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Human Characteristics
Influencing Sport &
Exercise Behavior:
PERSONALITY
What is PERSONALITY?
What is PERSONALITY?
 Personality came from the Latin term ”persona” which means “masks”.
 It refers to the arrangement or configuration of individual characteristics
and ways of behaving that determine one’s unique adjustment to his
environment.
 Personality is who you are. It consists of everything you believe in, the way
think, feel, and act. It is "the sum of all the attributes, behavioral,
temperamental, emotional, and mental that characterizes a unique
 In general, personality refers to the "relatively stable, consistent, and
distinctive set of mental and emotional characteristics a person
when alone, or when interacting with people and his or her external
environment."
Components of
Personality
3. Traits - A relatively stable, highly consistent attribute that exerts a widely generalized causal effect on
behaviour.
a. Physical Traits
b. Mental Traits
c. Emotional Traits
d. Social Traits
e. Moral and Religious Traits
4. Behavior – any related action or reaction under specified circumstance.
1. Habits – reactions so often repeated as to become fixed
characteristics or tendencies.
2. Attitudes – certain ways of viewing things; it may be
positive or negative, favorable or unfavorable, learned or
acquired.
Structure of Personality
Theories of
Personality
The major theoretical approaches to the study of
personality are as follows:
1. Biological Theories
2. Psychological Theories
a. Psychodynamic theory
b. Social learning theory
c. Humanistic theory
d. Trait theory
e. Interactionist Theory
Biological Theories of Personality
1. Early Theories
 Greeks believed in the 4 body
fluids or
“humor.” Proportionality of
these fluids result to varying
temperaments.
 However, no physiological
characteristic explains all
behavior. Human behavior is
too complicated and complex
to explain in a few biological
states.
Biological Theories of Personality
 The unending discussion on Nature versus Nurture:
 Nature-based personality suggests that
of personality are inherited. Thus, personality is
governed by the genes or DNA.
 Nurture-based personality suggests that
components of personality are learned. Thus,
personality is governed by the environment and
one’s experiences.
 Nurture-based personality is supported by John
Locke who proposed the concept
of Tabula Rasa which states that humans are born like
empty vessels to be filled with experience.
Biological Theories of Personality
2. William Sheldon’s Constitutional
Theory
 Studies the morphology and
physiology of the body in relation to
personality;
 Explains three somatotypes:
endomorphy (roundness); ectomorhpy
(linearity) and mesomorhpy
(masculinity). These terms are
borrowed from the 3 germ layers.
Biological Theories of Personality
 Endomorph has Viscerotonic temperament
characterized by affectionate, social, relaxed
personality as well as enjoyment of physical
comfort and sleep.
 Ectomorph has Cerebrotonic temperament
characterized by tense, solitude, introversion,
artistic, and intellectual personality.
 Mesomorph has Somatotonic temperament
characterized by aggressive, dominant, and risk-
loving personality.
Current Biological
Theories of Personality
Personality is determined by multiple, interdependent factors, not simply biological ones.
Jerome Kagan proposed the genetic aspects
of temperament, specifically shyness versus
outgoingness.
Kagan looked into the temperament of
religion by measuring their heart rates and
by observing their body language as they
were introduced to various stimuli.
Current Biological
Theories of Personality
 Marvin Zuckerman proposed sensation-seeking
theory; the biological factors in Sp&ExY.
 “sensation seeking is a personality trait defined by
the search for experiences and feelings that are
varied, novel, complex, and intense, and by the
readiness to take physical, social, legal, and financial
financial risks for the sake of such experiences.”
 Sensation-seeking can occur through adrenaline-
filled extreme sports, like skydiving, mountain
climbing, water skiing, etc.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
1. Psychodynamic and Organismic Theory
a. Sigmund Freud (Psychodynamic or
Psychoanalytic Theory) proposed that
personality develops through resolution of
conflicts as ego arbitrates id and superego.
 Id is the source of impulses and is governed by
the Pleasure Principle.
 Ego is the manager of the personality and is
governed by the Reality Principle.
 Superego is the conscience of the personality,
operates under morality principle.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
Applications of Psychodynamic Theory to Sports
 Freud proposed a set of psychological defense mechanisms with which the
mind protects itself from unpleasant emotional states. One defense with
particular relevance to sport is sublimation, which takes place when we
manage to displace our emotions into constructive rather than destructive
activity.
