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*Asst. Professor, North East Regional Institute of
Education, (NCERT ) Shillong, Meghalaya
Introduction
The Human beings have a great impact on the bovines of
wild equines. It includes habitat destruction and
conflicts with local people and livestock. United States of
America’s Supreme Court ruled that the animals so
designated as a matter of law, under wildlife
conservation. The Equus is a genus of mammals in the
family Equidae, which includes horses, asses, and zebras.
The word equus is Latin for "horse", and is cognate with
the Greek "ἵππος" (hippos), "horse" and Mycenaean Greek
i-qo /ikkʷos/ (cf. the alternative development of the
Proto-Greek labiovelar in Ionic "ἴκκος" ikkos) the earliest
attested variant of the Greek word, written in Linear B
syllabic script.
Origin of The Eques Species
The genus most likely originated in North America
and first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It is
the only recognized extant genus in the family
Equidae. Remains attributed to a variety of species
and lumped together as New World stilt-legged
horses (including E. francisci, E. tau, and E.
quinni).The horse is an animal that have one of
two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-
toed ungulate mammal belonging to the
taxonomic family Equidae. Scientific name: Equus
caballus.
An Anatomy of Equine
National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar Haryana, India
The National Research Centre on Equines is a premier
institute established under the aegis of Indian Council of
Agricultural Research for conducting research on equine
health and production. NRHC became operational at Hisar
on 7 January 1986 for conducting researches and for
providing effective health coverage for equines.
The importance of equines in India is well known. India possesses 1.17 million
equines. According to the National Commission on Agriculture (1976), Equine
Breeds in India can be placed broadly in two classes’ viz. the slow moving pack
ponies and the fast running saddle horses used for riding or for drawing
carriages. The indigenous breeds of horses/ponies include Marwari,
Kathiawari, Manipuri, Spiti, Bhutia and Zanskari. Among these, Marwari and
Kathiawari are considered as 2 distinct breeds or types although they have
several characteristics in common. Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rajasthan are the
homes of Kathiawari and Marwari breeds, respectively. Three other breeds of
India namely Deccani, Chummarti and Sikang are considered to be on the
verge of extinction.
NRCE – ICAR, Hisar, Haryana Campus
Conservation Issues
Humans have had a great impact on the populations of wild
equines. Threats to wild equines include habitat destruction and
conflicts with local people and livestock. Since the 20th century,
wild equines have been decimated over many of their former
ranges and their populations scattered. In recent centuries, two
subspecies, the quagga and the tarpan, became extinct. Only the
plains zebra remains numerous and widespread. The IUCN lists
the African wild ass as critically endangered, the Grévy's zebra,
mountain zebra and Przewalski's horse as endangered, the
Onager as vulnerable, the kiang as lower risk and the plains zebra
as least concern. The Przewalski's horse was considered to be
extinct in the wild from the 1960s to 1996. However, following
successful captive breeding, it has been reintroduced in
Mongolia.
Feral horses vary in degree of protection and generate
considerable controversy. For example, in Australia, they are
considered a non-native invasive species, often viewed as pests,
though are also considered to have some cultural and economic
value. In the United States, feral horses and burros are generally
considered an introduced species because descend from
domestic horses brought to the Americas from Europe. While
they are viewed as pests by many livestock producers, conversely,
there is also a view that E. ferus caballus is a reintroduced once-
native species returned to the Americas that should be granted
endangered species protection. At present, certain free-roaming
horses and burros have federal protection as "living symbols of
the historic and pioneer spirit of the West" under the Wild and
Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 and in Kleppe v.
New Mexico, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the
animals so designated were, as a matter of law, wildlife.
Ecology and Behavior Characteristics
Extant wild equines have scattered ranges across Africa and Asia.
The plains zebra lives in lush grasslands and savannas of Eastern
and Southern Africa, while the Mountain zebra inhabits
mountainous areas of southwest Africa. The other equine species
tend to occupy more arid environments with more scattered
vegetation. The Grévy's zebra is found in thorny scrubland of
East Africa, while the African wild ass inhabits rocky deserts of
North Africa. The two Asian wild ass species live in the dry
deserts of the Near East and Central Asia and the Przwelski's
wild horse's habitat is the deserts of Mongolia. Only the range of
the plains and Grévy's zebras overlap.In addition to wild
populations, domesticated horses and donkeys are widespread
thanks to humans. In certain parts of the world, populations of
feral horses and feral donkeys exist, which are descended from
domesticated animals that were released or escaped into the
wild.
Ecology and Behavior Characteristics
Equines are monogastric hindgut fermenters. They prefer to eat grasses and
sedges, but may also consume bark, leaves, buds, fruits and roots if their
favored foods are scarce, particularly asses. Compared to ruminants, equines
have a simpler and less efficient digestive system. Nevertheless, they can
subsist on lower quality vegetation. After food is passed though the stomach,
it enters the sac-like cecum. where cellulose is broken down by micro-
organisms. Fermentation is quicker in equines than in ruminants; 30–45
hours for a horse compared to 70–100 hours for a cow. Equines may spend 60-
80 percent of their time feeding, depending on the availability and quality of
vegetation. In the African savannas, the plains zebra is a pioneer grazer;
mowing down the upper, less nutritious grass canopy and preparing the way
for more specialized grazers like blue wildebeests and Thomson's gazelles
which depend on shorter and more nutritious grasses below. Wild equines
may spend seven hours a day sleeping. During the day, they sleep standing up
while at night they lie down. They regularly rub against trees, rocks and other
objects and roll in around in dust for protection against flies and irritation.
Except the mountain zebra, wild equines can roll over completely.
Communication Characteristics
When meeting for the first time or after they have
separated, individuals may greet each other by rubbing
and sniffing their noses followed by rubbing their
cheeks, moving their noses along their bodies and
sniffing each other's genitals. They then may rub and
press their shoulders against each other and rest their
heads on one another. This greeting is usually
performed among harem or territorial males or among
bachelor males playing.
Communication Characteristics
Equines produce a number of vocalizations and noises. Loud
snorting is associated with alarm. Squealing is usually made when
in pain, but bachelors will also squeal while play fighting. The
contact calls of equines vary from the whinnying and nickering of
the horse, the barking of plains zebras, and the braying of asses
and Grévy's zebras. Equines also communicate with visual
displays and the flexibility of their lips allows them to make
complex facial expressions. Visual displays also incorporate the
positions of the head, ears and tail. An equine may signal an
intention to kick by laying back its ears and sometimes lashing
the tail. Flattened ears, bared teeth and abrupt movement of the
heads may be used as threatening gestures, particularly among
stallions
Social Characteristics
Equines are social animals with two basic social structures. Horses,
plains zebras and mountain zebras live in stable, closed family
groups or harems consisting of one adult male, several females and
their offspring. These groups have their own home ranges which
overlap and they tend to be nomadic. The stability of the group
remains even when the family stallion dies or is displaced. Plains
zebra groups gather into large herds and may create temporarily
stable subgroups within a herd, allowing individuals to interact
with those outside their group. Among harem-holding species, this
behavior has only otherwise been observed in primates like the
gelada and the hamadryas baboon. Females of harem species
benefit as males give them more time for feeding, protection for
their young, as well as protection from predators and harassment
by outside males. Among females in a harem, a linear dominance
hierarchy exists based on the time at which they join the group.
Harems travel in a consistent filing order with the high-ranking
mares and their offspring leading the groups followed by the next
highest ranking mare and her offspring and so on. The family
stallion takes up the rear. Social grooming (which involves
individuals rubbing their heads against each other and nipping
with the incisors and lips) is important for easing aggression and
maintaining social bonds and status. Young of both sexes leave
their natal groups as they mature; females are usually abducted by
outside males to be included as permanent members of their
harems.
Social Characteristics
In Grévy's zebras and the wild ass species, adults have more fluid
associations and adult males will establish large territories and
monopolize the females that enter them. These species live in
habitats with sparser resources and standing water and grazing
areas may be separated. Groups of lactating females are able to
remain in groups with non-lactating ones and usually gather at
foraging areas. The most dominant males establish territories
near watering holes, where more sexually receptive females
gather. Subdominants have territories farther away, near foraging
areas. Mares may wander through several territories but will
remain in one when they have young. Staying in a territory offers
a female protection from harassment by outside males, as well as
access to a renewable resource. Some feral populations of horse
exhibit features of both the harem and territorial social systems.
In both equine social systems, excess males gather in bachelor
groups. These are typically young males who are not yet ready to
establish a harem or territory. With the plains zebra, the males in
a bachelor group have strong bonds and have a linear dominance
hierarchy. Fights between males usually occur over estrus females
and involve biting and kicking.
Human Relations
Archaeological, biogeographical, and linguistic evidence suggest
that the donkey was first domesticated by nomadic pastoral
people in North Africa over 5,000 years ago. The animals were
used to help cope with the increased aridity of the Sahara and the
Horn of Africa. Genetic evidence finds that the donkey was
domesticated twice based on two distinct mitochondrial DNA
haplogroups. It also points to a single ancestor, the Nubian wild
ass.[49] Attempts to domesticate zebras were largely
unsuccessful, though Walter Rothschild trained some to draw a
carriage in England
Physical Characteristics
Equines have significant differences in size, though all are
characterized by long heads and necks. Their slender legs
support their weight on one digit (which evolved from the
middle digits). The Grévy's zebra is the largest wild species,
standing up to 13.2 hands (54 inches, 137 cm) and weighing up to
405 kg (890 lb). Domesticated horses have a wider range of sizes.
Heavy or draft horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163
cm) high and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) and
weigh from about 700 to 1,000 kilograms (1,500 to 2,200 lb).
Some miniature horses are no taller than 30 inches (76 cm) in
adulthood. Sexual dimorphism is limited in equines. The penis
of the male is vascular and lacks a bone (baculum).
