Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?


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Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration

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Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?

  1. 1. Pastoralists Tribes into Chiefdoms?
  2. 2. Pastoralism or Herding <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Animal husbandry as the main or sole source of subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Animals: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, camels </li></ul><ul><li>All parts of animal is consumed </li></ul><ul><li>Meat and dairy products, blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hides </li></ul><ul><li>Even dung for fire and building material </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pastoralism: Primary Characteristics <ul><li>Environment: semi-arid grasslands; other regions unsuitable for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic: </li></ul><ul><li>Transhumance: seasonal migration between different environmental zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Property and valuables are portable </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on settled communities </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and manufactured products </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed economy lessens dependence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pastoralism: Secondary Characteristics <ul><li>Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Raid of villages or other nomads </li></ul><ul><li>Predatory states: Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior age grades in East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Male dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare required male cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are male property </li></ul><ul><li>Residence is patrilocal </li></ul><ul><li>Women have few rights </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pastoralists: A Profile <ul><li>Pastoralists range in complexity </li></ul><ul><li>At one end of the scale are the Turkana </li></ul><ul><li>They have no age sets or grades </li></ul><ul><li>Their units are loosely allied, reflecting a stingy environment </li></ul><ul><li>Middle range: the Masai </li></ul><ul><li>They have age grades and sets, and there are wealth differences </li></ul><ul><li>Upper range: the Kirghiz and other Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>They have wealthy chiefs and a feudal-like system of animal herding </li></ul>
  6. 6. Level of Integration: Tribe or Chiefdom? <ul><li>Some pastoralists are tribal, such as the Turkana </li></ul><ul><li>Others show incipient wealth differences, such as the Masai </li></ul><ul><li>Still others are chiefdoms, such as the Rwala Bedouin of the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols formed chiefdoms, then eventually became states </li></ul><ul><li>Classic example: Genghis Khan, also known as (more accurately) Chinghis Kahn. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is Pastoralism a Transition from Foraging to Agriculture? <ul><li>Ideally, pastoralists herd animals only </li></ul><ul><li>In actuality, many cultures combine animal husbandry with agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological evidence indicates pastoralism arose after the rise of settled communities and civilization </li></ul><ul><li>A more likely scenario: herders abandoned civilized societies, either on their own or by force </li></ul>
  8. 8. Influence of Pastoralists <ul><li>Europe and China both faced the invasions of pastoral populations </li></ul><ul><li>We all know of Attila the Hun, who invaded Europe during the Dark Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Later, Chinghis Khan invaded both China in the east and the Muslim empires of the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>The Manchu Dynasty was Mongol in origin </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, and the states of Central Asia, arose from the Turkic peoples of Mongol derivation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tribal Herders: Case Studies <ul><li>In this section, you may compare two East African cultures: </li></ul><ul><li>Turkana (light pink, NW) and </li></ul><ul><li>Masai (dark pink, SW) </li></ul><ul><li>Both are located in Kenya (map) </li></ul><ul><li>Or you may focus on the Mongols of Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Which include a contemporary chiefdom, the Kirghiz of Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>The Kirghiz are located at the northeastern tip of Afghanistan (black) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Mongol groups are located north: Uzbeks, Turkmen, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pastoralism: Conclusion <ul><li>Incomplete food producers; they herd large animals but do not cultivate crops </li></ul><ul><li>Animals, not plants, are domesticated </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralists tend to be warlike and raid each others’ herds </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason, male cooperation is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Most are patrilineal and patrilocal societies </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism as an ideal type most likely followed the formation of civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions: compare your case study to this ideal type </li></ul>