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Dorothea Orem's Self Care Theory

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Dorothea Orem’s
Self-Care Deficit
Theory
Josephine Ann J. Necor, RN
Dorothea Orem (1914-2007)
• Born 1914 in Baltimore,
US
• Earned her diploma at
Providence Hospital –
Washington, DC
• 1939 – BSN Ed., Catholic
University of America
• 1945 – MSN Ed., Catholic
University of America
Dorothea Orem (1914-2007)
• She worked as a staff
nurse, private duty nurse,
nurse educator and
administrator and nurse
consultant.
• Received honorary Doctor
of Science degree in 1976.
• Theory was first published
in Nursing: Concepts of
Practice in 1971, second in
1980, in 1995, and 2001.
Self-Care Theory
-Grand Theory
THEORETICAL SOURCES
• Orem indicates that no particular nursing
leader was a direct influence in her work.
• While crediting no one as a major
influence, she does cite many other
nurses’ works in terms of their
contributions to nursing; She also cites
numerous authors in other disciplines.
MAJOR CONCEPTS
AND DEFINITIONS
OREM’S GENERAL
THEORY OF NURSING

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Dorothea Orem's Self Care Theory

  • 2. Dorothea Orem (1914-2007) • Born 1914 in Baltimore, US • Earned her diploma at Providence Hospital – Washington, DC • 1939 – BSN Ed., Catholic University of America • 1945 – MSN Ed., Catholic University of America
  • 3. Dorothea Orem (1914-2007) • She worked as a staff nurse, private duty nurse, nurse educator and administrator and nurse consultant. • Received honorary Doctor of Science degree in 1976. • Theory was first published in Nursing: Concepts of Practice in 1971, second in 1980, in 1995, and 2001.
  • 5. THEORETICAL SOURCES • Orem indicates that no particular nursing leader was a direct influence in her work. • While crediting no one as a major influence, she does cite many other nurses’ works in terms of their contributions to nursing; She also cites numerous authors in other disciplines.
  • 6. MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OREM’S GENERAL THEORY OF NURSING
  • 7. Orem’s general theory of nursing’s three related parts: • Theory of self care • Theory of self care deficit • Theory of nursing system
  • 8. A. Theory of Self Care • This theory Includes: • Self care – practice of activities that an individual initiates and performs on his/her own behalf in maintaining life, health and well being • Self care agency – is a human ability which is "the ability for engaging in self care“; conditioned by age, developmental state, life experience, sociocultural orientation, health, and available resources
  • 9. • Therapeutic self care demand – "totality of self care actions to be performed for some duration in order to meet self care requisites by using valid methods and related sets of operations and actions“ • Self care requisites - action directed towards provision of self care. 3 categories of self care requisites are: • Universal self care requisites • Developmental self care requisites • Health deviation self care requisites
  • 10. 1. Universal self care requisites • Associated with life processes and the maintenance of the integrity of human structure and functioning • Common to all; activities of daily living • Identifies these requisites as: – Maintenance of sufficient intake of air ,water, food – Provision of care associated with elimination process – Balance between activity and rest, between solitude and social interaction – Prevention of hazards to human life well being and – Promotion of human functioning
  • 11. 2. Developmental self care requisites • Associated with developmental processes/ derived from a condition…or associated with an event. E.g. – adjusting to a new job – adjusting to body changes
  • 12. 3. Health deviation self care • Required in conditions of illness, injury, or disease. • These include:  Seeking and securing appropriate medical assistance  Being aware of and attending to the effects and results of pathologic conditions  Effectively carrying out medically prescribed measures  Modifying self concepts in accepting oneself as being in a particular state of health and in specific forms of health care  Learning to live with effects of pathologic conditions
  • 13. B. Theory of self care deficit • Specifies when nursing is needed • Nursing is required when an adult (or in the case of a dependent, the parent) is incapable or limited in the provision of continuous effective self care.
  • 14. • Orem identifies 5 methods of helping: – Acting for and doing for others – Guiding others – Supporting another – Providing an environment promoting personal development in relation to meet future demands – Teaching another
  • 15. C. Theory of Nursing Systems • Describes how the patient’s self care needs will be met by the nurse , the patient, or both • Identifies 3 classifications of nursing system to meet the self care requisites of the patient: o Wholly compensatory system o Partly compensatory system o Supportive – educative system
  • 16. • Wholly compensatory systems – “nurse should be compensating for a patient’s total inability for (or prescriptions against) engaging in self-care activities that require ambulation and manipulation movements” • Partly compensatory systems – “both nurse and patient perform care measures or other actions involving manipulative tasks or ambulation” • Supportive – educative systems – “for situations where the patient is able to perform required measures of externally or internally oriented therapeutic self-care but cannot do so without assistance”
  • 17. • Design and elements of nursing system define: o Scope of nursing responsibility in health care situations o General and specific roles of nurses and patients o Reasons for nurses’ relationship with patients o Orem recognized that specialized technologies are usually developed by members of the health profession