Equines are adapted for running and for traveling over long
distances. Their dentition is adapted for grazing; they have large
incisors that clip grass blades and highly crowned, ridged molars
well suited for grinding. Males have spade-shaped canines
("tushes"), which can be used as weapons in fighting. Equines
have fairly good senses, particularly their eyesight. Their
moderately long, erect ears are movable and can locate the source
of a sound.
Physical Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
A dun-colored coat with primitive markings that include a dorsal
stripe and often leg striping and transverse shoulder stripes
reflect the wildtype coat and are observed in most wild extant
equine species. Only the mountain zebra lacks a dorsal stripe. In
domestic horses, dun color and primitive markings exist in some
animals across many breeds. The purpose of the bold black-and-
white striping of zebras has been a subject of debate among
biologists for over a century, but recent (2014) evidence supports
the theory that they are a form of protection from biting flies.
These insects appear to be less attracted to striped coats and,
compared to other wild equines, zebras live in areas with the
highest fly activity. With the exception of the domestic horses,
which have long manes that lay over the neck and long tail hair
growing from the top of the tail head or dock, most equines have
erect manes and long tails ending in a tuft of hair. The coats of
some equine species undergo shedding in certain parts of their
range and are thick in the winter.
An Anatomy of Equine
Physical Characteristics
 Origin India :- Marwari Horse, Height 16 hands, Weight
827,pounds
 Native to the Marwari region of India, the Marwari horse is a rare
breed known for its hardiness and upturned ears. A descendant of
native Indian ponies crossed with Arabian horses, the Marwari
comes in virtually every equine color. Displaying exceptional
loyalty and bravery in battle, the Marwari was traditionally used as
a cavalry horse before being used for light draft work and hauling.
The breed is rare due to strict exporting guidelines, but since the
early 2000s has become available in small quantities.
 (Common Uses Dressage / Endurance Riding / General Riding
/ Jumping / Mounted Athletics)
Reproduction and parenting
Among harem-holding species, the adult females mate only with their
harem stallion, while in other species, mating is more promiscuous and
the males have larger testes for sperm competition. Estrous in female
equines lasts 5–10 days; physical signs include frequent urination,
flowing muscus, and a swollen, everted labia. In addition, estrous
females will stand with their hind legs spread and raise their tails when
in the presence of a male. Males assess the female's reproductive state
with the flehmen response and the female will solicit mating by
backing in. Length of gestation varies by species, it is roughly 11 to 13
months, and most mares will come into estrus again within a few days
after foaling, depending on conditions. Usually, only a single foal is
born, which is capable of running within an hour. Within a few weeks,
foals will attempt to graze, but may continue to nurse for 8–13 months.
Species in arid habitats, like the Grévy's zebra, have longer nursing
intervals and do not drink water until they are three months old.
Reproduction and parenting
Among harem-holding species, foals are cared for
mostly by their mothers, but if threatened by predators,
the entire group works together to protect all the young.
The group forms a protective front with the foals in the
center and the stallion will rush at predators that come
too close. In territory-holding species, mothers may
gather into small groups and leave their young in
"kindergartens" under the guard of a territorial male
while searching for water.
Reproduction and parenting
Equines species can crossbreed with each other. The most
common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a male donkey
and a female horse. With rare exceptions, these hybrids are
sterile and cannot reproduce. A related hybrid, a hinny, is a
cross between a male horse and a female donkey. Other
hybrids include the zorse, a cross between a zebra and a
horse and a zonkey or zedonk, a hybrid of a zebra and a
donkey. In areas where Grévy's zebras are sympatric with
plains zebras, fertile hybrids do occupy.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
• Can breed more mares
• Distance isn't a problem as semen can be frozen and shipped
• Process can be expensive
• Intensive time management
• Low cost other than transportation
Disadvantages
• Can cause injury if not supervised
• not exaxtly sure when bred if pasture bred
• Timing isn't as big an issue since semen lives longer than
cooled/shipped semen
Equine Breeds in India
According to the National Commission on Agriculture (1976), horses
in India can be placed broadly in two classes viz. the slow moving
pack ponies and the fast running saddle horses used for riding or for
drawing carriages. The indigenous breeds of horses/ponies include
Marwari, Kathiawari, Manipuri, Spiti, Bhutia and Zanskari. Among
these, Marwari and Kathiawari are considered as 2 distinct breeds or
types although they have several characteristics in common.
Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rajasthan are the homes of Kathiawari and
Marwari breeds, respectively. These breeds have been selected both
for utility and beauty. Bhutia, Spiti and Zanskari ponies, mainly
found in the hilly areas of Himalayan ranges are slow moving horses.
The Manipuri horses having qualities of both hill and plain breeds
of horses have been bred over centuries in the Manipur area of the
northeast. Manipuri horses reputed for their intelligence are used
for polo and racing. Three other breeds of India namely Deccani,
Chummarti and Sikang are considered to be on the verge of
Horse -Scientific name: Equus Caballus
 Horse -The horse is an animal who have one of two extant
subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal
belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae.
 Lifespan: 25 – 30 years, Speed: 40 – 48 km/h (Galloping),
Gestation period: 11 – 12 months, Mass: 380 – 1,000 kg (Adult),
Higher classification: Equus.
 The exotic breeds of horses introduced in India include English
thoroughbred, Water, Arab, Polish, Connemera and Halflinger.
The Arab, the first to be introduced,is believed to have
contributed substantially for the evolution of Kathiawari,
Marwari, Sindhi, Malani and Manipuri horses. It is believed
that all the indigenous breeds of the horses are rapidly
deteriorating in quality as a result of lack of organized
systematic breeding and availability of good specimen animals.
Unless huge financial commitment is made,
There is a possibility of the breeds losing their identity even in their
home tract.
Thoroughbred- The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for
its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is
sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it
technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed.
Scientific name: Equus ferus caballus, Higher classification: Horse,
Rank: Breed
Equine Breeds in India
Hot blood (Description: One of the most popular and
recognizable horse breeds in the world, the Thoroughbred is a
hot-blooded horse best known for its ability to excel in
horseracing. The word “thoroughbred” is often used to refer to
any purebred horse, but the term actually refers to the English
breed developed in the 18th and 19 centuries. In terms of
appearance, the Thoroughbred resembles its Arabian ancestors.
Although used primarily for racing, the breed is also used for
other disciplines including jumping, fox hunting, and barrel
racing)
Marwari Horse
The Marwari breed is derived from the Marwar region of the
Rajasthan - the natural habitat of the breed. The Marwar region
includes Udaipur, Jalor, Jodhpur and Rajasamand districts of
Rajasthan and some adjoining areas of Gujarat. The Marwari
horses are reared mainly for riding and sports and no attempts
are being made to prepare them as thoroughbred race animals.
The predominant body colour is brown where as other body
colours are roan, chestnut, white and black with white patches.
The Marwari horses have 130-140 cm long body, 152-160 cm
height, 166-175 cm heart girth, 60 cm face length, 22 cm face
width, 18 cm ear length and 47 cm tail length without switch. The
Marwari horses are longer and taller than Kathiawari horses.
MARWARI HORSE - RANA
Kathiawari Horse
The superintendent of Gaekwar Contingent in 1880 suggested that
the Kathiawari breed may have sprung from the wild horses of
Kathiawar (a sort of Quagga, Bombay Gazette, Kathiawari, foot
note, page 97). The breeding tract of the breed is Saurashtra
province ofGujarat which comprises of Rajkot, Bhavnagar,
Surendranagar Junagarh and Amreli districts of Gujarat. The most
prominent body colour in Kathiawari horses is chestnut followed by
bay (body chestnut, Foreleg up to knee and fetlock are black,
Keshwali black, Hairs of tail and neck are black), grey (complete
white colour) and dun (light chestnut).
The physical characteristics of Kathiawari horses are concave
profile, long neck, short leg and squared quarters. Face is dry and
short, triangular from pale to forehead and small muzzle, big
nostrils, edge of nostril is thin; small, fine and curved upright ears
on 90 degrees axis that can rotate at 180 degrees, broad forehead
and large expressive sensitive eyes. Tail is long, not bushy, curved
well and touching to the ground, foot round and broad. Kathiawari
horses have on an average 119 cm long body, 147 cm height and
160 cm heart girth. The average ear length is 15 cm. The average
face length and width are 53 and 21 cm, respectively.
Kathiawari Horses
Spiti Horse
The Spiti horses are distributed in Spiti valley and adjoining
areas of Kullu and Kinnaur divisions of Himachal Pradesh.
These horses are smaller in height. The Spiti ponies have two
strains, Spiti pure and Konimare. The Konimare ponies are
comparatively taller. They are capable of thriving in cold
regions under adverse conditions of scarcity of food, low
temperature and long journeys at high altitude. The Spiti
horses are used for riding and as pack animals. The
predominant body colour is grey (complete white) followed by
black, black flay bone (white body with black patches), brown
and bay.
The Spiti horses are hardy and surefooted. Body is well developed
with fairly strong bones. The legs are thick and covered with long
coarse hairs. The mane is longer having 20 to 30 cm long hairs.
Solid and compact body, convex face, erect ears, black eyes,
straight back, long and straight tail, alert looking and short height
are some of the important breed characteristics. The horses are
nervous in temperament. The Spiti horses have on average 97 cm
body length, 127 cm height, 150 cm paunch girth, 15 cm long ear,
49 cm face length and 20 cm face width. It has been observed that
females have shorter body, height, heart girth and paunch girth.
Spiti Horse
Zanskari Horse
Zanskari horses are available in Leh and Laddakh area of Jammu
and Kashmir. The predominant body colour is grey followed by
black and copper. The horses are known for their ability to work,
run adequately and carry loads at high altitude. Horses are
medium in size, well built and 120 to 140 cm high. The Zanskari
horses have predominant eyes, heavy and long tail and uniform
gait. The body hairs are fine, long and glossy. Only a few
hundred horses at present exist in the Zanskar and other valleys
of Laddakh. Large scale breeding with non-descript ponies has
endangered this breed. The Animal Husbandry
Department,Jammu and Kashmir has recently established a
Zanskari horse Breeding farm at Padum Zanskar in Kargil
district of Ladakh for breed improvement and conservation
through selective breeding.
