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BY
DR. BRAJAYANTI DEVI
Associate Professor & Head, DESM
NERIE-NCERT, Shillong
Organic Farming It is a method of crop and live stock production that
involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides,
fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and
growth hormones.
 It is the method of farming which primarily aimed at
cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way as to
keep the soil alive and good health by use of organic waste
(crop, animal and farm waste, aquatic waste and other
biological materials along with beneficial microbes) to
release nutrients to crops, increase sustainable production
in an eco- friendly and pollution free environment.
Cont.
As per the definition of USDA (United States
Department of Agriculture) Study Team on
organic farming, it is a system which avoids
or largely excludes the use of synthetic
inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides,
hormones, feed additives and to the
maximum extent feasible rely upon crop
rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off
farm organic waste and biological system of
nutrients mobilization and plant protection.
Need for Organic Farming
Increase in population
Green revolution reach the
plateau
Natural balance to be maintained
for existence of life
Key Characteristics of Organic
Farming
 Protection of long term fertility
 Providing crop nutrients by the action of soil-
microbes.
 Legumes for biological N Fixation, recycling of
organic materials
 Plant protection through crop residue, natural
predator, resistant varieties, limited thermal,
biological and chemical interaction.
 Extensive management of livestock
 Careful attention to the impact of farming system
Components of Organic Farming
1. Crop rotation:
Systematic arrangement of different crops in a more or less
sequence on same land in a period of two or more years.
Selection of optimal crop rotation (Legumes are essential)
2. Crop Residue:
Straw of major cereal and the pulses for recycling of
nutrient. Proper composting with efficient microbial
inoculants is necessary (increase crop yield and physic-
chemical properties of soil).
3. Organic Manure:
Plant, animal and human residues for
augmenting crop growth and soil productivity
by increasing uptake of humic substances and
its decomposed products.
- Bulky organic manure – FYM, Compost,
Green Manuring
- Concentrated Organic Manure – Oilcakes,
Blood meal, Fishmeal, Meat meal and
horn and hoof meal.
4. Waste:
- Industrial Waste – spent wash from ditilisers
and molasses and press mud from sugar industry
(improves soil fertility and enhances microbial
activity); coir waste can be used as manure after
decomposition.
-Municipal and sewage waste-
Nutrient content for Municipal Refuse (N –
0.5%, P2O5 - .03%, K2O .03%)
Nutrient content for Sewage Sludge (N- 3%, P-
2%, K- 0.3%) Needed separation of toxic
heavy metals.
5. Bio- Fertilizers:
-help in establishment and growth of crop, plants
and trees
-enhance biomass production and gain yield by 10-
20%
-play an important role in agro forestry/
silvipastoral systems
A. Symbiotic N Fixation:
50% demand of N by this organism in legumes.
Rhizobium is most widely used bio- fertilizers
which colonizes the roots of specific legumes
and can fix up to 100- 300 kg/ ha/season.
-Azotobacter (increase 0-30% yield over control
for cereals, vegetables, cotton and sugar
cane). Produce anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and
hormones.
-Azospirillium can increase yield of cereals by 5-
20%, of millets by 30% and fodder by 50%.
BGA is a promising bio- fertilizer for rice
and reduce soil alkalinity as bio- reclamation.
-Azolla fixes atmospheric N up to
100- 150 kg/ ha/ year from 40-
5 tones of bio-mass.
-Mycorrhiza is symbiotic association
of fungi with roots of Vascular
plants. Facilitates P uptake and
increase yield of fruits like citrus,
papaya and litchi.
6. Bio-pesticides:
-These are natural plant products, belongs to
the secondary metabolites which includes
thousands of alkaloids, terpenoids,
phenolics and minor secondary chemicals.
-Biological activity against insects, nematodes,
fungi and other organisms is well
documented.
-Neem tree posses’ insecticidal property.
Commonly used botanical insecticides are
Nicotine, Pyrethrum, Rotenone, Subabill,
Ryanin, Quassia, Margosa, Acorus etc.
7. Vermicompost:
-Organic manure produced by the activity
of earthworms.
-An ideal population of 1 sq mtr is 1800
worms.