  • 18. A technology is systematized information about a process or a method for affecting some desired result through deliberate practical endeavor, with or without use of materials or instruments. Categories of technologies: 1. Social or interpersonal 2. Regulatory technologies
  • 19. MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS • People should be self-reliant and responsible for their own care and others in their family needing care. • People are distinct individuals. • Nursing is a form of action – interaction between two or more persons.
  • 20. MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS • Successfully meeting universal and development self-care requisites is an important component of primary care prevention and ill health • A person’s knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors • Self care and dependent care are behaviors learned within a socio-cultural context
  • 21. THEORETICAL ASSERTIONS • The model shows that when an individual’s self-care capabilities are less than the therapeutic self-care demand, the nurse compensates for the self-care or dependent care deficits.
  • 24. Nursing • is art, a helping service, and a technology • Actions deliberately selected and performed by nurses to help individuals or groups under their care to maintain or change conditions in themselves or their environments • Encompasses the patient’s perspective of health condition, the physician’s perspective , and the nursing perspective
  • 25. Nursing • Goal of nursing – to render the patient or members of his family capable of meeting the patient’s self care needs • To maintain a state of health • To regain normal or near normal state of health in the event of disease or injury • To stabilize, control, or minimize the effects of chronic poor health or disability
  • 26. Health • Health and healthy are terms used to describe living things. • It is when they are structurally and functionally whole or sound …wholeness or integrity. .includes that which makes a person human,…operating in conjunction with physiological and psychophysiological mechanisms and a material structure and in relation to and interacting with other human beings.
  • 27. Environment • Environment components are enthronement factors, enthronement elements, conditions, and developed environment
  • 28. Human being • Has the capacity to reflect, symbolize and use symbols • Conceptualized as a total being with universal, developmental needs and capable of continuous self care • A unity that can function biologically, symbolically and socially
  • 29. Nursing client • A human being who has "health-related / health-derived limitations that render him incapable of continuous self care or dependent care or limitations that result in ineffective / incomplete care. • A human being is the focus of nursing only when a self–care requisites exceeds self care capabilities
  • 30. • Nursing problem - deficits in universal, developmental, and health derived or health related conditions • Nursing process - A system to determine: 1. why a person is under care 2. a plan for care 3. the implementation of care • Nursing therapeutics - deliberate, systematic and purposeful action.
  • 33. Practice • Many articles document the use of the self-care theory as a basis for clinical practice. • Orem’s self-care deficit theory has been used in the context of the nursing process to teach patients to increase their self-care agency to evaluate nursing practice and to differentiate nursing from medical practice.
  • 34. Education • Orem’s self-care deficit theory has been the focus of the curriculum in nursing education at many schools of nursing.
  • 35. Research • The self-care theory provided conceptual framework for many researches.
  • 36. RESEARCH ON OREM'S THEORY • Self-care requirements for activity and rest: an Orem nursing focus • Nursing diagnoses in patients after heart catheterization- -contribution of Orem • Self-care--the contribution of nursing sciences to health care • Self-care: a foundational science • Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory: its philosophic foundation and the state of the science • Orem's theory in practice. Hospice nursing care
  • 37. CRITIQUE • Simplicity – The conceptual framework appears simple. Subconcepts are identified to express the substantive structure of the six broad conceptual elements of the theory. • Generality – The theory is expressed as universal. It is a theory of nursing regardless of time or place.
  • 38. CRITIQUE • Empirical Precision – can be, and has been, used for research. • Derivable Consequences – provides a general framework to direct nursing action; the relationships explained and implied are useful in explaining patiency and the nurse-patient relationship; the theory directs nursing practice, the stated goal; addresses educational practice for nurses
  • 39. REFERENCES • www.currentnursing.com • Tomey, A.M., (1994). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 3rd ed. Missouri: Mosby

Editor's Notes

  1. She believes association with many nurse all over the years provided many learning experiences, and she views her work with graduate students and collaborative works with colleagues as valuable endeavors.
  2. Categories of technologies 1. Social or interpersonal Communication adjusted to age, health status Maintaining interpersonal, intra group or inter group relations for coordination of efforts Maintaining therapeutic relationship in light of psychosocial modes of functioning in health and disease Giving human assistance adapted to human needs ,action abilities and limitations 2. Regulatory technologies Maintaining and promoting life processes Regulating psycho physiological modes of functioning in health and disease Promoting human growth and development Regulating position and movement in space
  3. Her self-care approach is contemporary with the concepts of health promotion and health maintenance The theory is illness oriented