Manipuri Horse
Manipuri breed of ponies is one of the purest and prestigious breed
of equines of India. It is a strong and hardy breed and has very good
adaptability to extreme geo-climatic conditions. It is one of the well-
known breeds of India and has been claimed as the oldest polo pony.
They are found in Manipur and Assam, and are similar to the south-
east Asian type pony. Generally the Manipuri ponies are of 11-13
hands high at wither with a good shoulder, short back, well
developed quarters and strong limbs. Mane is generally coarse and
upright. It has small pointed pricked ears, eyes are alert and slightly
slant .The area between the nostrils is flat not crispy. Withers are
not prominent. Face is concave and tail is well set and
commensurate with height.
Manipuri Ponies
Manipuri ponies are intelligent and extremely tough, and
have tremendous endurance. Perhaps all these good qualities
made it suitable for polo game for which it is globally famous.
The breed is available in 14 different colors viz Bay, Black,
Gray, Mora white, Leiphon white, Sinai White, Stocking, liver
chestnut, Roan, light gray, Reddish brown and dark bay. The
pony undoubtly played significant role in the field of war and
play. It has close association with the socioeconomic life of
the people of hilly region through travel, transport and
hunting. It is a matter of concern that the number of
Manipuri has decreased drastically. As per latest data the
population of Manipuri pony is 2327 only. Thus, immediate
attention and efforts are required to conserve this precious
breed of ponies in India.
Bhutia Horse
Bhutia horses are distributed in Sikkim and Darjeeling. They
are usually grey or bay coloured and similar to the Tibetan
pony.
Donkeys/Asses
It is considered that asses are of purely African origin. The ass was
first domesticated in the valley of the Nile. Three wild races of
asses were observed: North-East African race (Nubia), North-East
African race (Sudan) and Somalian race (Somali-land).
 The greatest contribution to animal husbandry that ass has
made is the production of mules. Mules fit well in different
agricultural operations. The asses have several features that
differ from horses; one of the most noticeable characteristics is
longer and much larger ears of asses. The hair on mane and tail
are very scanty and there is a brush like switch at the end of the
tail. Jacks and their mule offspring have well-muscled, broader
loins, long and well sprung ribs. Consequently, they can take
more abuse and punishment than the horse. Jacks lack apparent
muscling, have larger bone and joints but smaller rounder feet
than the horses. Jacks also have a characteristic bray, which is a
decidedly in contrast to the whinney of the horse.
Donkeys/Asses
The modern domesticated asses have mainly descended from the
Nubian race. Though grey colour predominates but black, white
and even piebald asses can be seen. The ass is indisputably one of
the most useful animals and is available everywhere. FAO has
reported three distinct types of Indian ass’s viz. Indian, Indian
wild and Kiang. Indian wild asses are available in Rann of Kutch
while Kiang are available in Sikkim and Laddakh. They are dark
red brown with white underparts and patch behind the shoulder.
Among Indian, two major types of donkeys i.e. those of larger size
and smaller size are common. The larger size donkeys are light
grey to almost white in colour. The smaller size ones are dark grey
in colour. Good quality donkey stallions of exotic breed obtained
from France and other European countries are maintained by
NRCE, State Animal husbandry Deptt. of Haryana and Equine
Breeding Farm RVC Centre Meerut, Uttar Pradesh by Indian
Army.
Mules
The mules are most useful pack and transport animals as they play important role,
both in the military establishments as well as in civilian occupations particularly
in hills. The mule combines some of the superior qualities of both horses and
donkeys. It has size, speed strength and spirit of the horse, along with the
surefooted-ness, lack of excitability, endurance and ability to thrive on poor feed.
 The production of mules involves three steps: the breeding of jack stock for use
as stallion, breeding of mares and crossing of jack with mare. One of the
biggest difficulties in mule production is to locate a fertile jack that can quickly
serve. The most common practice however, is to tease mares with a stallion and
allow the jack to serve a properly restrained mare so that she will stand for the
jack. Only sound broodmares of good quality should be selected for providing
high-grade mules. Breeders of work horses usually take particular care in
choosing good mares for breeding purposes but ordinarily mule breeders make
no consistent effort in selecting mares for production of mules. Mares used in
mule production are of not fixed .
Mules
 The draft mules measure 155 to 172 cm in height and weight from
450 to 650 Kg. An ideal draft mule has long ears, broad forehead,
broad deep chest, well filled heart girth, short and strong back,
broad, heavily muscled and smooth hips and deep body. The neck is
heavily muscled, fits neatly at the shoulder and has slight crest. The
legs are squarely placed. The pastern shows moderate length,
strength and a desirable slope. The feet are durable, wide and high
at the heels, with concave soles. The horn of the hoof is smooth,
dense and sound.
 Equines species can crossbreed with each other. The most common
hybrid is the mule, a cross between a male donkey and a female
horse. With rare exceptions, these hybrids are sterile and cannot
reproduce.[18] A related hybrid, a hinny, is a cross between a male
horse and a female donkey. Other hybrids include the zorse, a cross
between a zebra and a horse and a zonkey or zedonk, a hybrid of a
zebra and a donkey. In areas where Grévy's zebras are sympatric
with plains zebras, fertile hybrids do occur.
Human Relations
The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the
horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to
approximately 4000-3500 BC. By 3000 BC, the horse was completely
domesticated and by 2000 BC there was a sharp increase in the
number of horse bones found in human settlements in
northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses
throughout the continent. The most recent, but most irrefutable,
evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains
were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrovka
cultures c. 2100 BC. Studies of variation in genetic material shows
that very few wild stallions, possibly all from a single haplotype,
contributed to the domestic horse, while many mares were part of
early domesticated herds.
The Przewalski's horse has been conclusively shown not to be an
ancestor of the domestic horse, even though the two can hybridize
and produce fertile offspring. The split between Przewalskii's horse
and E. ferus caballus is estimated to have occurred 120,000–
240,000 years ago, long before domestication. Of the caballine
equines, E. ferus, it is E. ferus ferus, also known as the European
wild horse or "tarpan" that shares ancestry with the modern
domestic horse. In addition, it has also been hypothesized that
tarpans that lived into modern times may have been hybridized
with domestic horses
Human Relations
The NRHC ‘s Sub-campus at Bikaner, Rajasthan
(EPC), NRCE, ICAR (Govt. of India )
NRCE’s sub-campus is at Bikaner, Rajasthan was created during
1989 for conducting researches for improving the technologies
for optimization of reproduction and undertakes research on
equine production including conservation. The Centre has the
responsibility on generation of technologies for augmenting
equine performance in order to uplift the socio-economic status
of equine owners. The Centre has a nucleus herd of Marwari
horses along with Zanskari and Manipuri ponies and exotic
donkeys at Hisar and Bikaner campuses. The stallions at Bikaner
campus are primarily used for collection livestock strength at
ICAR-NRCE, Hisar and EPC, Bikaner and cryopreservation of
semen for artificial insemination.
Besides, frozen semen is used for propagation of indigenous
germplasm and superior mule production. Currently, the Centre is
undertaking 24 research projects in leading areas of equine health
and production including 9 externally funded projects Centre has
also been recognized as a National Referral Centre for diagnosis of
important equine infectious diseases including exotic diseases by
the Govt. of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Animal
Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, and New Delhi. The Centre has
also been working towards characterization of different breeds of
equines and has finalized the breed descriptor for the Marwari
horses for their registration into the study book.
Equine Production Centre, Bikaner Raj.
(Indigenous breed characterization)
The Centre has a nucleus herd of Marwari horses along with
Zanskari and Manipuri ponies and exotic
donkeys at Hisar and Bikaner campuses. The stallions at Bikaner
campus are primarily used for collection Livestock Strength at
ICAR-NRCE, Hisar and EPC, Bikaner and cryopreservation of
semen for artificial insemination. Besides, frozen semen is used
for propagation of indigenous germplasm and superior Mule
production.
Mandate of (EPC) NRCE Bikaner
1. To undertake research on health and production
management in equines.
2. To develop diagnostic/biologicals for major equine
diseases and to act as national referral facilities for
diagnosis, surveillance and monitoring of equine
diseases and to provide diagnostic, advisory and
consultancy service.
Objectives
1. Describe the breeding cycle of mares.
2. Identify the methods of breeding equines
3. Describe the advantages and disadvantaged of
natural cover and artificial insemination.
4. Research advanced methods of breeding of equines.
Indigenous breed characterization
Marwari Horse
This breed of horses constitutes an elite group of indigenous
horses, which are known for their sturdiness, swiftness,
elegance and beauty. A total of 114 true-to-breed Marwari
horses comprising of 98 mares and 16 stallions from seven
different locations were evaluated. DNA polymorphism studies
revealed high level of heterozygosity and low level of
heterozygosity deficit in the Marwari horse population which
reflect high genetic variability in Marwari equine population.
The Centre in collaboration with Department of Animal
Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DAHDF), Government of
India has finalized the breed descriptor for the Marwari breed
of horses for entry of these animals in to the stud book. The
regions of MHC class-II (DRB-2a and 2b) gene in Marwari
horses exhibited polymorphism in 48.39% genotypes.
Kathiawari Horse
Kathiawari: Genotyping of Kathiawari breeds of horses
employing 30 fluorescent-labeled microsat pairs in multiplex
PCRs showed high heterozygosity which clearly indicated that
there is adequate genetic diversity among these equines.
The Equerry of Jaisalmer with Kathiawari Horse
Bhutia Horse
Bhutia: Characterization of true to breed animals of
Bhutia breed ponies (n=35) in Sikkim revealed their
mean heights at withers as 126.5 cm. In these ponies,
bay was the most common colour (69%) followed by
chestnut (23%), grey and other colours. Average body
length and heart girth were recorded as 129 and 148.5
cm, respectively without any significant difference due
to sex.