-Nutrient content is 1.6% N, 5.045% P2O5
and 0.80% K2O.
THANK YOU

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Geography of Sikkim Part -3 Organic Farming; R. A. Singh and Dr Ph. B. Devi,NERIE NCERT, Shillong

  • 1. BY DR. BRAJAYANTI DEVI Associate Professor & Head, DESM NERIE-NCERT, Shillong
  • 2. Organic Farming It is a method of crop and live stock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones.  It is the method of farming which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way as to keep the soil alive and good health by use of organic waste (crop, animal and farm waste, aquatic waste and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes) to release nutrients to crops, increase sustainable production in an eco- friendly and pollution free environment.
  • 3. Cont. As per the definition of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Study Team on organic farming, it is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off farm organic waste and biological system of nutrients mobilization and plant protection.
  • 4. Need for Organic Farming Increase in population Green revolution reach the plateau Natural balance to be maintained for existence of life
  • 5. Key Characteristics of Organic Farming  Protection of long term fertility  Providing crop nutrients by the action of soil- microbes.  Legumes for biological N Fixation, recycling of organic materials  Plant protection through crop residue, natural predator, resistant varieties, limited thermal, biological and chemical interaction.  Extensive management of livestock  Careful attention to the impact of farming system
  • 6. Components of Organic Farming 1. Crop rotation: Systematic arrangement of different crops in a more or less sequence on same land in a period of two or more years. Selection of optimal crop rotation (Legumes are essential) 2. Crop Residue: Straw of major cereal and the pulses for recycling of nutrient. Proper composting with efficient microbial inoculants is necessary (increase crop yield and physic- chemical properties of soil).
  • 7. 3. Organic Manure: Plant, animal and human residues for augmenting crop growth and soil productivity by increasing uptake of humic substances and its decomposed products. - Bulky organic manure – FYM, Compost, Green Manuring - Concentrated Organic Manure – Oilcakes, Blood meal, Fishmeal, Meat meal and horn and hoof meal.
  • 8. 4. Waste: - Industrial Waste – spent wash from ditilisers and molasses and press mud from sugar industry (improves soil fertility and enhances microbial activity); coir waste can be used as manure after decomposition. -Municipal and sewage waste- Nutrient content for Municipal Refuse (N – 0.5%, P2O5 - .03%, K2O .03%) Nutrient content for Sewage Sludge (N- 3%, P- 2%, K- 0.3%) Needed separation of toxic heavy metals.
  • 9. 5. Bio- Fertilizers: -help in establishment and growth of crop, plants and trees -enhance biomass production and gain yield by 10- 20% -play an important role in agro forestry/ silvipastoral systems A. Symbiotic N Fixation: 50% demand of N by this organism in legumes. Rhizobium is most widely used bio- fertilizers which colonizes the roots of specific legumes and can fix up to 100- 300 kg/ ha/season.
  • 10. -Azotobacter (increase 0-30% yield over control for cereals, vegetables, cotton and sugar cane). Produce anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and hormones. -Azospirillium can increase yield of cereals by 5- 20%, of millets by 30% and fodder by 50%. BGA is a promising bio- fertilizer for rice and reduce soil alkalinity as bio- reclamation.
  • 11. -Azolla fixes atmospheric N up to 100- 150 kg/ ha/ year from 40- 5 tones of bio-mass. -Mycorrhiza is symbiotic association of fungi with roots of Vascular plants. Facilitates P uptake and increase yield of fruits like citrus, papaya and litchi.
  • 12. 6. Bio-pesticides: -These are natural plant products, belongs to the secondary metabolites which includes thousands of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and minor secondary chemicals. -Biological activity against insects, nematodes, fungi and other organisms is well documented. -Neem tree posses’ insecticidal property. Commonly used botanical insecticides are Nicotine, Pyrethrum, Rotenone, Subabill, Ryanin, Quassia, Margosa, Acorus etc.
  • 13. 7. Vermicompost: -Organic manure produced by the activity of earthworms. -An ideal population of 1 sq mtr is 1800 worms. -Nutrient content is 1.6% N, 5.045% P2O5 and 0.80% K2O.