning relatives• Numerous other contacts Hess 7-10
  11. 11. Identifying SuspectsTYPES OF IDENTIFICATION• Field or show-up identification• Mug shots• Photographicidentification• Lineups Hess 7-11
  12. 12. Surveillance, UndercoverAssignments and Raids: The Last ResortOVERVIEW• Tedious• Long hours of preparation• Expensive• Dangerous• Not routine Hess 7-12
  13. 13. SurveillanceTHE SURVEILLANT• Plainclothes investigator• Ingenuity, tedium, blend into populaceTHE SUBJECT• Whom or what is being observed• Usually suspects in a crime Hess 7-13
  14. 14. SurveillanceTYPES OF SURVEILLANCE• Stationary surveillance• Moving surveillanceAVOIDING DETECTION• Counter surveillance• Usually well worth time and effort Hess 7-14
  15. 15. SurveillanceSURVEILLANCE EQUIPMENT• Has become extremely sophisticated• Global positioning system (GPS) technologyAERIAL SURVEILLANCE• Areas inaccessible to foot or vehicle surveillance• Usually 1,000 feet; do not violate privacy regulations Hess 7-15
  16. 16. SurveillanceVISUAL/VIDEO SURVEILLANCE• TWS technology• Video analysisAUDIO OR ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE• Bugging, wiretapping• Katz v. United States, 1967• Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 Hess 7-16
  17. 17. SurveillanceSURVEILLANCE AND THE CONSTITUTION• Balance• GPS devices• United States v. Garcia (2007)• ALPR technology• X-ray devices and thermal imaging Hess 7-17
  18. 18. Undercover AssignmentsOVERVIEW• Using an assumed identity, or cover• Ruses  Deception as to identity  Deception as to purpose• Good cover is essential• Rookies often used Hess 7-18
  19. 19. Undercover AssignmentsENTRAPMENT• Sorrells v. United States (1932)STING OPERATIONS• Opportunity• Targeted group• Undercover officer• Climax Hess 7-19
  20. 20. RaidsOVERVIEW• Planned, organized operation• Based on the element of surprise• Recover stolen property• Seize evidence• Arrest suspect Hess 7-20
  21. 21. RaidsPLANNING A RAID• Gathering information on the premises to be raided• Keep the raid plan as simple as possibleEXECUTING A RAID• Surprise, shock and speed• Ensure raid is legal• Brief every member Hess 7-21
  22. 22. RaidsSWAT TEAMS• Special weapons and tactics (SWAT)• Also called paramilitary police units (PPUs)• Handle sniper incidents and hostage situations• Execute arrest and search warrants• Apprehend militants Hess 7-22
  23. 23. Legal ArrestsOVERVIEW• Locate, identify, then arrest• Powers to arrest (or search) are restricted by the Fourth Amendment• Most arrests are for misdemeanors• De facto arrest Hess 7-23
  24. 24. Legal ArrestsRESIDENTIAL ENTRY AFTER OUTDOOR ARREST• Entry incident to outdoor arrest• Implied consent to accompany person insideARRESTING A GROUP OF COMPANIONS• Maryland v. Pringle (2003)• Information known at the time of arrest Hess 7-24
  25. 25. Legal ArrestsOFF-DUTY ARRESTS• Department policy• Legal jurisdiction• Not be personally involved• Perceive immediate need• Possess proper identification Hess 7-25
  26. 26. Avoiding Civil Liability When Making Arrests LIABILITY ISSUES • False arrest • Use of force • Less-lethal weapons • Restraints • Use of deadly force • Use-of-force reports Hess 7-26
  27. 27. Summary• Developing, locating, identifying and arresting suspects are primary responsibilities of investigators• Use lineup identification when the suspect is in custody• Exhaust all alternatives before using surveillance, undercover agents or a raid• In making an arrest, use only as much force as is necessary Hess 7-27