Spiti Horse
Spiti: In India, distribution of this breed is confined to
Lahoul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, limited areas of
Kangra and Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh;
Ladhakh division of J & K and Uttranchal but the true
breeding tract is confined to 15 villages of two
Panchayats (Kungri and Sagnam) in Pin Valley of Spiti
sub-division of Distt. Lahoul & Spiti. The total
population of Spiti ponies in H.P. is approximately
4000. True-to-breed phenotypic characters of this
breed have been recorded by NRCE.
Manipuri Horse
Manipuri : The phenotypic characterization of
Manipuri ponies indicated that height at wither in
both the sexes of Manipuri ponies ranged from 119-134
cm. In addition, heart girth (143.6 cm), hind leg length
(82.3 cm), fore leg length (78.4 cm) and height at knee
(39.4 cm), etc were also recorded. DNA of
representative animals of this breed has been
analyzed for molecular characterization of the breed.
Zanskari Horse
Zanskari : Biometric indices of true-to-Zanskari breed of horses
were recorded in their home tract in and around Leh, Laddakh
(Jammu & Kashmir). Average height at wither of Zanskari breed was
126 cm. Average animal height was slightly higher in stallions (127.21
± 7.57) then mares (125.45 ± 4.74 cm) but the differences were non
significant. Beside this, average body length (123.07 vs 129.5 cm),
heart girth (144.4 vs 148.9 cm), hind leg length (80.11 vs 79.95 cm),
canon length (16.18 vs 15.80 cm), height at knee (37.57 vs 36.95 cm),
face length (53.79 vs 53.75cm), face width (15.68 vs 15.25 cm), etc.
were almost same in both stallions and mares, respectively without
any significant difference. A nuclear herd of Zanskari ponies at our
Bikaner Campus, after translocating these animals from their native
herd at Ladakh in J and K.
Improvement in production potentials of equines
Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI):
In order to conserve the germplasm of indigenous equine
breeds, the technique for cryopreservation of semen of
Marwari, Kathiawari stallions and donkeys have been
standardized. The technique of artificial insemination
using frozen semen for production of superior quality
Marwari horses, superior mules and donkeys has been
perfected. The pure germplasm of endangered indigenous
breeds of horses is being conserved using this technology.
Nasal form of glanders with
ulceration in hind limb was
observed in mules
A Mule’s Typical Nasals form
showing mucopurulent
exudates, cutaneous
glanders
A Typical Pony at Equine Production Campus
(National Research Centre on Equines)
Jorbeer, Bikaner (Rajasthan)
EVE Response Graph, (EPC) NRCE Bikaner
Patents
 Early pregnancy diagnosis: Pregnancy diagnosis between days 14
and 18 post-insemination has been achieved using
ultrasonography in donkey and horse mares.
 Donkey fiber has been used to produce carpets by mixing with
sheep fibers in the ratio of 40:60.
 Kit for pregnancy diagnosis: An eCG s-ELISA kit.
Major Research Achievements
(Some Indian Patents on Equine Health)
 The Centre has been working on various aspects of equine
health and production and has made landmark achievements
in the fields of development of diagnostics and prophylactics
for equine diseases. The Centre has also been recognized as
national referral center for diagnosis of important equine
infectious diseases by Department of Animal Husbandry,
Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture (Government of
India). Besides, the Centre has been working towards
characterization of breeds of equines, cryopreservation of
semen and artificial insemination. The centre has developed
many kits and technologies which have either been patented or
under the process of patent.
Diagnostics for equine diseases
Patent has been granted by the Patent Office, Government of India
entitled "A method for preparation of a diagnostic kit useful for
forecasting Equine Herpes Virus-1 disease".
A patent has been filed for “COFEB-Kit for diagnosis of Babesia equi
infection in equines”.
A patent has been filed for “A method for preparing complement
fixation test based (COFEB) kit for the diagnosis of Babesia equi
infection in equines”.
The Centre has filed a patent for “A kit for detection of pregnancy in
equines and assay thereof”.
MISSION 2030 SAVE EQUINE = SAVE POWER
Services
 NRCE provides following services to the farmers and equine
breeders:
 The centre provides disease diagnostic services for various
infectious and non-infectious equine diseases to equine owners,
breeders, state animal husbandry departments, police and army
horses.
 Artificial insemination to augment the production of superior
quality Marwari horses, mules and donkeys.
 Quality jacks and jennies are supplied to various states, breeding
societies and farmers, for production of superior quality mules
and donkeys.
 NRCE is providing health certification for movement of equines
within and outside the country. This facility has helped in
promotion of export of horses.
Diagnostics for equine diseases
 Assessment and transfer of technology using the latest know-how
of information technology is also given due importance to extend
the technologies to the end-users. The scientific and technical
staff provides clinical and diagnostic (including pregnancy
diagnosis) services and consultancy to the farmers on demand in
the areas of equine health and production. Farmers are imparted
trainings and supplied education materials for equine
management, production and health.
 Extension activities: To receive feedback from the equine owners,
various activities like health camp, awareness and farmers meets
are organized on regular basis in different areas of the country.
Veterinary Type Cultures Facility at NRCE
Indian Council of Agricultural Research entrusted NRCE the
responsibility of establishing Veterinary Type Culture Centre
(VTCC) during the X plan period. The Veterinary Type
Cultures became functional in June 2005 for establishing
national repository of microorganisms of animal origin
including recombinant cultures and plasmids; and
identification, characterization, conservation, maintenance
and utilization of microorganisms. Approximately 250
bacterial isolates and 25 viral isolates have been collected in
VTCC. In addition, a phage display library of single-domain
antibodies of Indian desert camel and the twenty seven
antigen-binder clones selected from the library have been
deposited in the VTCC repository.
Major Landmarks
 1985 NRCE established at Hisar with Prof. P. K. Uppal joining
as Founder Director 1987 Outbreak of equine influenza in
Northern India
 1989 Sub Campus of NRCE established at Bikaner for
research on production in equines
 1990 Exotic donkey germplasm with Poitu blood introduced
from France
 1991 Artificial insemination (AI) initiated in equines using
fresh extended liquid semen
 1991 Early pregnancy diagnosis (15 days post insemination)
using ultrasonography
 1994 An ELISA developed for differentiation of equine
influenza vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA)
Major Landmarks
1995 Ciq-ELISA developed for detection of circulating immune complexes in EIA-infected horses
1995 Development of field-oriented immune-stick ELISA kit for detection of EHV-1 latent infection in Throughbred
horses
1995 Cryopreservation of Jack semen and technology of AI perfected using frozen semen with 40% conception rate
1996 Establishment of a nucleus herd of Marwari horses at Bikaner campus
1996 Crystal structure of mare milk lactoferrin deduced by crystallography
1996 New carpet fabric developed by blending of donkey and sheep hair (Assheep)
1995 Ciq-ELISA developed for detection of circulating immune complexes in EIA-infected horses
1995 Development of field-oriented immune-stick ELISA kit for detection of EHV-1 latent infection in Throughbred
horses
1995 Cryopreservation of Jack semen and technology of AI perfected using frozen semen with 40% conception rate
1996 Establishment of a nucleus herd of Marwari horses at Bikaner campus
1996 Crystal structure of mare milk lactoferrin deduced by crystallography
1996 New carpet fabric developed by blending of donkey and sheep hair (Assheep)
Major Landmarks
 2005 Mab-based sELISA for detection of animal rotaviruses
 2005 Establishment of Veterinary Type Culture Centre, at NRCE, Hisar
 2006 Collection and cryopreservation of stallion semen at farmer’s door using mobile
laboratory
 2006 World Organization for Animal Health declared India free of African horse
sickness
 2006 Outbreaks of glanders in equines
 2008 Re-emergence of equine influenza
 2008 Equine Herpes Virus-1 diagnosis kit released
 2008 ELISA based pregnancy diagnosis kit for pregnancy diagnosis in mares released
 2009 Development of equine herpesvirus-1 vaccine
 2009 A nucleus herd of Zanskari ponies establishment at Bikaner
 2009 First loboratory confirmed camelpox zoonosis in the world
 2009 Japanese Encephalitis Virus isolated from equines in India
 2009 Updation of equine influenza vaccine
Major Landmarks
 2009 First isolation of Bordetella bronciceptica from horse
 2009 First isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and
Corynebacterium bovis from horse
 2009 First isolation of Methicillin- resistant Coagulase Negative
Staphylococcus sciuri from goats
 2010 Equine sanctuary for conservation of indigenous breeds of horses
 2010 A new clade designated as ‘Asian Clade’ of equine influenza virus
reported
 2010 Award of OIE twining project on Equine Poroplasmosis between NRCPD,
Japan and NRCE, India
 2010 EIA-positive mule detected in indigenous equine
Major Landmarks
 2010 Phenotypic characterization of all six indigenous equine breeds
 2010 Re-emergence of glanders in Himachal Pradesh and Uttar pradesh
 2010 Standardization of AI using semen of Poitu donkeys & Marwari
horses
 2010 Zanskari stallion semen cryopreserved
 2010 Started toll-free helpline no. 1800-180-1233 for advisory services to
equine owners
 2011 First laboratory confirmed report on BPXV causing disease in Buffalo,
human and cow in same time and space
 2011 Whole genome sequencing of Indian strain of Japanese Encephalitis
virus.
Mission 2030 Save Equine = Save Power
Our future mission includes achieving freedom from dreaded
equine diseases through development of modern diagnostics,
vaccines and therapeutics, undertaking disease surveillance,
monitoring & forecasting, strategic control and eradication
measures, and providing germplasm of superior donkeys and
indigenous horse breeds for improvement of horses in their
home tracts using artificial insemination and embryo transfer
technology to equine owners, awareness and equestrians meets
are organized on regular basis in the different regions of the
Rajasthan State.
Dr S .M. K. Naqvi, Director, CSWRI Avikanagar at EPC Bikaner
(17 August 2013)
During visit he inaugurated Kisan Call
Centre Equine Owners
Marwari Horse In Dashera Festival, at Mandi Palace,
Jaisalmer Raj.
