Fortification• Fortification is the process of addition of specific nutrients to food to increase its overall nutritional content. It is the addition of nutrients at levels higher than those found in original or comparable food.
Food Fortification• It is estimated that one of every three people in the world are at risk for one or more micronutrient deficiencies, thereby impacting on their nutritional status• In order to prevent and address the problem of micronutrient deficiencies, several strategies are being used, the most significant of them is Fortification, where in, specific and scientifically identified micronutrients are added to food
Food Fortification• Food fortification has been practiced worldwide for nearly 80 years• It is also a very efficient way of using public resources to promote health for all• It is a cost effective strategy• It is also a long term approach for control of micronutrient malnutrition.
History Of Food Fortification• Dietary supplementation of nutrients began in the 1920s.• Food fortification with nutrients was recommended by the American Medical Association and the National Academy of Sciences in the 1930s.• At the instigation of these two organizations, FDA (Food and Drug Administration) began to promulgate food standards for fortified food in the early 1940s, and continued this policy following World War II
Advantages• When integrated into existing food patterns, it may not necessitate changes in the customary diet of the population and does not call for individual compliance.• It can be dovetail in existing food production and distribution systems.• It may yield results quickly and they can be sustained over a long period of time.• Commercial food fortification is particularly appealing because, if the right food is selected, high coverage is assured without requiring a change in the eating habits of the consumer.
Contd…• Fortified foods, if they do not change their basic characteristics such as taste and appearance are socially acceptable to consumers• If the additional nutrients (fortification) are added in the recommended amounts following the desired producers, then fortified foods are safe
Wheat Fortification• Wheat is the most widely produced cereal in the world• Because of its widespread geographic distribution, acceptance, stability and versatility, wheat flour is a suitable vehicle for delivering micronutrients to mankind
Micronutrients content in wheat and wheat flour• In a natural state, wheat is a good source of vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), niacin, B6 (pyridoxine), E as well as iron, and zinc• Most of these nutrients are concentrated in the outer layers of the wheat grain, a significant proportion is lost during the milling process.
Nutrients generally added to wheat flour• Wheat flour is generally fortified with vitamin B1, B2 niacin and iron. Calcium ,Folate Vitamins A and D can also be added to flour• The level of vitamin B1, niacin and iron added to wheat flour is often equivalent to the amount lost in milling• For other micronutrients such as vitamin B2, the amount added is over and above the levels lost in milling, i.e. when the flour is fortified
Why Wheat Flour Fortification??? Wheat flour is proving to be an effective fortification vehicle for a number of reasons:• Consumed widely• Consumed regularly• Centralized Processing• Distribution and Marketing capacity• Stability• Bioavailability• Consistency• Affordable cost
ObjectivesPrimary Objective:• To study the awareness and acceptance level among consumers about the fortified wheat flour• To gauge the effectiveness of the initiative of fortification of wheat flour and recommend ways to improve their efficacy
ObjectivesSecondary Objective:• To study the preferences of consumers with respect to wheat flour/grains.• To study the role of Public Distribution System (PDS) in promoting the consumption of fortified wheat flour.• To study the effectiveness of Nookad Chakkis as a supply chain.• To ascertain the view of Doctors and Provision Store owners regarding fortified wheat flour.
Scope• The scope of the project is confined to Western Ahmedabad• The Food Fortification initiative by the Government of Gujarat includes Oil Fortification, Flour Fortification, Salt Fortification etc.I have catered to only Wheat Flour Fortification under Flour Fortification.• Only Antyoday card holders can be selected because they consume Fortified Wheat Flour under this Government initiative.• Consumers include only those who do not buy Wheat/Flour from Ration shops.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE TOPIC• This is the first step in the process of making the project. It refers to the subject matter of the project. The topic of project is: FORTIFICATION OF WHEAT FLOUR IN AHMEDABAD - A Study of an initiative by Government of Gujarat• The topic has been selected as it gives us a big scope for learning the initiatives taken, for the first time by the Government of Gujarat towards combating the malnutrition which is rampant in the state
DATA COLLECTION1.) Primary data:My data collection source :QUESTAINNAIRE PERSONAL VISITSChakki Owners Government OfficialsPDS Owners DoctorsPrivate Consumers PDS ConsumersProvision Stores
DATA COLLECTION2.) Secondary Data• Newspaper• Journals and Magazines• Internet
RESEARCH APPROACHES• i.Observational Research• ii.Survey Research:• iii.Experimental Research:• For the purpose of my project, i have used Survey Research Approach as it is best suited to give descriptive information.