 Freud cited sport, along with art, as a method of sublimation. Richards
Richards (1994) has emphasized the sublimation of aggressive instincts in
football. Kicking is an aggressive act, and by kicking a ball what we are
really doing is sublimating our instinct to kick each other into a safe and
socially acceptable action.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
b. Abraham Maslow (Self-Actualization
Theory or Organismic Theory)
proposed that personality develops
following the hierarchy of needs. One
must satisfy the lower levels before
moving on to the next level. The
highest level of need is Self-
Actualization which is the ultimate goal
of an individual. Very few people
could accomplish this need
characterized by noble concepts like
altruism, fulfillment, and completeness
of personality.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
Applications of
Organismic Theory to
Sports
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
2. Social Learning Theory
a. Albert Bandura proposed that the
psychological functioning is explained
in terms of continuous reciprocal
interaction of personal and
environmental determinants.
 Personality is formed by imitating a model
(anyone or anything that displays admired
or desirable behavior to be adopted in the
personality). Thus, it is also
called Observational Learning Theory.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
2. Social Learning Theory
b. It (Bandura’s) is related to Burrhus Frederick
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
Applications of Social Learning Theory to Sports
 Social Learning Approach provides at least a partial explanation of individual
differences in attitudes, aggression and motivation. Two applications of social
learning particularly to sports: it explains how we acquire patterns of sport-related
related behaviour and it explains how we acquire a love of sport.
 Social learning theory helps explain patterns of sport-related behavior (i.e.
aggression)
 Social learning theory also points out to coaches and athletes as role models. It also
looks unto the influence of family and the community in general as to attitudes
toward sports and also in terms of sporting behavior.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Personality Traits or Dispositions
 Traits are relatively stable, highly
consistent attributes that exert widely
generalized causal effects on behavior.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Personality Traits or Dispositions
a. Gordon Allport's theory of personality
emphasizes the uniqueness of the
individual and the internal cognitive and
motivational processes that influence
behavior. Allport (1937) believes that
personality is biologically determined at
birth, and shaped by a person's
environmental experience.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Personality Traits or Dispositions
Characteristics that are pervasive and dominant in a
person’s life are called cardinal traits. These are
master motives, ruling passions, eminent traits.
Characteristics that control less of a person’s behavior
but are nevertheless important are called central
traits. Such traits are the ones people mention when
asked to describe another person or to write a letter
of recommendation. Characteristics that are
peripheral to the person - preferences, for example––
are called secondary traits.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Personality Traits or Dispositions
b. Carl Jung’s Extraversion and Introversion
 Jung believed we develop and grow regardless of age and are always moving toward a more
complete level of self-realization.
 According to Jung, much of our conscious perception of and reaction to our environment is
determined by the opposing mental attitudes of extraversion and introversion. Jung believed that
that psychic energy could be channeled externally, toward the outside world, or internally, toward
the self.
 Extraverts are open, sociable, and socially assertive, oriented toward other people and the external
world. Introverts are withdrawn and often shy, and they tend to focus on themselves, on their own
thoughts and feelings.
 According to Jung, everyone has the capacity for both attitudes, but only one becomes dominant
in the personality.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Personality Traits or Dispositions
c. Hans Eysenck’s 3 Factors of Personality Theory
 Eysenck developed a very influential model of personality. Based on the results of factor analyses of
responses on personality questionnaires he identified three dimensions of personality: extraversion,
extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism.
 Extraverts are sociable and crave excitement and change, and thus can become bored easily. They
tend to be carefree, optimistic and impulsive.
 Introverts are reserved, plan their actions and control their emotions. They tend to be serious,
reliable and pessimistic.
 Neurotics/unstables tend to be anxious, worrying and moody. They are overly emotional and find it
difficult to calm down once upset. Stables are emotionally calm, unreactive and unworried.
 Eysenck (1966) later added a third trait / dimension –Psychoticism– e.g. lacking in empathy, cruel, a
a loner, aggressive and troublesome.