The Statue of a Horse with Warrior
The Horse is in water, A Prince is mounted
Gadhisar Lake, Jaisalmer (Raj.)
An Equisterian Dharamveer Singh Ji Chouhan Nachna,
Jaisalmer, Rajasthan
The Princess Jhala with the Mare, Jaisalmer
PEHCHAN KOUN ???
A Skiang Mule in Yuksom Valley North Sikkim,
India
THANKS
RAM AVDHESH SINGH
Asstt. Professor, North East Regional Institute of Education
(NCERT) Shillong, Meghalaya

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"A Geographical Study on Equines Conservation Issues and Challenges in (EPC) NRCE, Bikaner Rajasthan"

  • 1. *Asst. Professor, North East Regional Institute of Education, (NCERT ) Shillong, Meghalaya
  • 2. Introduction The Human beings have a great impact on the bovines of wild equines. It includes habitat destruction and conflicts with local people and livestock. United States of America’s Supreme Court ruled that the animals so designated as a matter of law, under wildlife conservation. The Equus is a genus of mammals in the family Equidae, which includes horses, asses, and zebras. The word equus is Latin for "horse", and is cognate with the Greek "ἵππος" (hippos), "horse" and Mycenaean Greek i-qo /ikkʷos/ (cf. the alternative development of the Proto-Greek labiovelar in Ionic "ἴκκος" ikkos) the earliest attested variant of the Greek word, written in Linear B syllabic script.
  • 3. Origin of The Eques Species The genus most likely originated in North America and first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It is the only recognized extant genus in the family Equidae. Remains attributed to a variety of species and lumped together as New World stilt-legged horses (including E. francisci, E. tau, and E. quinni).The horse is an animal that have one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd- toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. Scientific name: Equus caballus.
  • 4. An Anatomy of Equine
  • 5. National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar Haryana, India The National Research Centre on Equines is a premier institute established under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research for conducting research on equine health and production. NRHC became operational at Hisar on 7 January 1986 for conducting researches and for providing effective health coverage for equines. The importance of equines in India is well known. India possesses 1.17 million equines. According to the National Commission on Agriculture (1976), Equine Breeds in India can be placed broadly in two classes’ viz. the slow moving pack ponies and the fast running saddle horses used for riding or for drawing carriages. The indigenous breeds of horses/ponies include Marwari, Kathiawari, Manipuri, Spiti, Bhutia and Zanskari. Among these, Marwari and Kathiawari are considered as 2 distinct breeds or types although they have several characteristics in common. Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rajasthan are the homes of Kathiawari and Marwari breeds, respectively. Three other breeds of India namely Deccani, Chummarti and Sikang are considered to be on the verge of extinction.
  • 6. NRCE – ICAR, Hisar, Haryana Campus
  • 7. Conservation Issues Humans have had a great impact on the populations of wild equines. Threats to wild equines include habitat destruction and conflicts with local people and livestock. Since the 20th century, wild equines have been decimated over many of their former ranges and their populations scattered. In recent centuries, two subspecies, the quagga and the tarpan, became extinct. Only the plains zebra remains numerous and widespread. The IUCN lists the African wild ass as critically endangered, the Grévy's zebra, mountain zebra and Przewalski's horse as endangered, the Onager as vulnerable, the kiang as lower risk and the plains zebra as least concern. The Przewalski's horse was considered to be extinct in the wild from the 1960s to 1996. However, following successful captive breeding, it has been reintroduced in Mongolia.
  • 8. Feral horses vary in degree of protection and generate considerable controversy. For example, in Australia, they are considered a non-native invasive species, often viewed as pests, though are also considered to have some cultural and economic value. In the United States, feral horses and burros are generally considered an introduced species because descend from domestic horses brought to the Americas from Europe. While they are viewed as pests by many livestock producers, conversely, there is also a view that E. ferus caballus is a reintroduced once- native species returned to the Americas that should be granted endangered species protection. At present, certain free-roaming horses and burros have federal protection as "living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West" under the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 and in Kleppe v. New Mexico, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the animals so designated were, as a matter of law, wildlife.
  • 9. Ecology and Behavior Characteristics Extant wild equines have scattered ranges across Africa and Asia. The plains zebra lives in lush grasslands and savannas of Eastern and Southern Africa, while the Mountain zebra inhabits mountainous areas of southwest Africa. The other equine species tend to occupy more arid environments with more scattered vegetation. The Grévy's zebra is found in thorny scrubland of East Africa, while the African wild ass inhabits rocky deserts of North Africa. The two Asian wild ass species live in the dry deserts of the Near East and Central Asia and the Przwelski's wild horse's habitat is the deserts of Mongolia. Only the range of the plains and Grévy's zebras overlap.In addition to wild populations, domesticated horses and donkeys are widespread thanks to humans. In certain parts of the world, populations of feral horses and feral donkeys exist, which are descended from domesticated animals that were released or escaped into the wild.
  • 10. Ecology and Behavior Characteristics Equines are monogastric hindgut fermenters. They prefer to eat grasses and sedges, but may also consume bark, leaves, buds, fruits and roots if their favored foods are scarce, particularly asses. Compared to ruminants, equines have a simpler and less efficient digestive system. Nevertheless, they can subsist on lower quality vegetation. After food is passed though the stomach, it enters the sac-like cecum. where cellulose is broken down by micro- organisms. Fermentation is quicker in equines than in ruminants; 30–45 hours for a horse compared to 70–100 hours for a cow. Equines may spend 60- 80 percent of their time feeding, depending on the availability and quality of vegetation. In the African savannas, the plains zebra is a pioneer grazer; mowing down the upper, less nutritious grass canopy and preparing the way for more specialized grazers like blue wildebeests and Thomson's gazelles which depend on shorter and more nutritious grasses below. Wild equines may spend seven hours a day sleeping. During the day, they sleep standing up while at night they lie down. They regularly rub against trees, rocks and other objects and roll in around in dust for protection against flies and irritation. Except the mountain zebra, wild equines can roll over completely.
  • 11. Communication Characteristics When meeting for the first time or after they have separated, individuals may greet each other by rubbing and sniffing their noses followed by rubbing their cheeks, moving their noses along their bodies and sniffing each other's genitals. They then may rub and press their shoulders against each other and rest their heads on one another. This greeting is usually performed among harem or territorial males or among bachelor males playing.
  • 12. Communication Characteristics Equines produce a number of vocalizations and noises. Loud snorting is associated with alarm. Squealing is usually made when in pain, but bachelors will also squeal while play fighting. The contact calls of equines vary from the whinnying and nickering of the horse, the barking of plains zebras, and the braying of asses and Grévy's zebras. Equines also communicate with visual displays and the flexibility of their lips allows them to make complex facial expressions. Visual displays also incorporate the positions of the head, ears and tail. An equine may signal an intention to kick by laying back its ears and sometimes lashing the tail. Flattened ears, bared teeth and abrupt movement of the heads may be used as threatening gestures, particularly among stallions
  • 13. Social Characteristics Equines are social animals with two basic social structures. Horses, plains zebras and mountain zebras live in stable, closed family groups or harems consisting of one adult male, several females and their offspring. These groups have their own home ranges which overlap and they tend to be nomadic. The stability of the group remains even when the family stallion dies or is displaced. Plains zebra groups gather into large herds and may create temporarily stable subgroups within a herd, allowing individuals to interact with those outside their group. Among harem-holding species, this behavior has only otherwise been observed in primates like the gelada and the hamadryas baboon. Females of harem species benefit as males give them more time for feeding, protection for their young, as well as protection from predators and harassment by outside males. Among females in a harem, a linear dominance hierarchy exists based on the time at which they join the group.
  • 14. Harems travel in a consistent filing order with the high-ranking mares and their offspring leading the groups followed by the next highest ranking mare and her offspring and so on. The family stallion takes up the rear. Social grooming (which involves individuals rubbing their heads against each other and nipping with the incisors and lips) is important for easing aggression and maintaining social bonds and status. Young of both sexes leave their natal groups as they mature; females are usually abducted by outside males to be included as permanent members of their harems.
  • 15. Social Characteristics In Grévy's zebras and the wild ass species, adults have more fluid associations and adult males will establish large territories and monopolize the females that enter them. These species live in habitats with sparser resources and standing water and grazing areas may be separated. Groups of lactating females are able to remain in groups with non-lactating ones and usually gather at foraging areas. The most dominant males establish territories near watering holes, where more sexually receptive females gather. Subdominants have territories farther away, near foraging areas. Mares may wander through several territories but will remain in one when they have young. Staying in a territory offers a female protection from harassment by outside males, as well as access to a renewable resource. Some feral populations of horse exhibit features of both the harem and territorial social systems.
  • 16. In both equine social systems, excess males gather in bachelor groups. These are typically young males who are not yet ready to establish a harem or territory. With the plains zebra, the males in a bachelor group have strong bonds and have a linear dominance hierarchy. Fights between males usually occur over estrus females and involve biting and kicking.
  • 17. Human Relations Archaeological, biogeographical, and linguistic evidence suggest that the donkey was first domesticated by nomadic pastoral people in North Africa over 5,000 years ago. The animals were used to help cope with the increased aridity of the Sahara and the Horn of Africa. Genetic evidence finds that the donkey was domesticated twice based on two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. It also points to a single ancestor, the Nubian wild ass.[49] Attempts to domesticate zebras were largely unsuccessful, though Walter Rothschild trained some to draw a carriage in England
  • 18. Physical Characteristics Equines have significant differences in size, though all are characterized by long heads and necks. Their slender legs support their weight on one digit (which evolved from the middle digits). The Grévy's zebra is the largest wild species, standing up to 13.2 hands (54 inches, 137 cm) and weighing up to 405 kg (890 lb). Domesticated horses have a wider range of sizes. Heavy or draft horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) high and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) and weigh from about 700 to 1,000 kilograms (1,500 to 2,200 lb). Some miniature horses are no taller than 30 inches (76 cm) in adulthood. Sexual dimorphism is limited in equines. The penis of the male is vascular and lacks a bone (baculum).