SAMPLING PLAN1.Sampling UnitThe following is my sampling units:• Government Officials• PDS owners• PDS Consumers• Consumers• Chakki Owners• Doctors• Provision store owners
SAMPLING PLAN2. Sample Size: For a comprehensive study of the research topic and for the achievement of my primary and secondary objectives I intend to sample more than or equal to 250 respondents
SAMPLING PLAN3.Sampling Method CHAKKI OWNERS/ PROVISION STORE OWNERS• Cluster sampling can be used for the determination of the sample size.• Under this method, certain blocks and clusters of higher concentration are selected for complete inquiry. Clusters and not individual elements are selected but all elements in a selected cluster are studied.
SAMPLING PLANDOCTORS• Judgmental sampling method can be used here. Under this method, items for the sample are selected generally on certain pre-determined criteria.• The fixation of criteria and deliberate choice of sampling units may bring personal element and introduce bias
SAMPLING PLANCONSUMERS• Convenient and simple random sampling can be used here. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher.• A simple random sample is selected so that all samples of the same size have an equal chance of being selected from the entire population
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS• 1) Questionnaire: This is by far the most common instrument whether administered in person, by phone or online.• Questionnaire means a ready list of questions on a sheet of paper, arranged in a proper or a logical sequence. Generally the questions are self explanatory.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS• 2) Mechanical Instruments: Although questionnaire are the most commonly used research instruments, mechanical instruments are also used in some cases this monitor consumer behaviour, such as super market scanners and people meters.
Impact And Outcome• The Gujarat Roller Flour Millers Association decided to shake hands with the Government to raise the overall health of the state as it has high number of malnourished children and lactating womenThe following seminars were organized• A seminar on "Fortification of wheat flour" was organized at Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, Ahmedabad on January 16th, 1999• the Gujarat Roller Flour Millers attended a seminar organized by I.L.S.I. with G.C.C.I, & Micronutrient Initiative-Canada on the importance of Fortifying Atta with Iron. This was held at Hotel Fortune Landmark, Ahmedabad on November 16th, 2002
Impact And Outcome• On February 2005, association held another seminar on "Fortification of Wheat Atta" chaired by the Food Secretary• An orientation program for Atta Fortification was held at Harihar Commercial Corporation on December 25th, 2005 to show the Millers the process of how Fortification of Atta is to be done
Implementation And Time FramePHASE-I• With series of informative Seminars mentioned above, the Government of Gujarat invited the Roller Flour Millers to undertake the program of Atta Fortification• It was decided that before Atta Fortification started under Public Distribution System (PDS), the millers would on their own Fortify Atta with Iron and Folic Acid.
Implementation And Time Frame• Shri Narendra Modi announced the intention of launching Atta Fortified with Iron and Folic Acid in Gujarat• The program of Fortified Atta was formally launched for the first time in the Gujarat on 16 January, 2006
Implementation And Time FramePHASE-II• In January 2006, Dr. S.K. Nanda, Principle of Food and Supplies, Gujarat had a detailed discussion with the representative of the Gujarat Roller Flour Miller Association and informed them that the State Government intends to extend the scope of fortification to organized Chakki Sector• Government should make a plan to advertise the fortified Atta so that the end consumer can benefit from the scheme
Implementation And Time Frame• Educate the Chakki owners and operators about the technicalities of the process and testing of the quality• A Chakki Atta Plant meeting was convened by District Supply Officer, Ahmedabad on the March 4th, 2006 where the Chakki owners were briefed about the success of the fortification scheme in the Flour Milling Sector (First Phase)
Implementation And Time FramePHASE-III• The state Government has made efforts that even the Nookad Chakki (small scale wheat grinding units situated in different parts of every city/village)• The Government showed interest to promote the fortification plan in the Nookad Chakki sector