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Personality Traits or Dispositions
d. “Big Five” Model of Personality
 Five factors of personality: Neuroticism,
Extraversion, Openness to Experience/
Culture/ Intellect, Agreeableness, and
Conscientiousness
 Sir Francis Galton is the 1st to categorize
personality and proposed 1st dimensional
models
 Eysenck’s 3 Factors of
Personality (Psychoticism-Extraversion-
Neuroticism) was the basis of the Big Five
Model
Psychological Models of
Personality Structure
3. Interactionist Theory
 SpY shifted from the focus on Trait Theories to State Theories. Also, from Trait Theories to Social
Learning Theory
 Moreover, today SpYists prefer considering interrelated roles of personality factors and
situational factors as co-determinants of behavior. One theorist who supports this notion
is Kurt Lewin who believes that behavior is a function of person and environment.
 B = f (P , E)
Personality Research in Sports &
Exercise Psychology
Personality Profile of Athletes
· Griffith’s List of characteristics of elite athletes: Ruggedness, Courage,
Intelligence, Exuberance, Buoyance, Emotional Adjustment, Optimism,
Conscientiousness, Alertness, Loyalty, and Respect for Authority
· Ogilvie’s et al. Athletic Motivation Inventory (AMI) characteristics of elite
elite athletes: Drive, Determination, Leadership, Aggressiveness, Guilt
Proneness, Emmotional Control, Self-Confidence, Conscientiousness,
Mental Toughness, Trust, and Coachability
Personality Research in Sports &
Exercise Psychology
Mental Health Model
· Positive Mental Health and Athletic Success are
directly related.
· Psychopathology and success are inversely related.
· “Iceberg Profile” of Morgan: Successful athletes
possess more positive mental health characteristics
and fewer negative mental health characteristics than
the general population. However, this does not
directly lead to success. It still depends on the ability
of athletes to use these characteristics to their
advantage.
Personality Measures
Use of Personality Measures to Screen Athletes
 The use of personality measures to screen
athletes is not recommended. They are limited or
weak predictors of success.
 Results of these measures cannot justify dropping
athletes
 Personality measures must be used to help
current athletes to determine the cause of
negative characteristics as well as improve
positive characteristics.
Personality Measures
Sport-Specific Psychological Skills Measures
 It is recommended to use sport-specific psychological tests over general ones.
Examples:
1. Sports Personality Questionnaire 20 (SPQ20)
2. Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS)
· Concentration, Anxiety Control, Confidence, Mental Preparation, Motivation, and
Team Emphasis
3. Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI)
· Like PSIS but superior in psychometric properties3
Questions???

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Human-Characteristics-Influencing-Sport-LL0-Exercise-Behavior-with-explanation.pptx

  • 1. Human Characteristics Influencing Sport & Exercise Behavior: PERSONALITY
  • 3. What is PERSONALITY?  Personality came from the Latin term ”persona” which means “masks”.  It refers to the arrangement or configuration of individual characteristics and ways of behaving that determine one’s unique adjustment to his environment.  Personality is who you are. It consists of everything you believe in, the way think, feel, and act. It is "the sum of all the attributes, behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental that characterizes a unique  In general, personality refers to the "relatively stable, consistent, and distinctive set of mental and emotional characteristics a person when alone, or when interacting with people and his or her external environment."
  • 4. Components of Personality 3. Traits - A relatively stable, highly consistent attribute that exerts a widely generalized causal effect on behaviour. a. Physical Traits b. Mental Traits c. Emotional Traits d. Social Traits e. Moral and Religious Traits 4. Behavior – any related action or reaction under specified circumstance. 1. Habits – reactions so often repeated as to become fixed characteristics or tendencies. 2. Attitudes – certain ways of viewing things; it may be positive or negative, favorable or unfavorable, learned or acquired.
  • 6. Theories of Personality The major theoretical approaches to the study of personality are as follows: 1. Biological Theories 2. Psychological Theories a. Psychodynamic theory b. Social learning theory c. Humanistic theory d. Trait theory e. Interactionist Theory
  • 7. Biological Theories of Personality 1. Early Theories  Greeks believed in the 4 body fluids or “humor.” Proportionality of these fluids result to varying temperaments.  However, no physiological characteristic explains all behavior. Human behavior is too complicated and complex to explain in a few biological states.
  • 8. Biological Theories of Personality  The unending discussion on Nature versus Nurture:  Nature-based personality suggests that of personality are inherited. Thus, personality is governed by the genes or DNA.  Nurture-based personality suggests that components of personality are learned. Thus, personality is governed by the environment and one’s experiences.  Nurture-based personality is supported by John Locke who proposed the concept of Tabula Rasa which states that humans are born like empty vessels to be filled with experience.