  • 19. Equines are adapted for running and for traveling over long distances. Their dentition is adapted for grazing; they have large incisors that clip grass blades and highly crowned, ridged molars well suited for grinding. Males have spade-shaped canines ("tushes"), which can be used as weapons in fighting. Equines have fairly good senses, particularly their eyesight. Their moderately long, erect ears are movable and can locate the source of a sound. Physical Characteristics
  • 20. Physical Characteristics A dun-colored coat with primitive markings that include a dorsal stripe and often leg striping and transverse shoulder stripes reflect the wildtype coat and are observed in most wild extant equine species. Only the mountain zebra lacks a dorsal stripe. In domestic horses, dun color and primitive markings exist in some animals across many breeds. The purpose of the bold black-and- white striping of zebras has been a subject of debate among biologists for over a century, but recent (2014) evidence supports the theory that they are a form of protection from biting flies.
  • 21. These insects appear to be less attracted to striped coats and, compared to other wild equines, zebras live in areas with the highest fly activity. With the exception of the domestic horses, which have long manes that lay over the neck and long tail hair growing from the top of the tail head or dock, most equines have erect manes and long tails ending in a tuft of hair. The coats of some equine species undergo shedding in certain parts of their range and are thick in the winter.
  • 22. An Anatomy of Equine
  • 23. Physical Characteristics  Origin India :- Marwari Horse, Height 16 hands, Weight 827,pounds  Native to the Marwari region of India, the Marwari horse is a rare breed known for its hardiness and upturned ears. A descendant of native Indian ponies crossed with Arabian horses, the Marwari comes in virtually every equine color. Displaying exceptional loyalty and bravery in battle, the Marwari was traditionally used as a cavalry horse before being used for light draft work and hauling. The breed is rare due to strict exporting guidelines, but since the early 2000s has become available in small quantities.  (Common Uses Dressage / Endurance Riding / General Riding / Jumping / Mounted Athletics)
  • 24. Reproduction and parenting Among harem-holding species, the adult females mate only with their harem stallion, while in other species, mating is more promiscuous and the males have larger testes for sperm competition. Estrous in female equines lasts 5–10 days; physical signs include frequent urination, flowing muscus, and a swollen, everted labia. In addition, estrous females will stand with their hind legs spread and raise their tails when in the presence of a male. Males assess the female's reproductive state with the flehmen response and the female will solicit mating by backing in. Length of gestation varies by species, it is roughly 11 to 13 months, and most mares will come into estrus again within a few days after foaling, depending on conditions. Usually, only a single foal is born, which is capable of running within an hour. Within a few weeks, foals will attempt to graze, but may continue to nurse for 8–13 months. Species in arid habitats, like the Grévy's zebra, have longer nursing intervals and do not drink water until they are three months old.
  • 25. Reproduction and parenting Among harem-holding species, foals are cared for mostly by their mothers, but if threatened by predators, the entire group works together to protect all the young. The group forms a protective front with the foals in the center and the stallion will rush at predators that come too close. In territory-holding species, mothers may gather into small groups and leave their young in "kindergartens" under the guard of a territorial male while searching for water.
  • 26. Reproduction and parenting Equines species can crossbreed with each other. The most common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. With rare exceptions, these hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce. A related hybrid, a hinny, is a cross between a male horse and a female donkey. Other hybrids include the zorse, a cross between a zebra and a horse and a zonkey or zedonk, a hybrid of a zebra and a donkey. In areas where Grévy's zebras are sympatric with plains zebras, fertile hybrids do occupy.
  • 27. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages • Can breed more mares • Distance isn't a problem as semen can be frozen and shipped • Process can be expensive • Intensive time management • Low cost other than transportation Disadvantages • Can cause injury if not supervised • not exaxtly sure when bred if pasture bred • Timing isn't as big an issue since semen lives longer than cooled/shipped semen
  • 28. Equine Breeds in India According to the National Commission on Agriculture (1976), horses in India can be placed broadly in two classes viz. the slow moving pack ponies and the fast running saddle horses used for riding or for drawing carriages. The indigenous breeds of horses/ponies include Marwari, Kathiawari, Manipuri, Spiti, Bhutia and Zanskari. Among these, Marwari and Kathiawari are considered as 2 distinct breeds or types although they have several characteristics in common. Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rajasthan are the homes of Kathiawari and Marwari breeds, respectively. These breeds have been selected both for utility and beauty. Bhutia, Spiti and Zanskari ponies, mainly found in the hilly areas of Himalayan ranges are slow moving horses. The Manipuri horses having qualities of both hill and plain breeds of horses have been bred over centuries in the Manipur area of the northeast. Manipuri horses reputed for their intelligence are used for polo and racing. Three other breeds of India namely Deccani, Chummarti and Sikang are considered to be on the verge of
  • 29. Horse -Scientific name: Equus Caballus  Horse -The horse is an animal who have one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae.  Lifespan: 25 – 30 years, Speed: 40 – 48 km/h (Galloping), Gestation period: 11 – 12 months, Mass: 380 – 1,000 kg (Adult), Higher classification: Equus.  The exotic breeds of horses introduced in India include English thoroughbred, Water, Arab, Polish, Connemera and Halflinger. The Arab, the first to be introduced,is believed to have contributed substantially for the evolution of Kathiawari, Marwari, Sindhi, Malani and Manipuri horses. It is believed that all the indigenous breeds of the horses are rapidly deteriorating in quality as a result of lack of organized systematic breeding and availability of good specimen animals. Unless huge financial commitment is made,
  • 30. There is a possibility of the breeds losing their identity even in their home tract. Thoroughbred- The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Scientific name: Equus ferus caballus, Higher classification: Horse, Rank: Breed
  • 31. Equine Breeds in India Hot blood (Description: One of the most popular and recognizable horse breeds in the world, the Thoroughbred is a hot-blooded horse best known for its ability to excel in horseracing. The word “thoroughbred” is often used to refer to any purebred horse, but the term actually refers to the English breed developed in the 18th and 19 centuries. In terms of appearance, the Thoroughbred resembles its Arabian ancestors. Although used primarily for racing, the breed is also used for other disciplines including jumping, fox hunting, and barrel racing)
  • 32. Marwari Horse The Marwari breed is derived from the Marwar region of the Rajasthan - the natural habitat of the breed. The Marwar region includes Udaipur, Jalor, Jodhpur and Rajasamand districts of Rajasthan and some adjoining areas of Gujarat. The Marwari horses are reared mainly for riding and sports and no attempts are being made to prepare them as thoroughbred race animals. The predominant body colour is brown where as other body colours are roan, chestnut, white and black with white patches. The Marwari horses have 130-140 cm long body, 152-160 cm height, 166-175 cm heart girth, 60 cm face length, 22 cm face width, 18 cm ear length and 47 cm tail length without switch. The Marwari horses are longer and taller than Kathiawari horses. MARWARI HORSE - RANA
  • 33. Kathiawari Horse The superintendent of Gaekwar Contingent in 1880 suggested that the Kathiawari breed may have sprung from the wild horses of Kathiawar (a sort of Quagga, Bombay Gazette, Kathiawari, foot note, page 97). The breeding tract of the breed is Saurashtra province ofGujarat which comprises of Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Surendranagar Junagarh and Amreli districts of Gujarat. The most prominent body colour in Kathiawari horses is chestnut followed by bay (body chestnut, Foreleg up to knee and fetlock are black, Keshwali black, Hairs of tail and neck are black), grey (complete white colour) and dun (light chestnut).
  • 34. The physical characteristics of Kathiawari horses are concave profile, long neck, short leg and squared quarters. Face is dry and short, triangular from pale to forehead and small muzzle, big nostrils, edge of nostril is thin; small, fine and curved upright ears on 90 degrees axis that can rotate at 180 degrees, broad forehead and large expressive sensitive eyes. Tail is long, not bushy, curved well and touching to the ground, foot round and broad. Kathiawari horses have on an average 119 cm long body, 147 cm height and 160 cm heart girth. The average ear length is 15 cm. The average face length and width are 53 and 21 cm, respectively. Kathiawari Horses
  • 35. Spiti Horse The Spiti horses are distributed in Spiti valley and adjoining areas of Kullu and Kinnaur divisions of Himachal Pradesh. These horses are smaller in height. The Spiti ponies have two strains, Spiti pure and Konimare. The Konimare ponies are comparatively taller. They are capable of thriving in cold regions under adverse conditions of scarcity of food, low temperature and long journeys at high altitude. The Spiti horses are used for riding and as pack animals. The predominant body colour is grey (complete white) followed by black, black flay bone (white body with black patches), brown and bay.
  • 36. The Spiti horses are hardy and surefooted. Body is well developed with fairly strong bones. The legs are thick and covered with long coarse hairs. The mane is longer having 20 to 30 cm long hairs. Solid and compact body, convex face, erect ears, black eyes, straight back, long and straight tail, alert looking and short height are some of the important breed characteristics. The horses are nervous in temperament. The Spiti horses have on average 97 cm body length, 127 cm height, 150 cm paunch girth, 15 cm long ear, 49 cm face length and 20 cm face width. It has been observed that females have shorter body, height, heart girth and paunch girth. Spiti Horse
  • 37. Zanskari Horse Zanskari horses are available in Leh and Laddakh area of Jammu and Kashmir. The predominant body colour is grey followed by black and copper. The horses are known for their ability to work, run adequately and carry loads at high altitude. Horses are medium in size, well built and 120 to 140 cm high. The Zanskari horses have predominant eyes, heavy and long tail and uniform gait. The body hairs are fine, long and glossy. Only a few hundred horses at present exist in the Zanskar and other valleys of Laddakh. Large scale breeding with non-descript ponies has endangered this breed. The Animal Husbandry Department,Jammu and Kashmir has recently established a Zanskari horse Breeding farm at Padum Zanskar in Kargil district of Ladakh for breed improvement and conservation through selective breeding.
