Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 29 Ad

More Related Content

Similar to Theories (20)


Recently uploaded (20)



  2. 2. DEFINITION A nursing theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter-relationships among concepts for the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and /or prescribing.
  3. 3.  Theories are composed of concepts, definitions, models , propositions and are based on assumptions.
  4. 4. CONCEPTS  Concepts are words that describe objects , properties, or events and are basic components of theory.
  5. 5. MODELS  Models are representations of the interaction among and between the concepts showing patterns.  Models allow the concepts in nursing theory to be successfully applied to nursing practice.
  6. 6. PROPOSITIONS  Prepositions are statements that explain the relationship between the concepts
  7. 7. PROCESS  Processes are series of actions, changes or functions intended to bring about a desired result
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF NURSING THEORIES  Nursing theory aims to describe, predict and explain the phenomenon of nursing (Chinn and Jacobs1978).  It should provide the foundations of nursing practice, help to generate further knowledge and indicate in which direction nursing should develop in the future (Brown 1964).
  9. 9.  Theory is important because it helps us to decide what we know and what we need to know (Parsons1949).  It helps to distinguish what should form the basis of practice by explicitly describing nursing.  This can be seen as an attempt by the nursing profession to maintain its professional boundaries
  10. 10. HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL  The health promotion model (HPM) proposed by Nola J Pender (1982; revised, 1996).  It defines health as a positive dynamic state not merely the absence of disease. Health promotion is directed at increasing a client’s level of well being.
  11. 11. THE MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL  Individual Characteristics and Experience  Prior related behaviour  Frequency of the similar behaviour in the past.
  12. 12. THE HEALTH BELIEF MODEL (HBM)  It is one of the first theories of health behavior.  It was developed in the 1950s by a group of U.S. Public Health Service social psychologists who wanted to explain why so few people were participating in programs to prevent and detect disease.
  13. 13.  The health belief model proposes that a person's health-related behavior depends on the person's perception of four critical areas:  the severity of a potential illness,  the person's susceptibility to that illness,  the benefits of taking a preventive action, and  the barriers to taking that action.
  14. 14.  There are six major concepts in HBM:  1. Perceived Susceptibility  2. Perceived severity  3. Perceived benefits  4. Perceived costs  5. Motivation  6. Enabling or modifying factors
  15. 15.  Perceived Susceptibility: refers to a person’s perception that a health problem is personally relevant or that a diagnosis of illness is accurate.  Perceived severity: even when one recognizes personal susceptibility, action will not occur unless the individual perceives the severity to be high enough to have serious organic or social complications.
  16. 16.  Perceived benefits: refers to the patient’s belief that a given treatment will cure the illness or help to prevent it.  Perceived Costs: refers to the complexity, duration, and accessibility of the treatment.
  17. 17.  Motivation: includes the desire to comply with a treatment and the belief that people should do what.  Modifying factors: include personality variables, patient satisfaction, and socio- demographic factors.
  18. 18. DOROTHEA OREM'S SELF-CARE THEORY  Theorist : Dorothea Orem (1914-2007)  Born 1914 in Baltimore, US
  19. 19. MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS  People should be self-reliant and responsible for their own care and others in their family needing care  People are distinct individuals  Nursing is a form of action – interaction between two or more persons
  20. 20. SELF CARE DEFICIT  Nursing is required when an adult (or in the case of a dependent, the parent) is incapable or limited in the provision of continuous effective self care. Orem identifies 5 methods of helping:  Acting for and doing for others  Guiding others  Supporting another  Providing an environment promoting personal development in relation to meet future demands  Teaching another
  21. 21. ROY’S ADAPTATION THEORY  Sr.Callista Roy- nurse theorist, writer, lecturer, researcher and teacher  Professor and Nurse Theorist at the Boston College of Nursing in Chestnut Hill
  22. 22.  Born at Los Angeles on October 14, 1939.  Bachelor of Arts with a major in nursing - Mount St. Mary's College, Los Angeles in 1963.  Master's degree program in pediatric nursing - University of California ,Los Angeles in 1966.  Master’s and PhD in Sociology in 1973 and 1977.
  23. 23. MAJOR CONCEPTS  Adaptation -- goal of nursing  Person -- adaptive system  Environment -- stimuli  Health -- outcome of adaptation  Nursing- promoting adaptation and health
  24. 24. ADAPTATION  Responding positively to environmental changes.  The process and outcome of individuals and groups who use conscious awareness, self reflection and choice to create human and environmental integration
  25. 25. PERSON  Bio-psycho-social being in constant interaction with a changing environment  Uses innate and acquired mechanisms to adapt  An adaptive system described as a whole comprised of parts  Functions as a unity for some purpose
  26. 26. ENVIRONMENT  Focal - internal or external and immediately confronting the person  Contextual- all stimuli present in the situation that contribute to effect of focal stimulus  Residual-a factor whose effects in the current situation are unclear
  27. 27. HEALTH  Inevitable dimension of person's life  Represented by a health-illness continuum  A state and a process of being and becoming integrated and whole
  28. 28. NURSING  To promote adaptation in the four adaptive modes  To promote adaptation for individuals and groups in the four adaptive modes, thus contributing to health, quality of life, and dying with dignity by assessing behaviors and factors that influence adaptive abilities and by intervening to enhance environmental interactions