  • 9. Biological Theories of Personality 2. William Sheldon’s Constitutional Theory  Studies the morphology and physiology of the body in relation to personality;  Explains three somatotypes: endomorphy (roundness); ectomorhpy (linearity) and mesomorhpy (masculinity). These terms are borrowed from the 3 germ layers.
  • 10. Biological Theories of Personality  Endomorph has Viscerotonic temperament characterized by affectionate, social, relaxed personality as well as enjoyment of physical comfort and sleep.  Ectomorph has Cerebrotonic temperament characterized by tense, solitude, introversion, artistic, and intellectual personality.  Mesomorph has Somatotonic temperament characterized by aggressive, dominant, and risk- loving personality.
  • 11. Current Biological Theories of Personality Personality is determined by multiple, interdependent factors, not simply biological ones. Jerome Kagan proposed the genetic aspects of temperament, specifically shyness versus outgoingness. Kagan looked into the temperament of religion by measuring their heart rates and by observing their body language as they were introduced to various stimuli.
  • 12. Current Biological Theories of Personality  Marvin Zuckerman proposed sensation-seeking theory; the biological factors in Sp&ExY.  “sensation seeking is a personality trait defined by the search for experiences and feelings that are varied, novel, complex, and intense, and by the readiness to take physical, social, legal, and financial financial risks for the sake of such experiences.”  Sensation-seeking can occur through adrenaline- filled extreme sports, like skydiving, mountain climbing, water skiing, etc.
  • 13. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 1. Psychodynamic and Organismic Theory a. Sigmund Freud (Psychodynamic or Psychoanalytic Theory) proposed that personality develops through resolution of conflicts as ego arbitrates id and superego.  Id is the source of impulses and is governed by the Pleasure Principle.  Ego is the manager of the personality and is governed by the Reality Principle.  Superego is the conscience of the personality, operates under morality principle.
  • 14. Psychological Models of Personality Structure Applications of Psychodynamic Theory to Sports  Freud proposed a set of psychological defense mechanisms with which the mind protects itself from unpleasant emotional states. One defense with particular relevance to sport is sublimation, which takes place when we manage to displace our emotions into constructive rather than destructive activity.  Freud cited sport, along with art, as a method of sublimation. Richards Richards (1994) has emphasized the sublimation of aggressive instincts in football. Kicking is an aggressive act, and by kicking a ball what we are really doing is sublimating our instinct to kick each other into a safe and socially acceptable action.
  • 15. Psychological Models of Personality Structure b. Abraham Maslow (Self-Actualization Theory or Organismic Theory) proposed that personality develops following the hierarchy of needs. One must satisfy the lower levels before moving on to the next level. The highest level of need is Self- Actualization which is the ultimate goal of an individual. Very few people could accomplish this need characterized by noble concepts like altruism, fulfillment, and completeness of personality.
  • 16. Psychological Models of Personality Structure Applications of Organismic Theory to Sports
  • 17. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 2. Social Learning Theory a. Albert Bandura proposed that the psychological functioning is explained in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction of personal and environmental determinants.  Personality is formed by imitating a model (anyone or anything that displays admired or desirable behavior to be adopted in the personality). Thus, it is also called Observational Learning Theory.
  • 18. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 2. Social Learning Theory b. It (Bandura’s) is related to Burrhus Frederick
  • 19. Psychological Models of Personality Structure Applications of Social Learning Theory to Sports  Social Learning Approach provides at least a partial explanation of individual differences in attitudes, aggression and motivation. Two applications of social learning particularly to sports: it explains how we acquire patterns of sport-related related behaviour and it explains how we acquire a love of sport.  Social learning theory helps explain patterns of sport-related behavior (i.e. aggression)  Social learning theory also points out to coaches and athletes as role models. It also looks unto the influence of family and the community in general as to attitudes toward sports and also in terms of sporting behavior.
  • 20. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Personality Traits or Dispositions  Traits are relatively stable, highly consistent attributes that exert widely generalized causal effects on behavior.
  • 21. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Personality Traits or Dispositions a. Gordon Allport's theory of personality emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the internal cognitive and motivational processes that influence behavior. Allport (1937) believes that personality is biologically determined at birth, and shaped by a person's environmental experience.