  • 38. Manipuri Horse Manipuri breed of ponies is one of the purest and prestigious breed of equines of India. It is a strong and hardy breed and has very good adaptability to extreme geo-climatic conditions. It is one of the well- known breeds of India and has been claimed as the oldest polo pony. They are found in Manipur and Assam, and are similar to the south- east Asian type pony. Generally the Manipuri ponies are of 11-13 hands high at wither with a good shoulder, short back, well developed quarters and strong limbs. Mane is generally coarse and upright. It has small pointed pricked ears, eyes are alert and slightly slant .The area between the nostrils is flat not crispy. Withers are not prominent. Face is concave and tail is well set and commensurate with height.
  • 39. Manipuri Ponies Manipuri ponies are intelligent and extremely tough, and have tremendous endurance. Perhaps all these good qualities made it suitable for polo game for which it is globally famous. The breed is available in 14 different colors viz Bay, Black, Gray, Mora white, Leiphon white, Sinai White, Stocking, liver chestnut, Roan, light gray, Reddish brown and dark bay. The pony undoubtly played significant role in the field of war and play. It has close association with the socioeconomic life of the people of hilly region through travel, transport and hunting. It is a matter of concern that the number of Manipuri has decreased drastically. As per latest data the population of Manipuri pony is 2327 only. Thus, immediate attention and efforts are required to conserve this precious breed of ponies in India.
  • 40. Bhutia Horse Bhutia horses are distributed in Sikkim and Darjeeling. They are usually grey or bay coloured and similar to the Tibetan pony.
  • 41. Donkeys/Asses It is considered that asses are of purely African origin. The ass was first domesticated in the valley of the Nile. Three wild races of asses were observed: North-East African race (Nubia), North-East African race (Sudan) and Somalian race (Somali-land).  The greatest contribution to animal husbandry that ass has made is the production of mules. Mules fit well in different agricultural operations. The asses have several features that differ from horses; one of the most noticeable characteristics is longer and much larger ears of asses. The hair on mane and tail are very scanty and there is a brush like switch at the end of the tail. Jacks and their mule offspring have well-muscled, broader loins, long and well sprung ribs. Consequently, they can take more abuse and punishment than the horse. Jacks lack apparent muscling, have larger bone and joints but smaller rounder feet than the horses. Jacks also have a characteristic bray, which is a decidedly in contrast to the whinney of the horse.
  • 42. Donkeys/Asses The modern domesticated asses have mainly descended from the Nubian race. Though grey colour predominates but black, white and even piebald asses can be seen. The ass is indisputably one of the most useful animals and is available everywhere. FAO has reported three distinct types of Indian ass’s viz. Indian, Indian wild and Kiang. Indian wild asses are available in Rann of Kutch while Kiang are available in Sikkim and Laddakh. They are dark red brown with white underparts and patch behind the shoulder. Among Indian, two major types of donkeys i.e. those of larger size and smaller size are common. The larger size donkeys are light grey to almost white in colour. The smaller size ones are dark grey in colour. Good quality donkey stallions of exotic breed obtained from France and other European countries are maintained by NRCE, State Animal husbandry Deptt. of Haryana and Equine Breeding Farm RVC Centre Meerut, Uttar Pradesh by Indian Army.
  • 43. Mules The mules are most useful pack and transport animals as they play important role, both in the military establishments as well as in civilian occupations particularly in hills. The mule combines some of the superior qualities of both horses and donkeys. It has size, speed strength and spirit of the horse, along with the surefooted-ness, lack of excitability, endurance and ability to thrive on poor feed.  The production of mules involves three steps: the breeding of jack stock for use as stallion, breeding of mares and crossing of jack with mare. One of the biggest difficulties in mule production is to locate a fertile jack that can quickly serve. The most common practice however, is to tease mares with a stallion and allow the jack to serve a properly restrained mare so that she will stand for the jack. Only sound broodmares of good quality should be selected for providing high-grade mules. Breeders of work horses usually take particular care in choosing good mares for breeding purposes but ordinarily mule breeders make no consistent effort in selecting mares for production of mules. Mares used in mule production are of not fixed .
  • 44. Mules  The draft mules measure 155 to 172 cm in height and weight from 450 to 650 Kg. An ideal draft mule has long ears, broad forehead, broad deep chest, well filled heart girth, short and strong back, broad, heavily muscled and smooth hips and deep body. The neck is heavily muscled, fits neatly at the shoulder and has slight crest. The legs are squarely placed. The pastern shows moderate length, strength and a desirable slope. The feet are durable, wide and high at the heels, with concave soles. The horn of the hoof is smooth, dense and sound.  Equines species can crossbreed with each other. The most common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. With rare exceptions, these hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce.[18] A related hybrid, a hinny, is a cross between a male horse and a female donkey. Other hybrids include the zorse, a cross between a zebra and a horse and a zonkey or zedonk, a hybrid of a zebra and a donkey. In areas where Grévy's zebras are sympatric with plains zebras, fertile hybrids do occur.
  • 45. Human Relations The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to approximately 4000-3500 BC. By 3000 BC, the horse was completely domesticated and by 2000 BC there was a sharp increase in the number of horse bones found in human settlements in northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses throughout the continent. The most recent, but most irrefutable, evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrovka cultures c. 2100 BC. Studies of variation in genetic material shows that very few wild stallions, possibly all from a single haplotype, contributed to the domestic horse, while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.
  • 46. The Przewalski's horse has been conclusively shown not to be an ancestor of the domestic horse, even though the two can hybridize and produce fertile offspring. The split between Przewalskii's horse and E. ferus caballus is estimated to have occurred 120,000– 240,000 years ago, long before domestication. Of the caballine equines, E. ferus, it is E. ferus ferus, also known as the European wild horse or "tarpan" that shares ancestry with the modern domestic horse. In addition, it has also been hypothesized that tarpans that lived into modern times may have been hybridized with domestic horses Human Relations
  • 47. The NRHC ‘s Sub-campus at Bikaner, Rajasthan (EPC), NRCE, ICAR (Govt. of India ) NRCE’s sub-campus is at Bikaner, Rajasthan was created during 1989 for conducting researches for improving the technologies for optimization of reproduction and undertakes research on equine production including conservation. The Centre has the responsibility on generation of technologies for augmenting equine performance in order to uplift the socio-economic status of equine owners. The Centre has a nucleus herd of Marwari horses along with Zanskari and Manipuri ponies and exotic donkeys at Hisar and Bikaner campuses. The stallions at Bikaner campus are primarily used for collection livestock strength at ICAR-NRCE, Hisar and EPC, Bikaner and cryopreservation of semen for artificial insemination.
  • 48. Besides, frozen semen is used for propagation of indigenous germplasm and superior mule production. Currently, the Centre is undertaking 24 research projects in leading areas of equine health and production including 9 externally funded projects Centre has also been recognized as a National Referral Centre for diagnosis of important equine infectious diseases including exotic diseases by the Govt. of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, and New Delhi. The Centre has also been working towards characterization of different breeds of equines and has finalized the breed descriptor for the Marwari horses for their registration into the study book.
  • 49. Equine Production Centre, Bikaner Raj. (Indigenous breed characterization) The Centre has a nucleus herd of Marwari horses along with Zanskari and Manipuri ponies and exotic donkeys at Hisar and Bikaner campuses. The stallions at Bikaner campus are primarily used for collection Livestock Strength at ICAR-NRCE, Hisar and EPC, Bikaner and cryopreservation of semen for artificial insemination. Besides, frozen semen is used for propagation of indigenous germplasm and superior Mule production.
  • 50. Mandate of (EPC) NRCE Bikaner 1. To undertake research on health and production management in equines. 2. To develop diagnostic/biologicals for major equine diseases and to act as national referral facilities for diagnosis, surveillance and monitoring of equine diseases and to provide diagnostic, advisory and consultancy service.
  • 51. Objectives 1. Describe the breeding cycle of mares. 2. Identify the methods of breeding equines 3. Describe the advantages and disadvantaged of natural cover and artificial insemination. 4. Research advanced methods of breeding of equines.
  • 52. Indigenous breed characterization Marwari Horse This breed of horses constitutes an elite group of indigenous horses, which are known for their sturdiness, swiftness, elegance and beauty. A total of 114 true-to-breed Marwari horses comprising of 98 mares and 16 stallions from seven different locations were evaluated. DNA polymorphism studies revealed high level of heterozygosity and low level of heterozygosity deficit in the Marwari horse population which reflect high genetic variability in Marwari equine population. The Centre in collaboration with Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DAHDF), Government of India has finalized the breed descriptor for the Marwari breed of horses for entry of these animals in to the stud book. The regions of MHC class-II (DRB-2a and 2b) gene in Marwari horses exhibited polymorphism in 48.39% genotypes.
  • 53. Kathiawari Horse Kathiawari: Genotyping of Kathiawari breeds of horses employing 30 fluorescent-labeled microsat pairs in multiplex PCRs showed high heterozygosity which clearly indicated that there is adequate genetic diversity among these equines.
  • 54. The Equerry of Jaisalmer with Kathiawari Horse
  • 55. Bhutia Horse Bhutia: Characterization of true to breed animals of Bhutia breed ponies (n=35) in Sikkim revealed their mean heights at withers as 126.5 cm. In these ponies, bay was the most common colour (69%) followed by chestnut (23%), grey and other colours. Average body length and heart girth were recorded as 129 and 148.5 cm, respectively without any significant difference due to sex.
  • 56. Spiti Horse Spiti: In India, distribution of this breed is confined to Lahoul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, limited areas of Kangra and Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh; Ladhakh division of J & K and Uttranchal but the true breeding tract is confined to 15 villages of two Panchayats (Kungri and Sagnam) in Pin Valley of Spiti sub-division of Distt. Lahoul & Spiti. The total population of Spiti ponies in H.P. is approximately 4000. True-to-breed phenotypic characters of this breed have been recorded by NRCE.