  • 22. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Personality Traits or Dispositions Characteristics that are pervasive and dominant in a person’s life are called cardinal traits. These are master motives, ruling passions, eminent traits. Characteristics that control less of a person’s behavior but are nevertheless important are called central traits. Such traits are the ones people mention when asked to describe another person or to write a letter of recommendation. Characteristics that are peripheral to the person - preferences, for example–– are called secondary traits.
  • 23. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Personality Traits or Dispositions b. Carl Jung’s Extraversion and Introversion  Jung believed we develop and grow regardless of age and are always moving toward a more complete level of self-realization.  According to Jung, much of our conscious perception of and reaction to our environment is determined by the opposing mental attitudes of extraversion and introversion. Jung believed that that psychic energy could be channeled externally, toward the outside world, or internally, toward the self.  Extraverts are open, sociable, and socially assertive, oriented toward other people and the external world. Introverts are withdrawn and often shy, and they tend to focus on themselves, on their own thoughts and feelings.  According to Jung, everyone has the capacity for both attitudes, but only one becomes dominant in the personality.
  • 24. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Personality Traits or Dispositions c. Hans Eysenck’s 3 Factors of Personality Theory  Eysenck developed a very influential model of personality. Based on the results of factor analyses of responses on personality questionnaires he identified three dimensions of personality: extraversion, extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism.  Extraverts are sociable and crave excitement and change, and thus can become bored easily. They tend to be carefree, optimistic and impulsive.  Introverts are reserved, plan their actions and control their emotions. They tend to be serious, reliable and pessimistic.  Neurotics/unstables tend to be anxious, worrying and moody. They are overly emotional and find it difficult to calm down once upset. Stables are emotionally calm, unreactive and unworried.  Eysenck (1966) later added a third trait / dimension –Psychoticism– e.g. lacking in empathy, cruel, a a loner, aggressive and troublesome.
  • 25. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Personality Traits or Dispositions d. “Big Five” Model of Personality  Five factors of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience/ Culture/ Intellect, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness  Sir Francis Galton is the 1st to categorize personality and proposed 1st dimensional models  Eysenck’s 3 Factors of Personality (Psychoticism-Extraversion- Neuroticism) was the basis of the Big Five Model
  • 26. Psychological Models of Personality Structure 3. Interactionist Theory  SpY shifted from the focus on Trait Theories to State Theories. Also, from Trait Theories to Social Learning Theory  Moreover, today SpYists prefer considering interrelated roles of personality factors and situational factors as co-determinants of behavior. One theorist who supports this notion is Kurt Lewin who believes that behavior is a function of person and environment.  B = f (P , E)
  • 27. Personality Research in Sports & Exercise Psychology Personality Profile of Athletes · Griffith’s List of characteristics of elite athletes: Ruggedness, Courage, Intelligence, Exuberance, Buoyance, Emotional Adjustment, Optimism, Conscientiousness, Alertness, Loyalty, and Respect for Authority · Ogilvie’s et al. Athletic Motivation Inventory (AMI) characteristics of elite elite athletes: Drive, Determination, Leadership, Aggressiveness, Guilt Proneness, Emmotional Control, Self-Confidence, Conscientiousness, Mental Toughness, Trust, and Coachability
  • 28. Personality Research in Sports & Exercise Psychology Mental Health Model · Positive Mental Health and Athletic Success are directly related. · Psychopathology and success are inversely related. · “Iceberg Profile” of Morgan: Successful athletes possess more positive mental health characteristics and fewer negative mental health characteristics than the general population. However, this does not directly lead to success. It still depends on the ability of athletes to use these characteristics to their advantage.
  • 29. Personality Measures Use of Personality Measures to Screen Athletes  The use of personality measures to screen athletes is not recommended. They are limited or weak predictors of success.  Results of these measures cannot justify dropping athletes  Personality measures must be used to help current athletes to determine the cause of negative characteristics as well as improve positive characteristics.
  • 30. Personality Measures Sport-Specific Psychological Skills Measures  It is recommended to use sport-specific psychological tests over general ones. Examples: 1. Sports Personality Questionnaire 20 (SPQ20) 2. Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS) · Concentration, Anxiety Control, Confidence, Mental Preparation, Motivation, and Team Emphasis 3. Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI) · Like PSIS but superior in psychometric properties3