  • 57. Manipuri Horse Manipuri : The phenotypic characterization of Manipuri ponies indicated that height at wither in both the sexes of Manipuri ponies ranged from 119-134 cm. In addition, heart girth (143.6 cm), hind leg length (82.3 cm), fore leg length (78.4 cm) and height at knee (39.4 cm), etc were also recorded. DNA of representative animals of this breed has been analyzed for molecular characterization of the breed.
  • 58. Zanskari Horse Zanskari : Biometric indices of true-to-Zanskari breed of horses were recorded in their home tract in and around Leh, Laddakh (Jammu & Kashmir). Average height at wither of Zanskari breed was 126 cm. Average animal height was slightly higher in stallions (127.21 ± 7.57) then mares (125.45 ± 4.74 cm) but the differences were non significant. Beside this, average body length (123.07 vs 129.5 cm), heart girth (144.4 vs 148.9 cm), hind leg length (80.11 vs 79.95 cm), canon length (16.18 vs 15.80 cm), height at knee (37.57 vs 36.95 cm), face length (53.79 vs 53.75cm), face width (15.68 vs 15.25 cm), etc. were almost same in both stallions and mares, respectively without any significant difference. A nuclear herd of Zanskari ponies at our Bikaner Campus, after translocating these animals from their native herd at Ladakh in J and K.
  • 59. Improvement in production potentials of equines Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI): In order to conserve the germplasm of indigenous equine breeds, the technique for cryopreservation of semen of Marwari, Kathiawari stallions and donkeys have been standardized. The technique of artificial insemination using frozen semen for production of superior quality Marwari horses, superior mules and donkeys has been perfected. The pure germplasm of endangered indigenous breeds of horses is being conserved using this technology.
  • 60. Nasal form of glanders with ulceration in hind limb was observed in mules A Mule’s Typical Nasals form showing mucopurulent exudates, cutaneous glanders
  • 61. A Typical Pony at Equine Production Campus (National Research Centre on Equines) Jorbeer, Bikaner (Rajasthan)
  • 62. EVE Response Graph, (EPC) NRCE Bikaner
  • 63. Patents  Early pregnancy diagnosis: Pregnancy diagnosis between days 14 and 18 post-insemination has been achieved using ultrasonography in donkey and horse mares.  Donkey fiber has been used to produce carpets by mixing with sheep fibers in the ratio of 40:60.  Kit for pregnancy diagnosis: An eCG s-ELISA kit.
  • 64. Major Research Achievements (Some Indian Patents on Equine Health)  The Centre has been working on various aspects of equine health and production and has made landmark achievements in the fields of development of diagnostics and prophylactics for equine diseases. The Centre has also been recognized as national referral center for diagnosis of important equine infectious diseases by Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture (Government of India). Besides, the Centre has been working towards characterization of breeds of equines, cryopreservation of semen and artificial insemination. The centre has developed many kits and technologies which have either been patented or under the process of patent.
  • 65. Diagnostics for equine diseases Patent has been granted by the Patent Office, Government of India entitled "A method for preparation of a diagnostic kit useful for forecasting Equine Herpes Virus-1 disease". A patent has been filed for “COFEB-Kit for diagnosis of Babesia equi infection in equines”. A patent has been filed for “A method for preparing complement fixation test based (COFEB) kit for the diagnosis of Babesia equi infection in equines”. The Centre has filed a patent for “A kit for detection of pregnancy in equines and assay thereof”.
  • 66. MISSION 2030 SAVE EQUINE = SAVE POWER
  • 67. Services  NRCE provides following services to the farmers and equine breeders:  The centre provides disease diagnostic services for various infectious and non-infectious equine diseases to equine owners, breeders, state animal husbandry departments, police and army horses.  Artificial insemination to augment the production of superior quality Marwari horses, mules and donkeys.  Quality jacks and jennies are supplied to various states, breeding societies and farmers, for production of superior quality mules and donkeys.  NRCE is providing health certification for movement of equines within and outside the country. This facility has helped in promotion of export of horses.
  • 68. Diagnostics for equine diseases  Assessment and transfer of technology using the latest know-how of information technology is also given due importance to extend the technologies to the end-users. The scientific and technical staff provides clinical and diagnostic (including pregnancy diagnosis) services and consultancy to the farmers on demand in the areas of equine health and production. Farmers are imparted trainings and supplied education materials for equine management, production and health.  Extension activities: To receive feedback from the equine owners, various activities like health camp, awareness and farmers meets are organized on regular basis in different areas of the country.
  • 69. Veterinary Type Cultures Facility at NRCE Indian Council of Agricultural Research entrusted NRCE the responsibility of establishing Veterinary Type Culture Centre (VTCC) during the X plan period. The Veterinary Type Cultures became functional in June 2005 for establishing national repository of microorganisms of animal origin including recombinant cultures and plasmids; and identification, characterization, conservation, maintenance and utilization of microorganisms. Approximately 250 bacterial isolates and 25 viral isolates have been collected in VTCC. In addition, a phage display library of single-domain antibodies of Indian desert camel and the twenty seven antigen-binder clones selected from the library have been deposited in the VTCC repository.
  • 70. Major Landmarks  1985 NRCE established at Hisar with Prof. P. K. Uppal joining as Founder Director 1987 Outbreak of equine influenza in Northern India  1989 Sub Campus of NRCE established at Bikaner for research on production in equines  1990 Exotic donkey germplasm with Poitu blood introduced from France  1991 Artificial insemination (AI) initiated in equines using fresh extended liquid semen  1991 Early pregnancy diagnosis (15 days post insemination) using ultrasonography  1994 An ELISA developed for differentiation of equine influenza vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA)
  • 71. Major Landmarks 1995 Ciq-ELISA developed for detection of circulating immune complexes in EIA-infected horses 1995 Development of field-oriented immune-stick ELISA kit for detection of EHV-1 latent infection in Throughbred horses 1995 Cryopreservation of Jack semen and technology of AI perfected using frozen semen with 40% conception rate 1996 Establishment of a nucleus herd of Marwari horses at Bikaner campus 1996 Crystal structure of mare milk lactoferrin deduced by crystallography 1996 New carpet fabric developed by blending of donkey and sheep hair (Assheep) 1995 Ciq-ELISA developed for detection of circulating immune complexes in EIA-infected horses 1995 Development of field-oriented immune-stick ELISA kit for detection of EHV-1 latent infection in Throughbred horses 1995 Cryopreservation of Jack semen and technology of AI perfected using frozen semen with 40% conception rate 1996 Establishment of a nucleus herd of Marwari horses at Bikaner campus 1996 Crystal structure of mare milk lactoferrin deduced by crystallography 1996 New carpet fabric developed by blending of donkey and sheep hair (Assheep)
  • 72. Major Landmarks  2005 Mab-based sELISA for detection of animal rotaviruses  2005 Establishment of Veterinary Type Culture Centre, at NRCE, Hisar  2006 Collection and cryopreservation of stallion semen at farmer’s door using mobile laboratory  2006 World Organization for Animal Health declared India free of African horse sickness  2006 Outbreaks of glanders in equines  2008 Re-emergence of equine influenza  2008 Equine Herpes Virus-1 diagnosis kit released  2008 ELISA based pregnancy diagnosis kit for pregnancy diagnosis in mares released  2009 Development of equine herpesvirus-1 vaccine  2009 A nucleus herd of Zanskari ponies establishment at Bikaner  2009 First loboratory confirmed camelpox zoonosis in the world  2009 Japanese Encephalitis Virus isolated from equines in India  2009 Updation of equine influenza vaccine
  • 73. Major Landmarks  2009 First isolation of Bordetella bronciceptica from horse  2009 First isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium bovis from horse  2009 First isolation of Methicillin- resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus sciuri from goats  2010 Equine sanctuary for conservation of indigenous breeds of horses  2010 A new clade designated as ‘Asian Clade’ of equine influenza virus reported  2010 Award of OIE twining project on Equine Poroplasmosis between NRCPD, Japan and NRCE, India  2010 EIA-positive mule detected in indigenous equine
  • 74. Major Landmarks  2010 Phenotypic characterization of all six indigenous equine breeds  2010 Re-emergence of glanders in Himachal Pradesh and Uttar pradesh  2010 Standardization of AI using semen of Poitu donkeys & Marwari horses  2010 Zanskari stallion semen cryopreserved  2010 Started toll-free helpline no. 1800-180-1233 for advisory services to equine owners  2011 First laboratory confirmed report on BPXV causing disease in Buffalo, human and cow in same time and space  2011 Whole genome sequencing of Indian strain of Japanese Encephalitis virus.
  • 75. Mission 2030 Save Equine = Save Power Our future mission includes achieving freedom from dreaded equine diseases through development of modern diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, undertaking disease surveillance, monitoring & forecasting, strategic control and eradication measures, and providing germplasm of superior donkeys and indigenous horse breeds for improvement of horses in their home tracts using artificial insemination and embryo transfer technology to equine owners, awareness and equestrians meets are organized on regular basis in the different regions of the Rajasthan State.
  • 76. Dr S .M. K. Naqvi, Director, CSWRI Avikanagar at EPC Bikaner (17 August 2013) During visit he inaugurated Kisan Call Centre Equine Owners
  • 77. Marwari Horse In Dashera Festival, at Mandi Palace, Jaisalmer Raj.
  • 78. The Statue of a Horse with Warrior
  • 79. The Horse is in water, A Prince is mounted Gadhisar Lake, Jaisalmer (Raj.)
  • 80. An Equisterian Dharamveer Singh Ji Chouhan Nachna, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan
  • 81. The Princess Jhala with the Mare, Jaisalmer
  • 83. A Skiang Mule in Yuksom Valley North Sikkim, India
  • 84. THANKS RAM AVDHESH SINGH Asstt. Professor, North East Regional Institute of Education (NCERT) Shillong, Meghalaya